Managing forest plantation landscapes for water conservation


Ferraz, S F.B.; Lima, W de Paula; Rodrigues, C Bozetti

Forest Ecology and Management 30(1): 58-66

2013


Forest ecosystems play an important role in water conservation yet forest plantations are considered detrimental

Forest
Ecology
and
Management
301
(2012)
58-66
Contents
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available
at
SciVerse
ScienceDirect
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
14t
ELSEVIER
journal
homepage:
www.elsevier.com/locate/foreco
Managing
forest
plantation
landscapes
for
water
conservation
Silvio
F.B.
Ferraz
a,*
,
Walter
de
Paula
Lima
a
,
Carolina
Bozetti
Rodrigues
b
Departamento
de
Ciencias
Florestais,
Escola
Superior
de
Agricultura
"Luiz
de
Queiroz",
ESALQ
Av.
Padua
Dias,
11,
Piracicaba,
SP,
Brazil
b
IPEF
Institute
of
Forestry
Research
and
Studies,
Piracicaba,
SP,
Brazil
ARTICLE INFO
ABSTRACT
Article
history:
Available
online
3000C
Keywords:
Brazil
Eucalyptus
plantation
Catchment
Water
use
Landscape
management
Sustainable
forest
management
Forest
ecosystems
play
an
important
role
in
water
conservation
yet
forest
plantations
are
considered
det-
rimental
because
of
their
high
water
use.
The
current
worldwide
trends
of
reduction
in
natural
forest
and
expansion
of
forest
plantations
increases
the
need
for
forest
managers
to
contribute
to
water
conserva-
tion,
implementing
management
plans
that
integrate
economic
(productivity
and
growth),
social
(equity
of
access
to
water
and
land-use
conflicts)
and
environmental
(climate
change
and
biodiversity
impacts)
factors.
In
this
paper,
we
show
examples
of
forest
management
alternatives
at
macro-
and
meso-scales
that
could
contribute
to
improve
water
conservation
in
forest
plantation
landscapes.
At
the
macroscale,
we
assess
water
use
in
different
forest
plantation
areas
in
Brazil
by
analyzing
the
theoretical
thresholds
for
the
management
of
evapotranspiration.
Then,
using
data
from
an
experimental
catchment,
we
mod-
eled
water
yield
reduction
by
a
forest
plantation
over
multiple
years
and
assessed
how
different
meso-
scale
forest
plantation
management
alternatives
affected
water
flow
regulation.
Results
show
that
at
a
macroscale
it
is
important
to
consider
the
natural
climatic
constraints
of
water
availability.
Evidence
shows
that
forest
plantations
in
the
tropics
use
water
according
to
its
availability,
and
the
appropriate
choice
of
species/varieties
and
associated
forest
management
options
are
crucial
for
water
conservation.
At
the
meso-scale
we
found
that
the
proportion
of
native
forest
plays
an
important
role
in
the
reduction
and
regulation
of
water
use,
and
therefore
a
system
of
mosaic
management
may
be
able
to
stabilize
water
flow
across
plantation
landscapes.
©
2012
Elsevier
B.V.
All
rights
reserved.
I.
Introduction
Forest
plantations
in
Brazil
currently
cover
about
7
million
ha,
and
are
represented
mainly
by
Pinus
and
Eucalyptus
(ABRAF,
2010).
Most
of
these
plantations
supply
the
raw
material
for
biofuels,
pulp
and
paper
and
are
generally
managed
on
short
rota-
tions
(i.e.
fast-wood
systems).
Over
the
past
40
years,
there
has
been
an
increase
in
the
productivity
of
Eucalyptus
plantations,
which
varies
from
approximately
12
m
3
ha
-1
year
to
about
40
m
3
ha
-1
year
(Stape
et
al.,
2001).
This
increase
in
productivity
and
the
expansion
of
planted
for-
ests
requires
adequate
environmental
support
in
terms
of
water
and
nutrients
(Scott,
2005;
Tetzlaff
et
al.,
2007).
There
is
a
general
consensus
that
the
productivity
of
forest
plantations
is
predomi-
nantly
limited
by
water
availability
(Stape
et
al.,
2004),
as
a
lack
of
nutrients
can
be
managed
through
fertilization.
However,
the
use
of
water
by
plantations
has
been
the
subject
of
intense
discussion
related
to
the
high
demand
for
water
by
fast
growing
plantations.
Although
there
is
sufficient
information
to
clarify
this
controversy,
its
repeated
occurrence
indicates
that
the
*
Corresponding
author.
E-mail
address:
(S.F.B.
Ferraz).
0378-1127/S
-
see
front
matter
©
2012
Elsevier
B.V.
All
rights
reserved.
http://dx.doLorg/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.10.015
problem
is
far
from
resolved
(Lima
and
Zakia,
2006;
Scott
and
Prinsloo,
2008;
Lima,
2011).
Concern
regarding
water
consumption
by
plantations
and
its
influence
on
productivity
has
stimulated
research
aimed
at
quanti-
fying
evapotranspiration
on different
scales
and
assessing
the
effi-
ciency
of
water
use
(Stape
et
al.,
2004),
which
can
be
defined
as
the
efficiency
with
which
trees
are
able
to
use
available
water
to
fix
carbon
dioxide
(Binkley
et
al.,
2004).
The
efficiency
of
water
use
is
tied
to
the
objectives
of
breeding
programs,
which
are
focused
on
the
search
for
genetic
varieties
that
are
resistant
to
water
stress
and/or
that
have
increased
productivity
with
the
same
amount
of
water
use
(i.e.
are
more
efficient)
(Hubbard
et
al.,
2010).
Information
on
the
water
use
by
plantations
is
undoubtedly
important
and
necessary,
but
it
seems
obvious
that
it
describes
only
part
of
a
larger
problem,
as
the
issue
of
the
expansion
of
forest
plantations
causing
possible
environmental
impacts
must,
by
its
nature,
also
take
into
account
interactions
with
the
social
and
cul-
tural
factors
involved
in
this
transformation
of
the
landscape.
In
the
case
of
water,
it
is
not
enough
to
quantify
how
much
is
lost
via
evapotranspiration,
or
if
such
consumption
is
higher
or
lower
than
that
of
native
forests,
but
it
is
also
important
to
determine
whether
this
increased
consumption
does
not
generate
water
use
conflicts
(Van
Dijk
and
Keenan,
2007;
Lima,
2011).
In
other
words,
59
S.F.B.
Ferraz
et
al]
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
xxx
(2012)
xxx—xxx
instead
of
just
trying
to
determine
how
much
water
is
used
by
for-
est
plantations,
which
is
already
well
studied
in
numerous
condi-
tions,
it
is
also
important
to
evaluate
this
consumption
in
relation
to
the
climatic
water
availability
(Calder,
2007).
This
new
approach
is
based
on
the
catchment
water
balance
and
incor-
porates
the
concerns
of
a
variety
of
stakeholders
and
also
includes
environmental
demands
for
the
maintenance
of
aquatic
ecosys-
tems.
Such
integration
of
multiple
uses
is
clearly
implied
in
the
multi-dimensional concept
of
sustainable
forest
management
(Lima,
1998;
Nambiar,
1999;
Gayoso
et
al.,
2001;
Nardelli
and
Grif-
fith,
2003;
Wang,
2004).
Thus
the
socio-ecohydrological
analysis
of
water
consumption
by
forest
plantations
(Falkenmark
and
Folk,
2002)
serves
the
fundamental
principle
of
equity
of
access
to
water
(Nambiar
and
Brown,
1997;
Lima,
2004).
The
concern
over
water
use
by
crops
and
the
search
for
greater
water
efficiency
have
inten-
sified
due
to
the
expansion
of
Brazilian
plantations
to
areas
with
lower
water
availability.
The
afforestation
of
such
areas
leads
to
a
decrease
in
catchment
stream
flow
that
is
lower
in
absolute
terms,
when
compared
to
more
humid
areas,
but
more
severe
to
local
water
users
(Farley
et
al.,
2005;
Scott,
2005).
The
role
that
forest
ecosystems
play
in
water
conservation,
combined
with
the
context
of
forest
plantations
that
integrates
economic
(productivity
and
growth),
social
(hydrosolidarity
and
land-use
conflicts)
and
environmental
(climate
change
and
biodi-
versity
impacts)
factors,
generates
a
pressing
question:
what
forest
plantation
management
strategies
can
be
established
to
promote
water
conservation?
A
fundamental
prerequisite
for
the
possible
answers
to
this
question
is
that
the
catchment
forms
the
basic
planning
unit.
Another
important
assumption
is
that
the
strategies
must
include
at
least
three
scales
of
analysis:
macro,
which
deals
with
the
analysis
of
the
regional
climatic
water
availability,
meso,
which
is
related
to
the
arrangements
of
the
plantations
in
the
land-
scape,
and
micro,
which
deals
with
the
establishment
of
sustain-
able
forest
management
practices
at
the
forest
management
unit
(Lima,
2011).
The
role
of
forests
in
maintaining
the
quantity,
quality
and
reg-
ularity
of
water
flow
can
be
framed
within
the
concept
of
providing
an
ecosystem
service.
This
term
has
been
used
as
a
reference
for
the
ecological
functions
performed
by
ecosystems
and,
with
re-
spect
to
forests,
relevant
ecosystem
services
would
be
the
support
and
regulation
of
the
hydrological
cycle
(Millennium
Ecosystem
Assessment,
2005).
Forest
plantations
can
provide
ecosystem
services,
but
this
pro-
vision
depends
on
the
choice
of
the
management
systems
(Van
Dijk
and
Keenan,
2007;
Scott
and
Prinsloo,
2008;
Vanclay,
2009;
Creed
et
al.,
2011).
The
performance
of
these
plantation
areas
is
usually
lower
than
that
of
native
forests.
Nevertheless,
forest
plan-
tations
shows
better
performance
of
hydrologic
functions
than
agricultural
crops
(Van
Dijk
and
Keenan,
2007;
Neary
et
al.,
2009;
Gordon
et
al.,
2011).
Table
1
shows
the
theoretical
potential
of
different
forest
land-
scapes
to
provide
ecosystem
services.
The
environmental
benefits
and
losses
generated
by
these
homogenous
monocultures
will
de-
pend
crucially
on
the
forest
management
plan,
which
should
con-
sider
the
interaction
of
forest
plantations
with
other
landscape
elements
in
order
to
contribute
to
the
maintenance
of
biodiversity
and
water
resources
(Cornish
and
Vertessy,
2001;
Creed
et
al.,
2011).
