Rodents as a reservoir of infection caused by multiple zoonotic species/genotypes of C. parvum, C. hominis, C. suis, C. scrofarum, and the first evidence of C. muskrat genotypes I and II of rodents in Europe
Danišová, Oľga.; Valenčáková, A.; Stanko, M.; Luptáková, L.; Hatalová, E.; Čanády, A.
Acta Tropica 172: 29-35
Cryptosporidium spp. is an important causative agent of intestinal parasitoses-induced diarrhoea in humans and animals worldwide. Rodents (small mammals), the main reservoir of infections, are globally expanded and overpopulated, which increases the risk of transfer of human and zoonotic pathogens from the genus Cryptosporidium. In this study, Cryptosporidium was detected in wild immunocompetent asymptomatic small mammals. Altogether 262 fecal samples were collected from five areas in Eastern Slovakia from four different rodent species (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Rattus norvegicus), eight samples originated from two insectivore species (Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens), and two sample from a carnivore Mustela nivalis. The samples were examined using a method modified in our laboratory, based on the use of specific primers on a small subunit rRNA (18S rRNA) gene for species identification, and amplification of GP60 gene coding 60-kDa glycoprotein for genotype determination. The following species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum (n=15), genotypes IIaA18G3R1 (n=11; KU311673), IIaA10G1R1 (n=1; KU311670), IIcA5G3a (n=1; KU311669), IIiA10 (n=2; KU311672); Cryptosporidium suis (n=4; KU311671); Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=28); Cryptosporidium environment sp. (n=12; KU311677); Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype I (n=3; KU311675); Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype II (n=3; KU311676). From one of the rodent, the species Cryptosporidium hominis genotype IbA10G2 (KU311668) was identified for the first time. The results of this study indicate low host specificity of the detected Cryptosporidium species and imply the importance of free-living small mammals in urban and suburban habitats as a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis.