The Development of the Capper Farm Press


Homer, E. Socolofsky

Agricultural History 31(4): 34-43

1957


The political career of Arthur Capper, of Kansas, was well-grounded in the field of journalism, as printer, reporter, editor, and publisher. By the time of his death, in 1951, his material assets, all in the fields of communication media, placed him in the class of a multi-millionaire. That part of his publishing empire which gave him the most recognition, outside his native state of Kansas, was the publication of his farm journals. After the mid-1920's, these publications were Capper's Farmer, a monthly farm journal circulated widely in the region from Ohio to North Dakota to Texas, and five state farm papers serving the states of Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Michigan. Collectively they were known as the Capper Farm Press.

The
Development
of
the
Capper
Farm
Press
HOMER
E.
SOCOLOFSKY
The
political
career
of
Arthur
Capper,
of
Kansas,
was
well-grounded
in
the
field
of
journalism,
as
printer,
reporter,
editor,
and
publisher.
By
the
time
of
his
death,
in
1951,
his
material
assets,
all
in
the
fields
of
communication
media,
placed
him
in
the
class
of
a
multi-millionaire.
That
part
of
his
publishing
empire
which
gave
him
the
most
recognition,
outside
his
native
state
of
Kansas,
was
the
publication
of
his
farm
journals.
After
the
mid-1920's,
these
pub-
lications
were
Capper's
Farmer,
a
monthly
farm
journal
circulated
widely
in
the
region
from
Ohio
to
North
Dakota
to
Texas,
and
five
state
farm
papers
serving
the
states
of
Kansas,
Missouri,
Ohio,
Penn-
sylvania,
and
Michigan.
Collectively
they
were
known
as
the
Capper
Farm
Press.
The
entrance
of
Arthur
Capper
into
the
field
of
farm
publications
came
with
his
acquisition
of
the
eight-year-old
Missouri
Valley
Farmer
in
April,
1900.
1
In
spite
of
the
large
number
of
agricultural
publi-
cations
competing
for
the
growing
farm
market
of
the
period,
this
was
an
oppor-
tune
time
for
Capper
to
enter
a
new
phase
of
a
field
which
had
held
his
primary
interest
for
almost
20
years.
Fresh
out
of
high
school
in
1884,
he
landed
a
printer's
job
on
the
Topeka
Daily
Capital.
In
Sep-
tember,
1893,
just
before
the
most
serious
part
of
the
Panic,
he
was
established
as
the
owner
and
editor
of
a
growing
Topeka
weekly,
The
Mail,
which
by
1900
possessed
the
largest
circulation
of
any
newspaper
in
the
state.
Developments
which
greatly
aided
the
cause
of
journalism
in
the
late
1890's
included
new
improved
presses,
better
links
with
the
news
agencies
and
govern-
mental
agencies
such
as
the
Department
of
Agriculture,
and
the
development
of
rural
free
delivery.
Rural
free
delivery,
by
itself,
opened
a
huge
new
market
to
the
agricultural
press.
2
The
increase
in
number
of
publications
in
the
Capper
press
was
haphazard
and
unplanned.
Capper's
work
on
his
first
paper
brought
compliments
from
all
over
the
state
and
he
became
one
of
the
con-
spicuous
successes
in
Kansas
journalism.
It
was
comparatively
easy
to
become
a
newspaper
proprietor
in
that
p
e
r
i
o
d.
Equipment
was
relatively
inexpensive
and
small
papers
could
be
started
and
dis-
continued
almost
at
will.
The
owner
of
a
paper
about
to
give
up
the
struggle
could
sell
his
mailing-list
and
the
"good-will"
of
his
paper
and
thereby
escape
the
legal
necessity
of
repaying
subscribers
for
un-
expired
subscriptions.
Many
newspaper
consolidations
were
made
in
this
manner,
3
and
Capper
frequently
benefited
from
such
transactions.
He
maintained,
years
later,
that
he
was
asked
to
buy
all
his
papers
except
one
;
that
exception
was
presumably
his
first
paper.
4
Thus,
in
1895,
when
Thomas
A.
McNeal
approached
Cap-
per
with
an
offer
to
sell
his
Kansas
Breeze,
Capper
bought
it,
consolidated
it
with
his
own
paper
as
the
Mail
and
Breeze,
and
employed
McNeal
as
editor.
5
'Kansas
State
Historical
Society,
History
of
Kansas
Newspapers
(Topeka,
1916),
143,
291,
lists
the
date
of
first
publication
of
Missouri
Valley
Farmer
as
January
4,
1893.
Stephen
Con-
rad
Stuntz,
compiler
and
Emma
B.
Hawks,
editor.
List
of
the
Agricultural
Periodicals
of
the
United
States
and
Canada
Published
during
the
Century
July
1810
to
July
1910
(Washington,
1941),
104,
cites
1892
as
the
date
of
establishment
of
the
journal.
On
the
other
hand,
Missouri
Valley
Farm-
er,
August,
1910,
as
well
as
many
other
issues,
states
in
its
masthead,
"est.
1891,"
and
Cap-
per's
Farmer
now
uses
1879
as
its
date
of
estab-
lishment.
2
Liberty
Hyde
Bailey,
ed.,
Cyclopedia
of
American
Agriculture
(3rd
ed.,
New
York,
1910)
4:314.
The
first
R.F.D.
was
in
1896.
By
1908
there
were
40,000
carriers.
8
Frank
Luther
Mott,
American
Journalism
(Rev.
ed.,
New
York,
1950),
275;
Gilbert
M.
Tucker,
American
Agricultural
Periodicals
(Al-
bany,
New
York,
1909),
76.
Interview
with
F.
D.
Farrell,
former
president
of
Kansas
State
College,
July
10,
1951.
A
clipping
from
the
Brown,
Country
World,
n.d.,
in
the
Biographical
Scrapbook,
Kansas
State
Historical
Society,
0:
1,
says
Capper
paid
$2,500
for
the
Kansas
Breeze.
34
DEVELOPMENT
OF
THE
CAPPER
FARM
PRESS
35
Kansas
Hist.
Soc.
Arthur
Capper
Capper's
purchase,
in
1900,
of
the
Mis-
souri
Valley
Farmer,
a
run-down
agricul-
tural
monthly
with
16,000
subscribers,
was
a
result
of
a
similar
offer
from
an
owner
seeking
relief.
This
sale
brought
an
in-
creased
stress
in
Capper
publications
on
agricultural
matters.
In
its
first
issue
under
Capper
ownership
the
Missouri
Val-
ley
Farmer
displayed
newly
created
de-
partments
which
offered
greater
appeal
to
farm
folks.°
An
intensive
drive
for
in-
creased
circulation
brought
promising
re-
sults
and
claims
of
more
than
100,000
subscribers
were
made
by
1902.
The
Capper
formula
for
success
in
a
newspaper
enterprise
was
nothing
more
than
to
follow
the
dictates
of
good
news-
paper
practice.
He
had
long
years
of
newspaper
experience
before
he
owned
his
own
paper.
He
consistently
worked
to
improve
his
publications
to
attract
in-
creased
circulation.
He
wanted
his
papers
to
provide
a
good
media
for
the
display
of
advertising
matter
and
he
had
unusually
good
success
in
attracting
advertising.
Fur-
thermore,
he
had
a
knack
for
instilling
personal
loyalty
in
employees
and
for
mak-
ing
a
paper
pay,
and
these
qualities
gave
promise
of
an
increase
in
the
number
of
periodicals
which
he
published?
The
local
success
enjoyed
by
Capper
caused
the
Bank
of
Topeka,
in
1901,
to
offer
him
the
debt-ridden
Daily
Capital.
Having
insufficient
resources
of
his
own,
Capper
organized
a
short-term
partnership
for
the
new
venture.°
As
the
principal
owner
of
the
Topeka
Daily
Capital
and
its
weekly
paper,
the
Kansas
Capital,
Capper's
field
of
operations
now
included
a
daily
newspaper,
a
farm
monthly
and
two
weekly
newspapers.
When
advertisers
questioned
the
advisability
of
buying
space
in
two
papers
such
as
the
Mail
and
Breeze
and
the
Kansas
Capital,
which
seemed
so
much
alike,
Capper
assured
them
that
his
papers
"don't
compete.
"
9
Apparently
under
this
pressure
he
felt
it
necessary
to
make
sure
that
his
papers
would
not
compete.
The
evolution
of
the
Mail
and
Breeze
in
the
direction
of
a
strictly
agricultural
publication
was
noticeable
but
much
of
the
development
was
without
plan.'°
It
still
served
much
the
same
area
and
the
same
subscribers
of
earlier
times
but
atten-
tion
was
directed
more
completely
to
the
farmer
and
his
interests.
By
October
1,
1904,
an
acknowledgment
of
the change
was
apparent,
for
the
Mail
and
Breeze
was
subtitled
"An
Agricultural
and
Family
Journal
for
the
People
of
the
Great
West.
'Missouri
Valley
Farmer,
May,
1900.
Eventually
a
Capper
"Old
Timers"
Club,
of
employees
with
25
or
more
years
of
service,
was
formed.
The
contract
for
the
purchase
of
the
Capital
is
in
the
vault
of
Capper
Publications,
Inc.,
in
Topeka.
Capper
obtained
majority
control
of
the
new
enterprise
with
the
minority
shares
held
by
four
others.
The
partnership
was
dissolved
in
1904.
This
purchase
set
no
precedent
for
future
Cap-
per
purchases,
as
each
transaction
was
an
indi-
vidual
matter.
°
Interview
with
Marco
Morrow,
long-time
assis-
tant
publisher
for
Capper
Publications,
August
1,
1952.
"Mail
and
Breeze,
April
12,
1901;
July
5,
1901;
September
5,
1902;
January
23,
1903;
and
March
20,
1903.
"
Ibid.,
October
1,
1904.
36
AGRICULTURAL
HISTORY
As
a
farm
paper,
the
Mail
and
Breeze
was
completely
departmentalized
so
that
no
member
of
the
farm
family
could
look
at
a
single
issue
without
finding
something
that
would
provide
interest.
Farmers
and
farm
women
who
had
been
successful
in
a
particular
line
were
the
new
editors
of
specialized
departments.
One
of
the
long-
time
features
was
the
editorial
page
under
the
guidance
of
Tom
McNeal
until
his
death
in
1942.
The
paper
had
its
primary
circulation
in
Kansas,
Oklahoma,
Indian
Territory,
Nebraska
and
Missouri.
Fre-
quently
a
single
issue
ran
to
40
pages
in
length
and
had
circulation
claims
of
more
than
60,000.
A
conscious
promotion
of
the
value
of
advertising
was
made
each
week
by
the
publication
of
one
or
more
voluntary
letters
from
satisfied
advertisers.
But
be-
cause
national
advertisers
were
unaware
of
the
new
character
of
the
paper,
its
name
was
changed
early
in
1906
to
the
Farmers
Mail
and
Breeze.
12
Thus
Capper
exhibited
a
characteristic
opportunism
which
he
displayed
on
many
occasions.
He
preferred
to
change
accord-
ing
to
the
needs
of
a
developing
situation,
not
in
accordance
with
some
inflexible
long-range
objective.
Politically
conserva-
tive
in
many
ways,
where
agriculture
was
concerned
he
often
endorsed
liberal
poli-
cies.
Though
his
personal
morals
were
above
reproach,
the
advertising
standards
of
his
publications
were
frequently
criti-
cized.
But
opportunism
rather
than
irreso-
lution
marked
his
course
of
action.
With
two
agricultural
papers,
the
Mis-
souri
Valley
Farmer
and
the
Farmers
Mail
and
Breeze,
the
foundation
for
a
multi-
state
Capper
farm
press
had
been
laid.
Capper
may
have
visualized
such
a
future
organization,
for
it
was
his
nature
to
acquaint
himself
with
activity
in
the
publi-
cation
field.
He
must
have
known
of
other
combinations
of
agricultural
periodicals,
such
as
the
joint
handling
of
the
American
Agriculturist,
New
England
Homestead,
and
Orange
Judd
Farmer,
but
he
particu-
larly
watched
the
activities
of
Pierce's
Farm
Weeklies
of
Iowa,
Wisconsin,
and
Missouri.
13
The
idea
of
a
specialized
farm
paper
for
a
single
state
evolved
over
the
years.
Because
of
the
nature
of
their
audience
and
their
subject
matter,
agricultural
periodicals
tended,
more
and
more,
to
confine
themselves
to
a
restricted
geograph-
ical
area.
Moreover,
Farmers
Mail
and
Breeze
differed
from
many
farm
period-
icals.
Few
weekly
farm
papers
were
owned
by
men
who
also
published
a
monthly
farm
journal.
The
origin
of
the
paper
was
also
different
from
most
agricultural
papers
which
had
always
been
published
specific-
ally
for
farm
people.
14
By
1906,
Capper
had
established
himself
solidly
as
a
Kansas
publisher.
In
spite
of
the
growth
of
his
business,
the
circulation
of
his
publications
was
confined
primarily
to
Kansas,
except
for
the
monthly
Misouri
Valley
Farmer
and
a
women's
magazine
which
he
had
published
for
several
years.
In
April,
1908,
Capper
added
Poultry
Culture,
the
official
organ
of
the
Kansas
State
Poultry
Association,
to
his
list.
This
journal
was
published
in
the
interests
of
'Farmers
Mail
and
Breeze,
February
17,
1906;
Interview
with
Marco
Morrow,
August
1,
1952.
Morrow,
then
in
the
agricultural
advertising
busi-
ness,
did
not
hear
of
the
change
in
the
character
of
the
Mail
and
Breeze
until
1905,
when
he
made
a
business
trip
to
Salina,
Kansas.
'Interviews
with
Marco
Morrow,
November
28,
1952
and
April
7,
1953.
Capper
was
reticent
in
talking
of
himself
and
his
future.
It
was
not
his
nature
in
the
development
of
a
multi-paper
farm
organization
to
be
conscious
of
following
any
particular
trend
and
Morrow
states
that
he
had
no
real
innovations
to
offer
in
the
field
of
ag-
ricultural
publications.
Other
successful
farm-
paper
publshers
had
done
what
he
was
doing.
Mor-
row
is
inclined
to
believe
that
the
idea
for
the
Capper
Farmer
Press
came
from
the
farm
papers
headed
by
Orange
Judd
Farmer
and
including
Northwest
Farmstead
and
Southern
Farming
by
1914.
Pierce's
papers
were
the
Iowa
Homestead,
Wisconsin
Farmer
and
the
Farmer
and
Stockman
of
Kansas
City
and
St.
Louis.
When
changes
were
suggested
for
one
of
his
farm
papers,
Capper
seemed
prone
to
ask,
"How
is
it
done
on
the
Pierce
Farm
Weeklies?"
These
combinations
ap-
pear
as
exceptions
to
the
usual
farm
paper
or-
ganizations
which
were
generally
small
and
in-
dependent
of
all
other
farm
papers.
"History
of
_Kansas
Newspapers,
290-291.
Farmers'
Advocate,
published
in
Topeka,
had
an
origin
similar
to
Farmers
Mail
and
Breeze,
but
Kansas
Farmer
had
always
been
published
as
a
farm
paper.
DEVELOPMENT
OF
THE
CAPPER
FARM
PRESS
37
the
specialized
poultry
raiser
and
as
such
was
different
from
the
usual
Capper
paper
which
attempted
to
satisfy
wider,
more
general
interests.
Probably
because
of
these
characteristics,
Poultry
Culture
was
sold
in
1916.
15
The
growth
and
prosperity
of
the
Capper
businesses
resulted
in
demands
for
working
space
that
far
exceeded
the
area
then
available.
Capper
offices
were
scattered
all
over
down-town
Topeka.
Plans
were
formulated
in
1906
and
1907
to
erect
a
new
five-story
building
in
Topeka,
just
across
the
street
from
the
State
House
grounds.
Late
in
1908,
all
Capper
offices,
presses,
and
other
equipment
were
installed
in
Capper
Publications'
new
home.
During
1908,
Farmers
Mail
and
Breeze
exceeded
100,000
circulation,
the
fourth
farm
weekly
to
do
so.
Missouri
Valley
Farmer
was
delivered
to
twice
as
many
subscribers.
Capper
went
outside
his
or-
ganization
where
he
employed
almost
400
persons
to
obtain
key
men
to
direct
the
advertising
and
circulation
departments
of
his
business.
He
had
previously
conducted
these
departments
with
the
help
of
clerks.
His
printing
and
editorial
departments
were
already
under
competent
employees.
One
of
the
first
outsiders
was
Marco
Mor-
row,
who
had
worked
nine
years
for
a
Chi-
cago
agency
which
concentrated
on
agricul-
tural
advertising.
He
became
director
of
advertising.
16
The
circulation
department
also
was
headed
by
a
man
experienced
in
the
field.
Capper
was
cautious
in
bringing
newcomers
to
his
organization
because
he
had
never
paid
anyone
salaries
as
high
as
the
amount
he
offered
Morrow.
But
he
was
already
buying
other
papers
and
he
wanted
a
strong
organization
to
handle
the
increasing
responsibilities.
Capper
was
apparently
not
anxious
to
acquire
new
journals.
But
he
was
willing
to
listen
to
offers
of
periodicals
for
sale
and
many
came
under
Capper
ownership
through
the
proposal
on
the
part
of
the
seller
or
some
third
party,
who
was
not
necessarily
involved
in
the
sale.
In
no
case
did
Capper
establish
a
new
publication.
All
of
his
papers
had
originally
been
pub-
lished
by
someone
else
and
in
most
cases
were
doing
poorly
when
they
were
trans-
ferred
to
Capper.
With
his
characteristic
opportunism
and
energy,
he
wanted
to
be
in
a
position
to
succeed
in
his
new
enter-
prises.
In
expanding
his
publishing
business,
Capper
limited
himself
to
journals
pri-
marily
with
a
Kansas
circulation
until
Au-
gust,
1908,
when
he
bought
the
Nebraska
Farm
Journal
from
W.
T.
Laing.
Laing
had
been
struggling
to
keep
his
paper
going,
so
he
sold
it
to
Capper
and
got
a
job
with
Capper
Publications.
17
Capper
also
invaded
the
field
of
Missouri
agricultural
journalism.
The
initiative
for
this
purchase
was
probably
taken
by
Colonel
Ed
R.
Dorsey,
of
Topeka,
for
a
letter,
dated
June
4,
1910,
from
W.
E.
Hurlbut
of
The
Ruralist,
to
Dorsey,
en-
closed
a
complete
inventory
and
an
offer
to
sell
the
paper,
its
supplies
and
earned
accounts
for
$10,000."
Since
Capper
pur-
chased
The
Ruralist,
which
he
quickly
dubbed
the
Missouri
Ruralist,
before
the
end
of
June,
this
letter
presumably
played
a
part
in
the
negotiations."
Breeder's
Special,
of
Kansas
City,
Missouri,
was
purchased
on
August
16,
1910,
and
con-
solidated
with
Missouri
Ruralist
with
the
December
10,
1910,
issue.
2
°
In
1912,
the
purchase
of
the
Oklahoma
Farmer
gave
Capper
a
farm
journal
spe-
Interview
with
Leland
Schenck,
production
manager
of
Capper
Publications,
April
7,
1953.
"
Interviews
with
Marco
Morrow,
November
28.
1952
and
April
7,
1953.
Morrow
came
to
Topeka
on
what
he
thought
was
a
temporary
arrangement,
but
continued
in
Capper's
employ
until
his
re-
tirement
in
1941,
33
years
later.
17
N.
W.
Ayer
and
Sons,
Directory
of
News-
papers
and
Periodicals,
1909
(Philadelphia, 1909),
next
to
page
1233;
Interview
with
Marco
Mor-
row,
April
7,
1953.
"This
letter
is
in
the
Capper
file
at
Kansas
State
Historical
Society
in
Topeka.
"
Missouri
Ruralist,
August
20,
1910.
Capper's
name
did
not
appear
on
the
masthead
until
the
issue
of
August
20,
1910,
but
the
earliest
letter
of
congratulations
in
the
issue,
dated
June
23,
1910,
from
President
Henry
J.
Waters,
of
Kansas
State
Agricultural
College,
and
former
Dean
of
the
College
of
Agriculture,
University
of
Mixsouri,
indicates
that
the
purchase
had
been
completed
in
June.
Ibid.,
December
10,
1910.
38
AGRICULTURAL
HISTORY
cifically
for
that
State.
The
contract
was
made
March
28,
1912,
between
M.
L.
Crow-
ther,
a
former
Capper
employee,
and
the
Farmer
Publishing
Company
of
Guthrie,
Oklahoma.
Crowther
paid
$1,000
in
cash
and
gave
a
note
for
$2,000.
He
later
trans-
ferred
the
note
to
Capper
and
became
manager
of
the
paper
at
a
salary
of
$30
per
week
and
one-fourth
of
the
new
annual
profits
of
the
publication.
21
While
this
arrangement
was
not
typical
and
apparent-
ly
has
no
parallel
elsewhere
in
the
Capper
system,
Capper
accepted
it.
Soon
after
his
invasion
of
Oklahoma,
Capper
set
about
to
consolidate
with
other
papers
as
he
had
done
in
Missouri.
Within
a
month
the
subscription
list,
advertising
contracts
and
good
will
of
the
Oklahoma
State
Farmer
were
purchased
and
incor-
porated
into
the
new
property.
22
Late
in
1915,
another
consolidation
was
made
with
the
purchase
of
the
Oklahoma
Farm
Jour-
nal
for
$24,000,
a
price
which
included
some
equipment.
23
By
1912,
Capper
had
farm
periodicals
circulating
specifically
for
the
states
of
Nebraska,
Missouri,
Oklahoma,
and
Kansas,
where
each
had
competition
from
other
state
farm
publications.
All
of
the
Capper
papers
were
printed
in
Topeka,
but
Capper
seemed
sincerely
interested
in
identifying
each
paper
with
the
state
of
its
major
circulation.
Typical
of
Capper's
state-
ments
upon
acquiring
a
new
publication
was
the
one
printed
in
Missouri
Ruralist
that
the
paper
would
be
"Missouri
from
the
start
to
finish,
a
livestock
and
farm
journal
that
the
Missouri
feeders
and
farmers
will
be
proud
of."
24
The
editors
of
many
of
the
papers
purchased
by
Capper
became
Capper
employees.
Editorial
and
business
offices
were
maintained
in
Omaha,
Kansas
City,
Oklahoma
City,
and
Topeka,
respectively.
25
Within
several
weeks
after
Capper's
entry
into
a
new
state
as
publisher
of
a
farm
journal,
a
complete
list
of
depart-
ment
editors
and
editorial
contributors,
mostly
representing
the
state
where
the
paper
was
published,
would
be
announced
in
the
columns
of
the
paper.
Capper's
circulation
department
would
also
transfer
agents
to
the
area
of
the
new
publication
and
launch
subscription
drives.
With
in-
creased
circulation
the
advertising
rates
would
rise.
In
the
advertising
world
the
name
of
the
Capper
Farm
Press
was
becoming
well-known
and
it
eventually
became
a
part
of
the
sub-title
of
each
paper,
but
it
was
an
advertising
name
and
was
used
less
frequently
in
an
editorial
and
business
way.
Nonetheless,
the
casual
read-
er
of
a
Capper
farm
paper
came
to
realize
that
his
paper
was
a
member
of
a
multiple-
state
farm
paper
syndicate.
The
ingredient
which
Capper
added
to
these
papers
to
make
them
successful
apparently
was
nothing
more
than
skillful
operation
and
good
newspaper
practice.
He
had
more
newspaper
experience
than
the
average
farm
publisher.
The
joint
operation
of
printing,
advertising,
and
business
departments
permitted
certain
economies.
He
also
had
an
ability
to
build
circulation.
His
circulation
department
was
able
to
offer
a
state
farm
paper
and
could
also
sell
a
monthly
farm
journal,
a
home
magazine
and
a
daily
and
weekly
newspaper
at
reduced
cost.
From
that
point
it
was
an
easy
matter
to
expand
operations
into
other
states
and
still
main-
tain
centralized
management
of
most
of
the
departments
of
the
entire
Capper
publications.
Since
he
held
that
"no
newspaper
can
achieve
permanent
success
except
by
sheer
The
contract
and
bill
of
sale
transferring
Oklahoma
Farmer
to
M.
L.
Crowther
with
the
acceptance
by
Capper
is
in
the
vault
at
the
Capper
Building,
Topeka.
As
far
as
can
be
determined,
the
price
of
the
Oklahoma
Farmer
was
never
con-
sidered
unreasonable
by
Capper.
Only
the
name
and
subscription
list
were
purchased.
Oklahoma
Farmer,
May
1,
1912.
There
is
apparently
no
record
of
the
price
of
the
State
Farmer.
Generally,
purchases
by
Capper
in
this
period
were
of
papers
in
distress
and
there
were
usually
no
contenders
around
who
also
wanted
the
paper.
Ibid.,
November
23,
1915;
Letter
from
C.
E.
Carpenter,
Cashier,
Farmers
National
Bank,
Okla-
homa
City,
to
Capper,
December
8,
1915.
This
letter
is
in
the
vault
at
the
Capper
Building.
'Missouri
Ruralist,
September
17,
1910.
The
editorial
office
of
the
Missouri
Ruralist
was
moved
from
Kansas
City
to
St.
Louis
in
1914.
DEVELOPMENT
OF
THE
CAPPER
FARM
PRESS
39
merit
Capper
developed
a
carefully
ob-
served
editorial
policy,
in
line
with
many
other
farm
publishers,
of
presenting
all
technical
information
with
complete
ac-
curacy.
26
His
papers
also
worked
closely
with
the
agricultural
colleges
and
the
United
States
Department
of
Agriculture.
Pictures
soon
came
to
play
a
prominent
part
in
each
article
by
showing
"how
to
do
it"
and
the
story
would
follow
that
pattern.
Technical
information,
in
order
to
serve
a
useful
purpose
under
the
edi-
torial
policy
of
the
Capper
Farm
Press,
had
to
be
confirmed
by
actual
farm
prac-
tice.
27
The
editorial
departments
of
the
Capper
Farm
Press
were
in
capable
hands.
Capper
claimed,
as
early
as
1908,
that
a
larger
share
of
the
gross
income
was
spent
on
the
editorial
department
than
was
usual
in
the
case
of
farm
papers.
28
By
1920,
most
of
the
editors
of
regular
columns
were
specialists
in
their
chosen
subject.
The
enthusiasm
Capper
had
for
his
business
and
his
employees
was
often
conveyed
by
the
editors
to
the
readers
of
the
Capper
papers.
Of
major
importance
was
Capper's
"editorial
instinct,"
no
doubt
the
result
of
long
years
of
experience,
which
told
him
what
farm
people
wanted
in
their
paper.
His
recipe
for
a
good
farm
paper
was
to
"fill
its
pages
with
practical
boiled
down
facts"
a
little
in
advance
of
the
time
"they
would
be
needed,"
and
he
prided
himself
in
giving
his
readers
what
they
wanted."
From
1912
on
Capper
became
more
and
more
engrossed
in
politics.
He
narrowly
lost
in
the
race
for
Governor
of
Kansas
that
year,
but
was
elected
and
re-elected
in
1914
and
1916.
In
1919
he
began
the
first
of
five
consecutive
terms
in
the
United
States
Senate.
A
few
trusted
employees
were
then
given
the
responsi-
bility
for
directing
his
business,
but
he
still
maintained
control
over
all
major
decisions.
Shortly
after
Capper's
elevation
to
the
Senate
in
1919,
the
name
of
the
Missouri
Valley
Farmer
was
changed
to
Capper's
Farmer.
3
°
The
announced
reason
for
the
change
was
that
"its
circulation
has
not
been
confined
to
the
valley
of
the
Missouri
River
nor
has
the
paper
editorially
limited
itself
to
the
peculiar
farm
problems
of
the
Missouri
Valley
;
hence
it
is
apparent
that
we
should
not
retain
a
name
local
in
character.
"31
Another
change
in
1919
resulted
from
the
purchase
of
the
old-time
Kansas
Farm-
er
and
its
consolidation
with
the
Farmers
Mail
and
Breeze.
32
Thus
Capper's
old-time
Mail
and
Breeze
became
the
only
state
farm
paper
in
Kansas.
Consolidations
had
been
achieved
elsewhere
but
Capper's
state
farm
papers
for
Nebraska,
Missouri,
and
Oklahoma
still
had
energetic
competitors.
During
1919
and
the
first
half
of
1920,
there
were
general
expectations
that
the
removal
of
restrictions
on
consumption
imposed
by
the
war
would
result
in
an
enormous
demand
for
American
farm
goods
and
products."
In
accordance
with
this
agricultural
optimism
the
Capper
organization
enlarged
its
Topeka
building,
increased
circulation
and
set
about
im-
proving
the
format
and
reading
matter
of
the
various
farm
papers.
In
order
to
finance
this
expansion,
subscribers
were
offered
the
opportunity
to
invest
in
Cap-
per
Publications
by
means
of
unsecured
"
Arthur
Capper,
The
Capper
House
Book,
A
Statement
of
the
Policies
and
Aims
of
the
Capper
Publications
(Topeka,
Kansas),
n.d.,
13;
Inter-
view
with
Nelson
A.
Crawford,
June
17,
1952.
Crawford
was
former
editor
of
the
Capper
Pub-
lications'
women's
magazine,
Household.
Interview
with
Raymond
Gilkeson,
editor
of
Kansas
Farmer,
July
11,
1952.
'Letter
from
Capper
to
A.
L.
Lawshe,
De-
cember
19,
1908.
Copy
in
Capper
file.
Missouri
Valley
Farmer,
April,
1909.
30
The
change
was
made
April
21,
1919,
accord-
ing
to
"First
Things,"
a
manuscript
copy
of
changes
around
Capper
Publications.
The
first
issue
under
the
new
name
was
June,
1919.
Capper's
Farmer,
June,
1919.
'Kansas
Farmer
and
Mail
and
Breeze,
De-
cember
13,
1919.
The
whole
staff
of
the
Kansas
Farmer
was
employed
in
the
Capper
organiza-
tion.
Chester
C.
Davis,
"The
Development
of
Ag-
ricultural
Policy
Since
the
End
of
the
World
War,"
Farmers
in
a
Changing
World;
Yearbook
of
Agriculture,
1940
(Washington,
1940),
298.
40
AGRICULTURAL
HISTORY
demand
notes
which
were
called
Capper
Certificates.
34
In
September,
1920,
a
Denver,
Colorado,
farm
periodical,
Field
and
Farm,
was
added
to
the
Capper
list.
35
Business
and
editorial
arrangements
followed
the
usual
Capper
formula.
A
35
per
cent
drop
in
the
market
price
of
wheat
in
the
next
three
months
so
alarmed
Capper
over
possible
injury
to
his
business
that
he
ordered
a
retrenchment
in
operations
which
resulted
in
the
Kansas
Farmer
and
Mail
and
Breeze
absorbing
the
subscription
list
of
Field
and
Farm
and
the
abandonment
of
the
Colorado
paper."
Retrenchment
in
Missouri
resulted
in
the
purchase
of
the
old
Journal
of
Agriculture
of
St.
Louis
for
$86,000.
37
For
this
sum.
Capper
obtained
a
farm
paper
with
the
largest
circulation
in
Missouri,
a
building
and
printing
plant
in
St.
Louis
and
the
elimination
of
all
state
farm
competitors
in
Missouri.
For
the
next
decade
all
mechanical
work
for
the
Missouri
paper
was
done
in
St.
Louis,
where
all
of
the
Missouri
Ruralist
editorial,
advertising,
and
circulation
departments
were
located."
Capper
expanded
far
outside
his
home
area
in
1922
with
the
purchase
of
majority
control
in
the
Lawrence
Publishing
Com-
pany
of
Cleveland,
Ohio,
publishers
of
the
Ohio
Farmer,
Pennsylvania
Farmer
and
Michigan
Farmer."
In
assuming
control,
Capper
promised
to
continue
existing
pol-
icies
of
the
various
papers
just
as
he
had
done
with
previous
purchases.
While
these
papers
worked
in
close
harmony
with
other
Capper
farm
papers,
they
did
not
im-
mediately
become
part
of
the
Capper
Farm
Press.
It
seemed
important
to
Capper
that
subscribers
of
these
Eastern
periodicals
should
not
think
their
papers
were
coming
out
of
Topeka
so
printing
was
always
centered
in
Cleveland,
and
the
officers,
as
appointed
by
Capper,
made
their
head-
quarters
there.
4
°
Before
his
purchase
of
these
Eastern
farm
papers
Capper
seemed
to
have
no
plan
for
acquiring
additional
state
farm
papers.
But
after
1922
he
began
to
discuss
future
expansion
plans
with
his
staff
and
considerable
time
was
spent
investigating
farm
papers
in
Indiana,
New
York,
Florida
14
Kansas
Fanner
and
Mail
and
Breeze,
July
31,
1920.
By
1937
the
aggregate
amount
of
these
notes
was
$3,952,400
according
to
page
8
of
a
prospectus
of
Capper
Publications,
Inc.,
required
by
S.E.C.,
c1952.
When
the
business
was
incor-
porated
in
1937,
the
Capper
Certificates
were
designated
as
Series
One,
and
later
issues
of
Cer-
tificates
and
Bonds
were
given
different
series
numbers.
Field
and
Farm,
September
25,
1920.
Only
the
subscription
list
and
name
of
this
paper
were
purchased.
'
Interviews
with
Marco
Morrow,
June
16,
August
1,
1952
and
April
7,
1953;
Winifred
Gregory,
ed.,
Union
List
of
Serials
in
Libraries
of
the
United
States
and
Canada
(2nd
ed.
New
York,
1943),
1010.
a
'
"First
Things";
Union
List
of
Serials,
729,
1435;
Stuntz,
List
of
the
Agricultural
Periodicals
of
the
United
States
and
Canada
Published
During
The
Century
July
1810
to
July
1910,
32,
60,
62,
88,
94,
101,
103, 130, 156,
and
157.
Missouri
Ruralist
took
the
volume
numbers
of
the
Journal
of
Agriculture
as
its
own
and
could
claim
other
eminent
Missouri
farm
papers
such
as
The
Farmer's
Advertiser,
the
Valley
Farmer,
The
Planter
and
Stockman,
the
St.
Louis
Midland
Farincr,
and
Colman's
Rural
World
in
its
"family
tree."
This
price
was
thought
to
be
high
but
the
mechanical
equipment
and
building
were
sold
in
the
1940's
for
almost
half
this
amount.
'Letter
from
Marco
Morrow
to
A.
I.
Foard
of
the
Journal
of
Agriculture
staff,
January
17,
1921,
copy
in
Capper
file;
Missouri
Ruralist,
February
1
and
15,
1921.
The
business
operated
under
the
corporate
name
of
Missouri
Agricul-
tural
Publishing
Company.
The
total
purchase
price
for
5,170
shares
of
stock
in
the
company
was
$594,550.
A
further
consolidation
of
the
"Eastern
trio"
was
made
in
1928,
with
the
Ohio
Stockman
and
Farmer,
the
Pennsylvania
edition
of
the
National
Stock-
man
and
Farmer,
and
the
Michigan
Business
Farm-
er.
Capper
retained
60
per
cent
of
the
stock
in
the
newly
organized
Capper-Harman-Slocum,
In-
corporated.
'Interview
with
Marco
Morrow,
November
28,
1952.
This
apparent
reversal
of
an
earlier
prac-
tice
of
having
all
or
most
all
of
the
farm
papers
printed
in
Topeka
may
have
been
due
to
the
psychological
advantage
which
an
in-state
paper
bad
over
one
published
outside
the
state.
No
doubt
of
more
importance
was
the
fact
that
build-
ings
and
equipment
were
a
part
of
the
assets
of
the
Lawrence
Publishing
Company.
DEVELOPMENT
OF
THE
CAPPER
FARM
PRESS
41
and
perhaps
elsewhere.
41
But
never
again
did
he
go
into
a
new
state
to
buy
a
farm
paper.
As
a
matter
of
fact,
where
he
could
not
obtain
a
monopoly
on
state
farm
publi-
cations,
he
was
inclined
to
withdraw.
Such
was
the
case
in
1924,
when
he
sold
the
Oklahoma
Farmer
and
the
Nebraska
Farm
Journal.
42
Along
with
the
physical
development
of
the
Capper
Farm
Press
there
were
adjust-
ments
and
changes
in
the
presentation
of
the
general
farm
news
and
the
special
features.
Editorial
policies
exhibited
a
long
period
of
continuity
and
editors
had
the
confidence
of
their
publisher
for
many
stayed
with Capper
for
more
than
25
years.
Changes
in
advertising
in
the
Capper
publications
were
in
keeping
with
the
over-
all,
nation-wide
trends.
Circulation
con-
tinued
to
expand
and
the
numbers
of
staff
employed
by
Capper
show
a
steady
rise.
One
area
of
unusual
interest
to
Capper
was
the
promotion
of
youth
clubs
and
many
of
the
Capper
farm
papers
took
a
close
interest
in
club-work
and
other
promotional
projects.
Perhaps
the
most
unique
editorial
development
in
the
Capper
Farm
Press
was
the
manner
in
which
Capper's
Farmer
attracted
and
held
the
farm
reader's
atten-
tion
by
means
of
a
series
of
articles
on
"methodizing
agriculture."
The
search
for
suitable
material
for
Capper's
Farmer,
which
led
to
a
heavy
emphasis
on
easy-to-understand
methods
of
performing
certain
agricultural
tasks,
was
inaugurated
by
Ray
Yarnell,
who
became
editor
in
1923.
Before
the
days
of
com-
mercial
hatcheries
and
the
development
of
formula
feeds
the
raising
of
chicks
had
resulted
in
only
about
55
per
cent
of
the
hatch
ever
graduating
from
the
brooder
houses.
A
Kansas
County
Agent,
J.
A.
Hendriks,
set
about
to
reduce
such
losses
by
raising
chicks
as
if
they
were
with
their
natural
mothers.
Food
was
withheld
for
the
first
two
days
and
small
quantities
were
given
out
for
the
next
week
with
slight
increases
thereafter.
After
three
years
of
testing,
Hendriks
copyrighted
his
method
and
had
it
distributed
free
to
farmers.
Kansas
Farmer
published
several
articles
on
the
Hendriks
method
before
the
first
story
appeared
in
Capper's
Farmer
in
January,
1927.
43
Capper's
Farmer
pub-
lished
case
histories
and
pictures
illustrat-
ing
the
Hendriks
method
and
readers
were
told
to
write
directly
to
the
county
agent
for
information.
Within
a
short
time,
subscribers
from
all
over
the
Mid-West
swamped
Hendriks
with
such
a
big
demand
for
information
that
further
copies
of
the
chick
-
raising
method
were
distributed
through
Capper's
Farmer."
During
the
next
15
years
approximately
300,000
copies
of
the
Hendriks
booklet
were
distributed
to
those
seeking
information.
45
The
great
and
immediate
reader
response
to
this
farming
technique
of
simple
procedural
steps
was
encouraging
to
the
editors
of
Capper's
Farmer,
but
they
did
not
fully
understand
the
possibility
of
"methodizing
agriculture"
as
a
means
of
promoting
reader
interest
in
the
periodical.
The
opportunity
for
merchandising
an-
other
technique
came
with
the
development
Al
Interviews
with
Marco
Morrow,
April
7,
1953,
Leland
Schenck,
April
7,
1953
and
Rod
Runyan,
Assistant
to
the
President
of
Capper
Publications,
April
7,
1953.
One
of
the
most
recent
letters
in
the
Capper
file,
Roy
F.
Bailey
to
Capper,
No-
vember
5,
1949,
was
the
offer
of
Better
Farms
of
Buffalo,
N.Y.
Capper's
expansion
of
his
pub-
lications
at
this
time
may
have
been
motivated
by
political
ambitions
that
reached
as
high
as
the
Presidency.
The
contract
for
the
sale
of
Oklahoma
Farm-
er,
May
21,
1924,
written
in
longhand
on
sta-
tionery
of
The
New
Willard
Hotel,
Washington,
D.C.,
is
on
file
in
the
vault
at
the
Capper
Build-
ing.
The
Oklahoma
owners
of
the
Fanner-Stock-
man
had
been
making
overtures
to
Capper
for
this
purchase
for
two
or
three
years.
The
price
was
$85,000
for
the
good
will,
name,
and
com-
plete
subscription
lists
and
Capper
agreed
in
the
contract
that
he
would
have
no
interest
in
a
rival
farm
paper
enterprise
in
Oklahoma
for
10
years.
Relations
with
the
Nebraska
Farmer
were
more
friendly
and
Samuel
R.
McKelvie,
the
owner,
was
invited
to
make
an
offer
for
Nebraska
Farm
Journal
on
the
same
day
the
transfer
was
made
in
Oklahoma.
Capper's
Farmer,
January,
1927;
Objective
Journalism
in
Action.,
n.d.,
n.p.
This
is
a
60-page,
hard-back
booklet
proclaiming
the
"projection"
of
"farming
methods"
by
Capper's
Farmer.
"Capper's
Farmer,
April,
1927.
Hendriks
had
orders
for
20,000
copies
of
his
method
before
Capper's
Farmer
took
the
responsibility
of
sending
them
to
all
who
requested
copies.
45
Objective
Journalism
in
Action,
9;
Inter-
view
with
Ray
Yarnell,
August
4,
1952.
42
AGRICULTURAL
HISTORY
of
a
method
of
reducing
turkey
losses."
Reader
response
to
an
article
on
"Why
Hatch
4
Turkeys
to
Raise
One
?"
was
so
immediate
and
widespread
that
the
editors
now
realized
that
the
presentation
of
a
simple,
step-by-step
agricultural
method
would
invoke
more
reader
interest
than
anything
formerly
used.
They
consciously
began
a
search
for
such
techniques.
In
the
next
20
years
a
total
of
20
farming
methods,
some
developed
by
agricultural
colleges
and
experiment
stations
and
some
by
private
citizens,
were
publicized
in
the
pages
of
Capper's
Farmer
and
booklets
were
distributed
to
inquiring
readers.
47
The
enthusiasm
for
"methodizing
agricul-
ture"
sometimes
led
to
exaggerated
claims
or
to
the
adoption
of
unwise
methods,
but
the
value
of
this
device
in
attracting
reader
response
cannot
be
denied.
48
The
vigorous
campaign
to
methodize
agriculture
which
was
carried
on
by
Capper's
Farmer
ap-
parently
influenced
at
least
one
competing
farm
journal
to
change
its
editorial
policy
to
conform
more
closely
to
the
same
pat-
tern.
49
The
development
of
a
research
depart-
ment
to
organize
a
more
elaborate
advertis-
ing
sales
program
came
into
being
in
Capper
Publications
at
the
close
of
World
War
I.
The
first
year
of
operation
cost
much
more
than
Capper
had
anticipated.
Consequently,
the
separate
department
was
abolished
and
the
employees
were
trans-
ferred
to
the
advertising
department
where
the
research
work
continued
often
with
a
greater
expenditure
than
had
been
the
case
in
the
first
year.
5
°
As
a
result
of
a
growing
need
for
additional
information,
Capper
Publica-
tions
organized
a
new
central
Research
Department
in
1946.
51
The
new
department
grew
rapidly
and
was
ever
on
the
alert
to
justify
its
existence.
Every
bit
of
research
had
to
make
a
commercial
contribution.
Research
reports
which
did
not
sell
adver-
tising
were
considered
a
waste
of
money.
Stress
was
placed
on
the
importance
of
the
small-town
and
rural
market.
Advertising
agencies
were
generally
located
in
large
urban
centers
and
Capper's
Research
De-
partment
thought
of
itself
as
fighting
inertia
in
national
advertising
which
pic-
tured
the
farmer
as
largely
self-sufficient
or
at
least
responsive
to
appeals
directed
at
metropolitan
mass
markets.
52
To
prove
this
point,
factual
data
were
obtained
to
show
that
farmers
as
a
group
had
changed
from
a
mass
to
a
quality
market.
Reports
were
stylized
by
1948
so
that
a
busy
ad-
vertising
executive
could
find
information
with
a
minimum
of
effort.
Preparation
of
the
more
elaborate
reports
took
from
1,000
to
2,000
hours.
One
such
report
mak-
ing
use
of
the
regular
Census
of
Agricul-
ture
analyzed
the
income
level
of
individual
farms
in
each
of
the
more
than
3,000
counties
in
the
United
States.
Further
examination
of
the
counties
where
the
level
of
income
was
high
enough
to
place
a
large
percentage
of
farms
in
the
market
for
advertised
products
shows
a
remarkable
similarity
to
the
area
of
major
circulation
The
first
article
on
reducing
turkey
loses,
using
the
method
of
Dr.
W.
A.
Billings,
was
pub-
lished
in
Successful
Farming,
March,
1927.
Cap-
per's
Farmer
took
up
the
story
with
its
January,
1928,
issue.
"
Memo
to
Board
of
Directors
of
Capper
Pub-
lication's,
Inc.,
from
Ray
Yarnell,
n.d.,
c(Febru-
ary)
1941,
in
Capper
file;
Capper's
Farmer,
June
1937,
and
August,
1939.
'Letters
from
Ray
Yarnell
to
Chester
Davis,
March
27,
April
12,
and
April
23,
1934,
National
Archives;
copy
of
letter
from
A.
H.
Lauterback,
Chief,
Dairy
Section,
U.S.D.A.,
to
Ray
Yarnell,
June
26,
1934,
National
Archives;
interview
with
Loyal
F.
Payne,
then
Head
of
Department
of
Poultry
Husbandry,
Kansas
State
College,
De-
cember
17,
1953.
'
Successful
Farming
during
1941
began
to
publicize
new
"management
routines"
which
could
be
used
to
advantage
by
the
farmer.
See
issues
of
February,
July,
and
November,
1941,
and
all
issues
of
1942.
While
this
may
be
mere
coincidence,
the
change
was
apparent.
fiOInterview
with
Marco
Morrow,
August
1,
1952.
'Letter
from
Henry
Blake,
Vice
President
of
Capper
Publications,
to
Conrad
Taeuber,
Assistant
to
the
Director,
Bureau
of
Agricultural
Econom-
ics,
U.S.D.A.,
Washington,
n.d.,
c(September)
1945
National
Archiyes.
This
letter
described
plans
then
under
way
for
the
formation
of
a
central
department
of
research,
which
resulted
in
the
department's
beginning
in
1946.
52
Interview
with
Victor
Hawkins,
Director
of
Research
for
Capper
Publications,
July
10,
1952.
DEVELOPMENT
OF
THE
CAPPER
FARM
PRESS
43
of
Capper's
Farmer.
53
Thus,
the
research
always
showed
the
practical
purpose
of
trying
to
sell
advertising
space
in
one
or
all
of
the
Capper
media.
Capper
came
into
the
field
of
agricul-
tural
journalism
in
1900,
when
farm
papers
were
numerous
and
usually
of
small
cir-
culation.
By
1950
the
remaining
general
farm
periodicals
all
over
the
country
were
well-entrenched
and
were
properties
of
outstanding
worth.
Capper
's
farm
press
had
expanded
outside
the
area
of
the
Missouri
Valley
with
the
purchase
of
the
"Eastern
trio"
and
with
the
expansion
of
Capper's
Farmer.
The
total
circulation
for
the
six
members
of
the
Capper
Farm
Press,
by
1950,
was
slightly
more
than
two
million.
The
purchase
of
Country
Gentle-
man
by
Farm
Journal
in
1955,
combined
the
two
companies
having
the
largest
cir-
culation
in
agricultural
journalism
;
hence,
Capper
Publications
moved
into
the
second
ranking
position
in
the
field.
54
In
1950,
the
Capper
Publications
con-
sisted
of
two
daily
newspapers,
a
monthly
home
magazine,
a
weekly,
a
printing
com-
pany,
an
engraving
company,
and
two
radio
stations
in
addition
to
the
farm
publications.
The
number
of
employees
had
grown
to
more
than
a
thousand.
When
Capper
died
in
1951
the
ownership
of
his
vast
system
was
bequeathed
to
a
surviving
sister
and
to
29
employees
on
condition
that
they
were
living
and
in
the
employ
of
Capper
at
the
time
of
his
death.
55
About
half
of
the
employes
identified
in
the
will
qualified
for
their
bequests.
Final
settle-
ment
of
the
will
was
not
completed
before
the
death,
in
1956,
of
Henry
Blake,
execu-
tor
of
the
Capper
estate
and
President
of
Capper
Publications.
56
Late
in
1956,
with
the
estate
settled,
announcements
were
made
of
the
sale
of
the
entire
enterprise
to
Stauffer
Publications,
headed
by
Oscar
S.
Stauffer,
a
long-time
member
of
the
State
Board
of
Regents
in
Kansas
and
a
leading
Middle
Western
publisher
and
radio
owner.
57
Final
arrangements
were
completed
and
the
transfer
of
ownership
was
made
February
2,
1957.
58
Stauffer,
like
Capper
on
similar
occasions,
announced
that
there
would
be
a
continuation
of
many
of
the
policies
of
the
past."
Thus
the
Capper
heritage
still
remains
with
his
six
farm
papers.
See
Counties
of
the
United
States
Classified
by
Farm
Income
Quality
Groups,
Research
De-
partment
Report
Number
550,
Capper
Publica-
tions,
Inc.,
Topeka,
Kansas,
n.d.
The
1945
Census
of
Agriculture
was
used
for
this
report.
51
N.
W.
Ayer
and
Sons,
Directory
of
News-
papers
and
Periodicals,
1956
(Philadelphia,
1956.)
Topeka
Daily
Capital,
December
28,
1951.
'Ibid.,
March
23,
1956.
Ibid.,
December
21,
1956.
The
FCC
was
ad-
vised
that
Stauffer
was
paying
$2,498,675
for
the
stock
of
Capper
Publications;
Editor
and
Publisher,
September
22,
1956,
9,
reported
that
Capper
Publications
was
sold
to
the
Stauffer
group
for
an
amount
in
excess
of
$7,000,006.
The
Editor
and
Publisher,
November
17,
42,
verified
this
total
and
reported
that
ni/2
million
was
be-
ing
paid
for
Capper
stock
and
the
purchaser
would
assume
obligations
amounting
to
$4
1
/
2
million.
Stauffer
Publications
showed
a
balance
sheet,
as
of
September
30,
1956,
of
total
assets
of
$3,157,580.
Two
million
dollars
was
borrowed
from
a
Chicago
investment
banking
firm
to
finance
the
purchase
of
the
Capper
stock.
Topeka
Daily
Capital,
February
2,
1957.
'
The
Kansas
Publisher,
October,
1956,
11.
FOOLING
THE
GOVERNMENT
INSPECTORS
IN
PIONEER
OREGON
The
law
required
that
each
man,
to
prove
up
on
his
homestead
claim,
must
have
at
least
one
glass
window
in
the
house.
Several
families
. .
.
went
together
in
the
purchase
of
a
glass
window.
As
a
man
got
ready
to
prove
up
on
his
claim,
he
bor-
rowed
the
window,
put
it
up,
and
invited
the
inspectors.
After
their
visit,
he
took
the
window
down,
put
it
under
the
bed
ready
for
the
next
homesteader,
and
nailed
up
a
sheep
hide
to
keep
the
wind
out.
—Elizabeth
Gedney
in
Oregon
Historical
Quarterly,
Vol.
43,
1942.