Therefore,
our
focus
here
will
be
on
different
forest
planta-
tion
ecosystems,
using
mature
native
forest
as
reference,
which
has
the
maximum
potential
performance
for
all
ecosystem
services
considered,
except
for
evapotranspiration
rates
that
are
dependent
on
its
dynamic
equilibrium
stage
(Kuczera,
1987;
Vertessy
et
al.,
1996;
Scott
and
Prinsloo,
2008).
Fast
growing
plantations,
such
as
Eucalyptus
plantations,
are
usually
managed
on
short
rotations
(6-7
years).
During
this
period,
they
can
start
to
offer
some
services,
such
as
rainfall
interception
and
soil
protection
after
canopy
closure
(2-3
years),
although
at
a
reduced
efficiency
when
compared
with
native
vegetation
(Lima,
1990).
Water
production
and
regulation
services
are
generally
poorly
performed
by
fast-growing
forest
plantations,
due
to
the
large
volumes
of
water
required
to
reach
productivity
targets
over
relatively
short
timescales,
which
could
reduce
catchment
water
yield
and
change
its
flow
regime.
The
quality
of
the
services
provided
by
forest
plantations
will
depend
on
the
choice
of
management
system
used
in
relation
to
the
regional
hydrological
availability,
and
the
local
physical
topo-
graphic
characteristics.
For
example,
more
intensive
management
systems
are
typically
poor
in
maintaining
hydrologic
functions.
For
this
reason
the
best
performance
across
all
hydrologic
func-
tions,
including
water
production
and
the
regulation
of
the
stream
flow
regime,
comes
from
the
long-term
management
of
planted
forests,
less
intervention
and
the
possibility
of
maturation
of
the
forest
environment
(Hewlett
and
Hibbert,
1967;
Kuczera,
1987;
Andreassian,
2004;
Brown
et
al.,
2005;
Farley
et
al.,
2005;
Van
Dijk
and
Keenan,
2007;
Calder,
2007;
Almeida
et
al.,
2007;
Scott
and
Prinsloo,
2008).
The
increased
proportion
of
native
forest
in
the
landscape
in-
creases
the
potential
for
providing
ecosystem
services,
regardless
of
the
dominant
land
cover
type
(matrix).
Thus,
forest
plantations
interspersed
with
areas
of
native
vegetation
can
provide
better
performance
of
all
ecosystem
services.
This
mosaic
of
native
forest
and
plantation
forests
improves
the
capability
of
the
ecosystem,
including
water
production
and
regulation
of
the
flow
regime,
as
a
result
of
the
lower
water
demand,
greater
storage
potential
and
greater
buffering
effect
on
riparian
areas
protected
with
native
for-
est
(Lima
et
al,
2012a).
In
this
paper,
we
show
two
examples
of
effective
forest
man-
agement
actions
based
on
technical
criteria
at
macro
and
meso
scales
that
could
contribute
to
improve
management
systems
in
order
to
increase
water
conservation
in
forest
plantation
land-
scapes.
Firstly,
at
the
macroscale,
we
assess
the
use
of
water
in
dif-
ferent
forest
plantation
areas
in
Brazil
by
analyzing
the
theoretical
thresholds
for
the
management
of
evapotranspiration.
Then,
we
as-
sess
effects
of
different
meso-scale
forest
plantation
management
alternatives
on
water
flow
regulation.
2.
Methods
2.1.
Precipitation
and
stream
flow
data
For
the
macroscale
analysis
of
evapotranspiration
rates,
the
hydrology
data
supporting
the
present
analysis
were
collected
from
several
experimental
catchments
located
in
different
parts
of
the
country
(Fig.
1).
These
studies
were
conducted
as
part
of
a
long-term
catchment
monitoring
and
modeling
program
(PRO-
MAB)
carried
out
by
the
Institute
of
Forest
Research
(IPEF),
under
the
coordination
of
the
Forest
Hydrology
Laboratory
of
the
Forest
Science
Department
of
the
University
of
Sao
Paulo,
in
partnership
with
Brazilian
forest
companies
(Lima
et
al.,
2012b).
The
hydrolog-
ical
monitoring
of
these
catchments
involves
continuous
measure-
ment
of
precipitation
and
stream
flow.
Precipitation
is
recorded
using
electronic
rain
gauges
set
to
record
rainfall
at
a
15-min
inter-
val,
and
discharge
using
stream
gauging
stations
with
different
types
of
weirs,
in
which
water
stage
is
continuously
measured
by
an
electronic
device,
at
15-min
intervals.
Appropriate
equations
considering
weir
dimensions
and
geometry,
were
used
to
calculate
discharge
at
the
considered
time
intervals.
For
the
meso-scale
analysis
of
water
flow
regulation,
data
could
only
be
obtained
for
one
of
the
experimental
catchments
(Tinga),
which
is
located
in
Itatinga,
SP
(23°02'01"
S;
48°37'30"
W),
at
the
experimental
forest
station
of
the
University
of
Sao
Paulo.
This
catchment
covers
68.24
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and
has
been
planted
with
Eucalyptus
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formance
S.F.B.
