Intrinsically flame retardant epoxy resin Fire performance and background Part I
Toldy, A.; Anna,P.; Csontos, I.; Szabó, A.; Marosi, G.Y.
Polymer Degradation and Stability 92(12): 2223-2230
The flame retardant effect of newly synthesized phosphorus-containing reactive amine, which can be used both as crosslinking agent in epoxy resins and as a flame retardant, was investigated. The effect of montmorillonite and sepiolite additives on the fire induced degradation was compared to pristine epoxy resin. The effect of combining the organophosphorous amine with clay minerals was also studied. It could be concluded that the synthesized phosphorus-containing amine, TEDAP can substitute the traditional epoxy resin curing agents providing additionally excellent flame retardancy: the epoxy resins flame retarded this way reach 960 C GWFI value, 33 LOI value and V-0 UL-94 rating e compared to the 550 C GWFI value, 21 LOI value and "no rate" UL-94 classification of the reference epoxy resin. The peak of heat release was reduced to 1/10 compared to non-flame retarded resin, furthermore a shift in time was observed, which increases the time to escape in case of fire. The flame retardant performance can be further improved by incorporating clay additives: the LOI and the HRR results showed that the optimum of flame retardant effect of clay additives is around 1 mass% filler level in AH-16eTEDAP system. Applying a complex method for mechanical and structural characterization of the intumescent char it was determined that the flame retarded system forms significantly more and stronger char of better uniformity with smaller average bubble size. Incorporation of clay additives (owing to their bubble nucleating activity) results in further decrease in average bubble diameter.