Ferraz
et
al./
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
xxx
(2012)
xxx—xxx
60
since
the
1940s'.
During
the
study
period,
the
Tinga
catchment
was
covered
with
a
17-year
old
coppice
of
a
mature
Eucalyptus
saligna
plantation
(Camara
and
Lima,
1999).
The
analysis
includes
two
monitoring
periods:
pre-harvest
(September
1991
to
August
1997)
and
post-harvest
(September
1997
to
August
2003).
The
post-harvest
period
included
the
first
hydrologic
year
after
harvesting
and
replacement
with
a
new
plantation
of
the
same
species.
2.2.
Catchment
scale
evapotranspiration
calculation
The
precipitation
and
stream
flow
data
from
each
of
these
experimental
catchments
are
usually
summarized
annually.
In
or-
der
to
compute
the
annual
catchment
water
balance,
precipitation
and
stream
flow
values
are
organized
for
the
water
year.
For
most
of
the
catchments,
this
water
year
runs
from
October
through
September.
Using
the
water
year
and
considering
the
average
values
for
the
entire
monitoring
period,
the
soil
water
storage
is
considered
neg-
ligible,
which
simplifies
the
water
balance
equation
to
include
only
the
terms:
precipitation
(P),
water
yield
(Q)
and
catchment
scale
evapotranspiration
(P-Q).
This
analysis
was
used
for
establishing
the
relationship
between
the
catchment
scale
evapotranspiration
and
annual
precipitation
(Zhang
et
al,
2001).
2.3.
Annual
water
yield
reduction
estimates
For
the
Tinga
catchment
(meso-scale
analysis),
we
calculated
the
annual
water
yield
reduction
(U
r
)
in
relation
to
the
yield
ob-
served
during
the
post-harvest
period
without
forest
(Q
0
),
based
on
following
equation:
(In
D
(20
Qt
t
_
-
Po
Pt
where
QR
t
is
the
annual
water
yield
reduction
for
year
t;
Q
o
the
yield
observed
during
the
post-harvest
period
without
forest
(harvest
year);
P
o
the
observed
annual
precipitation
during
the
harvest
year;
Q
t
the
annual
yield
during
year
t;
P
t
the
annual
precipitation
during
year
t.
Using
the
observed
data,
we
used
non-linear
regression
to
pre-
dict
the
response
of
annual
water
yield
reduction
(QR)
over
a
25-
year
period
in
order
to
predict
it
according
to
forest
plantation
age
(i).
Regression
analysis
and
parameter
estimation
was
per-
formed
using
Sigmaplot
software.
The
age
of
the
plantation
was
in-
cluded
as
a
predictor
with
a
log-normal
adjustment
as
follows:
c,t)
2
aR
t
=
a
e
\
/
(
2
)
where
t
is
the
year;
QR
t
the
water
yield
reduction
at
year
t;
a,
b
and
x
o
the
estimated
regression
parameters;
i
t
the
forest
plantation
age
at
year
i
(years).
We
then
used
the
25-year
annual
water
yield
reduction
model
to
evaluate
the
impact
of
different
management
and
landscape
composition
scenarios
on
water
yield
reduction
(Table
2).
In
the
simulated
scenarios,
we
considered
that
a
hypothetic
plantation
area
could
be
harvested
following
the
forest
manage-
ment
plan
based
on
the
chosen
scenario
during
a
25-year
period.
For
example,
in
scenario
SE
a
new
forest
is
established
at
year
0
covering
the
total
area,
and
the
forest
is
completely
harvested
(100%)
after
6
years
(rotation).
For
simulation,
each
partial
or
total
clear-cut
was
replaced
by
a
new
forest
plantation
with
the
same
characteristics
as
the
old
one.
When
native
forest
covers
part
of
the
landscape,
we
considered
that
its
rate
of
yield
reduction
was
similar
to
that
of
the
25-year
old
plantation.
Annual
yield
reduction
for
each
simulated
ecosystem
was
calculated
by
summing
the
P
lan
ta
t
ion
(
fas
t)
+
na
t
ive
+
mosa
P
lan
ta
t
ion
(
fas
t)
+
na
t
i
(1)
61
S.F.B.
Ferraz
et
al]
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
xxx
(2012)
xxx-xxx
w
ro
U'W
40`0'0
1
N
,..
_
"•--
)
••
-
.
,P
1
0
GOIANIA
,(
.../
0
BELO
HORIZONT
.
V
TORIA
*
fn..
.
RIO
DE
JANEIRO
CD
sA
.
0
i
F
0
CURT
A
Experimental
catchments
-•,‘
*
Tinge
catchment
State
boundary
0
.
FLORIANOPOLIS
0
250
500
Km
-\
l
1 I
-
.--
BYO
O'W
41:1`0'0"W
Fig.
1.
Location
of
experimental
catchments
used
for
hydrological
monitoring
of
forest
plantations
in
Brazil.
100'0"3
2:11:1'0"S
partial
effects
of
yield
reduction
of
proportions
of
forest
at
different
ages,
which
were
considered
as
planted
in
year
0.
The
total
yield
reduction
for
each
scenario
was
therefore
calculated
as
follows:
25
(2R
t
=EFPi
QRm
i
(
3
)
where
t
is
the
simulated
year;
QR
t
the
annual
water
yield
reduction
for
year
t
(%);
i
the
forest
plantation
age
(years)
at
year
t;
FT'
i
the
pro-
portion
of
the
landscape
occupied
by
forest
at
year
t
(%);
QRtni
the
modeled
water
yield
reduction
for
forest
plantation
age
i
(%).
3.
Results
and
discussion
3.1.
Catchment
scale
evapotranspiration
The
annual
evapotranspiration
results
from
all
of
the
experi-
mental
catchments
were
plotted
against
annual
precipitation
(Fig.
2)
to
enable
comparison
with
the
curve
obtained
by
Zhang
et
al.
(2001).
This
comparison
revealed
that
for
the
majority
of
years
our
data
points
were
above
the
curve
from
Zhang,
with
only
a
few
points
below.
These
points
below
the
curve
may
be
associ-
ated
with
harvest
years
(with
reduced
evapotranspiration)
and/or
years
with
excessive
precipitation.
The
ratio
between
ET
and
P
was
close
to
1,
indicating
the
expected
high
value
of
plantation
evapotranspiration.
Most
of
the
observations
(58%)
showed
an
ETIP
ratio
greater
than
0.90,
showing
that
eucalypt
plantations
consumed
water
in
proportion
to
its
availability,
which
is
consistent
with
results
from
previous
studies
(Brown
et
al.,
2005;
Farley
et
al.,
2005;
Almeida
et
al.,
2007).
The
high
proportion
of
water
consumed
in
relation
to
that
available
is
probably
a
reflection
of
efforts
to
increase
pro-
ductivity
through
improved
management
techniques
and
the
selection
of
clones
with
higher
water
use
efficiency,
probably
de-
rived
from
the
high
leaf
area
of
uniform
canopies.
S.F.B.
Ferraz
et
al./
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
xxx
(2012)
xxx-xxx
62
Table
2
Summary
of
forest
management
scenarios.
Scenario
Rotation
length
Native
forest
End
rotation
Annual
Description
(years)
proportion
(%)
clear-cut
(%)
clear-cut
100
0%
The
management
system
commonly
adopted
in
Brazil,
but
here
not
including
areas
of
native
vegetation
70
0%
Typical
of
large
areas
of
certified
afforestation
in
Brazil,
with
30%
of
the
landscape
occupied
by
mature
native
forest
100
1/15
Typical
of
the
long-term
management
(15
years),
adopted
for
sawmill
timber
production,
with
harvesting
of
1/15
of
the
area
commencing
after
6
years
70
1/6
Short
rotation
management,
with
30%
cover
of
native
forest
and
management
of
the
area
as
a
mosaic,
harvesting
1/6
of
the
area
after
6
years
Short-rotation
Eucalyptus
(SE),
no
6
native
forest
Short-rotation
Eucalyptus
+
native
6
30
forest
(SEN)
Long-term
Eucalyptus
(LEN)
+
native
15
30
forest
Short-rotation
Eucalyptus
+
native
6
30
forest
+
mosaic
(SENM)
In
regions
with
high
water
availability
(annual
precipitation
1200-1500
mm),
approximately
10%
of
the
available
water
repre-
sents
an
annual
water
surplus
of
120-150
mm,
which
may
be
suf-
ficient
to
maintain
water
flow
in
streams
for
other
users
and
the
maintenance
of
aquatic
ecosystems.
However,
in
regions
with
low-
er
water
availability
(annual
precipitation
800-1000
mm),
the
sur-
plus
may
be
lower
(80-100
mm)
and,
considering
the
regional
seasonality,
this
small
surplus
may
be
unevenly
distributed,
result-
ing
in
prolonged
periods
of
stream
desiccation
during
the
dry
sea-
son.
In
some
of
these
regions,
such
water
shortages
have
generated
conflicts
over
water
use
between
local
communities
and
managers
of
planted
forests
(Calder,
2007).
Other
natural
factors
related
to
soil
characteristics
and
topography
may
also
mitigate
or
aggravate
the
regional
reduction
in
water
flow
and
must
be
observed
locally.
The
scarcity
and
cost
of
available
land
and
conflicts
with
other
agricultural
activities
are
shifting
forest
plantations
into
marginal
areas
with
lower
water
availability.
This
fact,
associated
with
vari-
ations
in
climate
and
other
global
changes
(Marengo
et
al.,
2010)
tends
to
aggravate
these
water
use
conflicts.
A
multi-scale
zoning
based
on
macroscale
climatic
water
balance
and
regional
scale
ter-
rain
and
soil
characteristics
could
assist
to
make
decisions
regard-
ing
forest
plantation
expansion
(Gush
et
al.,
2002;
Calder,
2007;
Creed
et
al.,
2011).
Forest
growers
should
take
into
account
the
inherent
risks
of
different
forest
management
systems
on
the
regional
water
avail-
ability
and
consider
reducing
forest
productivity
in
order
to
main-
tain
both
ecological
and
social
equilibrium,
which
is
necessary
for
the
long
term
sustainability
of
the
plantation
operations.
Also,
it
is
essential
to
maintain
catchment
scale
monitoring
programs
(Almeida
et
al.,
2007;
Lima,
2011),
with
the
paired
catchment
approach
in
which
the
control
catchment
is
covered
with
native
forest,
in
order
to
understand
forest
plantation
effects
on
stream
flow
and
catchment
water
balance.
Thus,
monitoring
of
regional
water
availability
and
its
distribu-
tion
throughout
the
year
is
necessary,
so
that
mitigation
measures
can
be
implemented
at
other
scales
(meso
and
micro),
to
prevent
further
social
and
environmental
damage.
For
example,
at
the
meso-scale,
land
use
planning
is
essential
and
must
include
re-
serves
of
native
habitat,
creation
of
mosaics,
increased
rotation
length
and
management
for
multiple
uses.
At
the
micro
scale
of
the
forest
management
unit,
decisions
on
alternative
spacing,
spe-
cies
or
clones
may
contribute
to
reduce
water
consumption.
3.2.
Water
yield
reduction
Table
3
presents
the
observed
values
of
precipitation,
water
yield,
Q/P
and
yield
reduction
for
each
plantation
age
studied
at
the
Tinga
catchment,
in
Itatinga,
Sao
Paulo.
In
older
plantations
(12-17
years)
the
Q/P
ranged
between
0.206
and
0.425,
with
an
average
yield
reduction
of
approximately
15%.
At
the
beginning
of
the
new
planting
(greater
than
1
year),
QJP
was
between
0.189
and
0.337,
with
a
reduction
in
water
yield
of
about
25%.
The
log-normal
model
fitted
the
observed
data
well
(R
2
=
0.7391).
The
model
fitted
almost
perfectly
the
observed
data
up
to
a
plantation
age
of
5
years
(Fig.
3).
The
data
between
12
and
17
years
were
highly
variable.
Nevertheless,
the
model
curve
gives
us
the
probable
magnitude
of
yield
reduction
with
stand
age.
From
17
years,
the
model
predictions
could
not
be
validated
due
to
a
lack
of
observed
data
beyond
this
age.
The
expression
obtained
by
the
fitted
model
was:
aRt
=
0
.
2794
e
-
i
(Al
0.8326
where
QR
t
is
the
water
yield
reduction
at
year
t;
and
i
is
the
forest
plantation
age
at
year
t
(years).Previous
studies
have
also
found
the
same
trend
of
yield
reduction
in
native
Eucalyptus
regnans
forests
(Kuczera
(1987),
Vertessy
et
al.
2001)
and
with
other
native
Euca-
lyptus
species
(Lane
and
Mackay,
2000).
It
is
interesting
to
point
out
that
our
model
is
the
first,
outside
of
Australia,
to
indicate
a
de-
crease
in
yield
reduction
as
the
Eucalyptus
stand
ages.
In
the
condi-
tions
of
the
present
study,
Eucalyptus
would
reach
maturity
between
25
and
30
years
old,
when
the
model
curve
stabilizes.
The
model
represents
a
forest
plantation
without
management
operations,
which
is
different
from
conventional
long
term
forest
management
aimed
at
sawmill
production,
which
are
normally
sub-
mitted
to
thinning,
altering
the
forest
structure
and
modifying
the
pattern
of
water
consumption
with
plantation
age.
The
highest
water
yield
reduction
occurred
between
3
and
7
years,
which
corre-
sponds
to
the
fastest
growing
period
for
tropical
Eucalyptus,
when
it
probably
has
the
highest
Leaf
Area
Index
(LAI).
Fig.
4
shows
results
obtained
from
modeling
the
different
forest
management
scenarios.
The
SE
scenario
represents
the
manage-
ment
system
where
100%
of
the
area
is
managed
for
plantation.
This
scenario
does
not
include
areas
of
native
vegetation
(Fig.
4A)
and
could
represent
the
maximum
land-use
intensity.
This
sce-
nario
is
not
common
in
Brazil
due
to
environmental
laws
which
re-
quire
the
preservation
of
native
vegetation
at
the
property
level.
Our
model
showed
that
the
effect
on
yield
increased
during
the
rotation
period,
reaching
28%,
but
without
stabilizing
at
the
time
of
harvest
(6
years).
After
harvesting,
the
effect
appeared
to
be
nul-
lified,
but
increased
again
during
the
subsequent
rotation.
The
model
of
this
scenario
showed
that
there
was
great
variation
in
the
yield
during rotation
periods,
alternating
between
periods
with
a
high
yield
reduction
and
periods
with
little
or
no
effect,
as
ob-
served
by
Camara
and
Lima
(1999).
(4)
1400
a.
1000
800
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Precipitation
(mm)
0%
O
20°
ra
30°
63
S.F.B.
Ferraz
et
al]
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
xxx
(2012)
xxx-xxx
-
Zhang
Eucalyptus
Fig.
2.
Annual
catchment
scale
precipitation
and
evapotranspiration
observed
at
forest
plantation
sites
in
Brazil
(Lima
et
al.,
2012b).
Table
3
Observed
values
for
precipitation
(P),
water
yield
(Q),
quotient
OJP
and
water
yield
reduction
for
different
plantation
ages,
in
the
Tinga
stream
catchment.
Hydrological
year
Forest
age
(years)
Rotation
P
(mm)
Q
(mm)
(2/1
3
Water
yield
reduction
(Q/Po
-
OJP)
(%)
91-92
12
5th
1482.4
3053
0.206
22
(coppice)
92-93
13
5th
1959.9
593.2
0303
14
(coppice)
93-94
14
5th
1527.6
649.1
0.425
4
(coppice)
94-95
15
5th
1402.0
4233
0302
14
(coppice)
95-96
16
5th
1493.0
457.6
0306
14
(coppice)
96-97
17
5th
1570.9
429.7
0.274
17
(coppice)
97-98
0
1st
1967.4
929.5
0.472
98-99
1
1st
1333.2
634.8
0.476
0
99-00
2
1st
1141.4
3843
0337
14
00-01
3
1st
13923
390.8
0.281
20
01-02
4
1st
1317.5
284.8
0.216
26
02-03
5
1st
1242.5
235.1
0.189
29
The
SEN
scenario
(Fig.
4B),
a
scenario
typical
of
large
areas
of
certified
afforestation
in
Brazil,
showed
a
similar
pattern
to
that
observed
in
the
SE
scenario.
Including
native
vegetation
(in
this
scenario
considered
as
mature
and
stable
native
forest)
did
how-
ever
appear
to
mitigate
impacts
of
the
SE
scenario.
In
the
SEN
sce-
nario,
the
presence
of
native
vegetation
reduced
the
yield
variation
during
plantation
growth
and
the
maximum
rainy
season
flow
was
also
reduced
by
approximately
20%.
The
same
effect
was
observed
by
Van
Dijk
and
Keenan
(2007)
and
Lima
et
al.
(2012a).
Comparing
SE
and
SEN
scenarios,
it
was
possible
to
observe
the
effect
of
Brazilian
environmental
law
on
forest
plantation
land-
scapes,
with
the
SEN
scenario
reducing
the
flow
variation
and
water
use
by
plantations.
Considering
this,
we
could
say
that
the
mosaic
of
forest
plantations
and
native
vegetation
observed
in
most
certified
areas
in
Brazil
could
represent
a
management
strat-
egy
where
impacts
of
forest
plantation
on
water
are
reduced
by
the
preservation
of
native
vegetation
at
the
landscape
scale.
This
new
Eucalyptus
plantation
age
(years)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
-Model
Observations
Fig.
3.
Log-normal
model
of
the
observed
yield
reductions
at
different
eucalypt
plantation
ages
in
the
Tinga
stream
catchment,
EECF
Itatinga.
landscape-based
approach
is
different
from
the
conventional
fast-
growing
plantation
monoculture,
as
the
inclusion
of
30-40%
of
native
vegetation
is
responsible
for
a
more
hydrologically
stable
landscape,
which
is
in
line
with
FAO
recommendations
related
to
the
adoption
of
management
strategies
aimed
at
transforming
plantations
into
forests
(FAO,
1991).
The
LEN
scenario
(Fig.
4C)
represents
the
typical
long-term
(15
year)
management
system
adopted
for
sawmill
timber
produc-
tion
and
included
the
maintenance
of
native
vegetation
and
a
grad-
ual
clear
cutting
after
the
first
15
years.
This
was
the
most
conservative
scenario,
with
gradual
timber
harvesting
resulting
in
a
large
reduction
in
water
yield
during
the
early
stages
of
forest
growth,
which
was
mitigated
during
the
maturation
of
the
forest
and
balanced
with
the
annual
harvests,
stabilizing
the
reduction
in
yield
at
approximately
14%.
This
scenario
shows
a
pattern
also
observed
by
other
studies
(Kuczera,
1987;
Scott
and
Smith,
1997;
Almeida
et
al.,
2007;
Rodriguez-Suarez
et
al.,
2011).
The
SENM
scenario
(Fig.
4D)
represents
a
situation
found
in
some
partially
reforested
areas,
which
manage
various
species
for
different
purposes.
However,
this
scenario
is
uncommon
in
industrial
Eucalyptus
plantations.
This
scenario
showed
the
com-
bined
effects
of
the
maintenance
of
native
vegetation,
with
partial
harvests
within
a
forest
mosaic
system.
The
yield
reduction
curve
for
this
scenario
showed
a
pattern
very
similar
to
the
LEN
scenario,
with
an
initial
reduction
in
yield
and
stabilization
at
approximately
15%
after
10
years.
The
modeled
scenarios
have
limitations,
because
they
include
only
additive
effects
of
the
reduction
of
yield
in
each
landscape
patch
occupied
by
plantations
of
different
ages.
However,
there
are
likely
to
be
interactions
between
the
different
forest
covers
that
we
did
not
consider,
which
could
increase
or
decrease
water
consumption.
Considering
the
difficulty
of
long-term
mon-
itoring,
the
17
years
of
data
presented
provide
an
important
advance
in
the
understanding
of
the
behavior
of
water
yield
during
the
maturation
of
plantations;
however,
more
robust
pro-
cess-
based
models
may
be
used
to
generate
improved
simula-
tion
scenarios.
The
water
yield
patterns
differed
substantially
between
scenar-
ios
and
in
relation
to
the
mean
yield
(460
mm)
observed
during
the
monitoring
period
(Fig.
5).
There
was
a
large
yield
variation
in
the
SE
scenario,
with
an
average
value
of
400
mm.
Although
there
was
also
considerable
yield
variation
in
the
SEN
scenario,
this
was
less
than
the
SE
scenario,
which
also
had
a
greater
mean
yield
(410
mm).
The
LEN
scenario
had
much
less
yield
variability
com-
pared
with
the
SE
and
SEN
scenarios,
with
a
mean
value
of
approx-
imately
390
mm,
with
a
few
extreme
values
observed
at
the
beginning
of
the
period
followed
by
stabilization.
The
SENM
sce-
nario
showed
the
lowest
variability,
and
quickly
stabilized
at
a
va-
lue
of
388
mm.
(B)
0%
5%
120%
100%
I
""
1
80%
60%
40%
Clearcu
t
p
rop
or
t
ion
25%
30%
20%
0%
years
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
i
I
4
I
%
/
I
I
..
i
i
1
i
I
A
%
1
%
i
1
1
I
1
I
I
/
1
I
1
I
1
I
r
1
1
1
%
1
I
.
1
I
I
1
---
I
r
1
I
i
I
$
1
1
_
i
.
1
1
I
I
t
I
t
I
%
%
1
I
I
I
I
I
i
I
I
I
...
;
;
I
..
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Clearcu
t
p
rop
or
t
ion
(A)
0%
5%
10%
15%
7.,
20%
25%
30%
35%
S.F.B.
Ferraz
et
al./
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
xxx
(2012)
xxx—xxx
64
---------------------
(C)0%
5%
g
10%
7
15%
20%
1
120%
100%
80%
e
60%
40%
20%
1
11111111111111111110%
Fig.
4.
Yield
reduction
(%)
during
25
years
of
different
eucalypt
plantation
management
scenarios:
(A)
Fast
growth
Eucalyptus
(SE);
(B)
Fast
growth
Eucalyptus
with
maintenance
of
30%
native
vegetation
cover
(SEN);
(C)
Long
term
management
of
Eucalyptus,
with
maintenance
of
30%
native
vegetation
cover
(LEN);
and
(D)
Fast
growth
Eucalyptus,
with
maintenance
of
30%
native
vegetation
and
a
mosaic
management
system
(SENM).
25%
30%
25%
30%
-
0%
Clearcu
t
p
rop
or
t
ion
120%
100%
20%
450
Annua
l
w
a
ter
y
ie
ld
(nin)
425
400
375
350
65
S.F.B.
Ferraz
et
al]
Forest
Ecology
and
Management
xxx
(2012)
xxx-xxx
SE
SEN
LEN
SENM
Fig.
5.
Box
plot
of
estimated
annual
water
yield
for
the
Tinga
stream
catchment,
under
different
management
scenarios:
(A)
Fast
growth
Eucalyptus
(SE);
(B)
Fast
growth
Eucalyptus
with
maintenance
of
30%
native
vegetation
cover
(SEN);
(C)
Long
term
management
of
Eucalyptus,
with
maintenance
of
30%
native
vegetation
cover
(LEN);
and
(D)
Fast
growth
Eucalyptus,
with
maintenance
of
30%
native
vegetation
and
a
mosaic
management
system
(SENM).
The
lowest
average
water
use
was
found
in
the
LEN
scenario,
which
was
expected
based
on
the
decline
in
growth
found
in
this
type
of
forest
stand
after
the
harvesting
period.
However,
the
aver-
age
consumption
may
increase
if
the
forest
is
managed
with
thin-
ning,
as
the
understory
growth
associated
with
this
management
practice
may
also
consume
water
(Whitehead
and
Kelliher,
1991).
4.
Conclusions
Our
study
shows
examples
of
opportunities
for
increasing
water
conservation
in
forest
plantation
landscapes,
improving
fast-grow-
ing
plantation
management
via
strategies
that
meet
both
forest
productivity
and
water
conservation
goals.
Our
results
suggest
that
the
development
of
management
strategies
across
at
least
three
scales
is
necessary
for
effective
water
conservation
in
Eucalyptus
plantations.
The
first
scale
to
be
considered
involves
the
natural
climatic
constraints
of
water
availability
in
different
regions.
At
this
scale,
evidence
shows
that
forest
plantations
in
the
tropics
use
water
according
to
availability,
which
indicates
that
water
availability
zoning
and
the
choice
of
more
water
efficient
spe-
cies/varieties
and
forest
management
options
are
crucial
for
water
conservation.
Secondly,
at
the
meso-scale,
management
should
consider
the
maintenance
and
provision
of
environmental
services
across
the
landscape,
specifically
water
quantity
and
flow
regulation,
which
are
necessary
for
the
conservation
of
biodiversity,
riparian
ecosys-
tems
and
social
values.
At
this
scale,
we
found
that
the
proportion
of
native
forest
in
the
landscape
plays
an
important
role
in
the
reduction
and
regulation
of
water
use,
and
therefore
mosaic
man-
agement
could
stabilize
flows
from
plantation
areas.
Finally,
at
the
operational
micro
scale
of
the
forest
management
unit,
the
estab-
lishment
of
the
catchment
as
the
planning
unit
is
a
fundamental
management
strategy
necessary
for
incorporating
water
conserva-
tion
into
the
forest
management
plan.
Acknowledgements
Most
of
the
results
in
this
paper
are
based
on
work
conducted
as
part
of
the
Cooperative
Research
Program
between
IPEF
and
Brazil-
ian
Forest
Companies
(PROMAB).
We
are
grateful
to
numerous
assistants
and
employees
of
the
participating
companies
for
their
valuable
cooperation.
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