Petrogenesis of lunar highlands meteorites; Dhofar 025, Dhofar 081, Dar al Gani 262, and Dar al Gani 400


Cahill, J.T.; Floss, C.; Anand, M.; Taylor, L.A.; Nazarov, M.A.; Cohen, B.A.

Meteoritics and Planetary Science 39(4): 503-529

2004


The petrogenesis of four lunar highlands meteorites, Dhofar 025 (Dho 025), Dhofar 081 (Dho 081), Dar al Gani 262 (DaG 262), and Dar al Gani 400 (DaG 400) were studied. For Dho 025, measured oxygen isotopic values and Fe-Mn ratios for mafic minerals provide corroboratory evidence that it originated on the Moon. Similarly, Fe-Mn ratios in the mafic minerals of Dho 081 indicate lunar origin. Lithologies in Dho 025 and Dho 081 include lithic clasts, granulites, and mineral fragments. A large number of lithic clasts have plagioclase AN# and coexisting mafic mineral Mg# that plot within the "gap" separating ferroan anorthosite suite (FAN) and high-magnesium suite (HMS) rocks. This is consistent with whole rock Ti-Sm ratios for Dho 025, Dho 081, and DaG 262, which are also intermediate compared to FAN and HMS lithologies. Although ion microprobe analyses performed on Dho 025, Dho 081, DaG 262, and DaG 400 clasts and minerals show far stronger FAN affinities than whole rock data suggest, most clasts indicate admixture of < or =12% HMS component based on geochemical modeling. In addition, coexisting plagioclase-pyroxene REE concentration ratios in several clasts were compared to experimentally determined plagioclase-pyroxene REE distribution coefficient ratios. Two Dho 025 clasts have concordant plagioclase-pyroxene profiles, indicating that equilibrium between these minerals has been sustained despite shock metamorphism. One clast has an intermediate FAN-HMS composition. These lunar meteorites appear to represent a type of highland terrain that differs substantially from the KREEP-signatured impact breccias that dominate the lunar database. From remote sensing data, it is inferred that the lunar far side appears to have appropriate geochemical signatures and lithologies to be the source regions for these rocks; although, the near side cannot be completely excluded as a possibility. If these rocks are, indeed, from the far side, their geochemical characteristics may have far-reaching implications for our current scientific understanding of the Moon.

Meteoritics
&
Planetary
Science
39,
Nr
4,503-529
(2004)
Abstract
available
online
at
http://meteoritics.org
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites:
Dhofar
025,
Dhofar
081,
Dar
al
Gani
262,
and
Dar
al
Gani
400
J.
T.
CAHILL,
1,
2*
C.
FLOSS,
3
M.
ANAND,
1
L.
A.
TAYLOR,
1
M.
A.
NAZAROV,
4
and
B.
A.
COHEN
5
'Planetary
Geosciences
Institute,
Department
of
Earth
and
Planetary
Sciences,
University
of
Tennessee,
Knoxville,
Tennessee
37996,
USA
2
Hawaii
Institute
of
Geophysics
and
Planetology,
University
of
Hawaii,
Honolulu,
Hawaii
96822,
USA
3
Laboratory
for
Space
Sciences,
Washington
University,
St.
Louis,
Missouri
63130,
USA
4
Vernadsky
Institute
of
Geochemistry
and
Analytical
Chemistry,
Russian
Academy
of
Sciences,
Moscow
117975,
Russia
5
Department
of
Earth
and
Planetary
Sciences
MSC03-2040,
University
of
New
Mexico,
Albuquerque,
New
Mexico
87131-0001,
USA
*
Corresponding
author.
E-mail:
(Received
14
November
2002;
revision
accepted
1
March
2004)
Abstract—The
petrogenesis
of
four
lunar
highlands
meteorites,
Dhofar
025
(Dho
025),
Dhofar
081
(Dho
081),
Dar
al
Gani
262
(DaG
262),
and
Dar
al
Gani
400
(DaG
400)
were
studied.
For
Dho
025,
measured
oxygen
isotopic
values
and
Fe-Mn
ratios
for
mafic
minerals
provide
corroboratory
evidence
that
it
originated
on
the
Moon.
Similarly,
Fe-Mn
ratios
in
the
mafic
minerals
of
Dho
081
indicate
lunar
origin.
Lithologies
in
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
include
lithic
clasts,
granulites,
and
mineral
fragments.
A
large
number
of
lithic
clasts
have
plagioclase
AN#
and
coexisting
mafic
mineral
Mg#
that
plot
within
the
"gap"
separating
ferroan
anorthosite
suite
(FAN)
and
high-magnesium
suite
(HMS)
rocks.
This
is
consistent
with
whole
rock
Ti-Sm
ratios
for
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
and
DaG
262,
which
are
also
intermediate
compared
to
FAN
and
HMS
lithologies.
Although
ion
microprobe
analyses
performed
on
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
clasts
and
minerals
show
far
stronger
FAN
affinities
than
whole
rock
data
suggest,
most
clasts
indicate
admixture
of
12%
HMS
component
based
on
geochemical
modeling.
In
addition,
coexisting
plagioclase-pyroxene
REE
concentration
ratios
in
several
clasts
were
compared
to
experimentally
determined
plagioclase-pyroxene
REE
distribution
coefficient
ratios.
Two
Dho
025
clasts
have
concordant
plagioclase-pyroxene
profiles,
indicating
that
equilibrium
between
these
minerals
has
been
sustained
despite
shock
metamorphism.
One
clast
has
an
intermediate
FAN-HMS
composition.
These
lunar
meteorites
appear
to
represent
a
type
of
highland
terrain
that
differs
substantially
from
the
KREEP-signatured
impact
breccias
that
dominate
the
lunar
database.
From
remote
sensing
data,
it
is
inferred
that
the
lunar
far
side
appears
to
have
appropriate
geochemical
signatures
and
lithologies
to
be
the
source
regions
for
these
rocks;
although,
the
near
side
cannot
be
completely
excluded
as
a
possibility.
If
these
rocks
are,
indeed,
from
the
far
side,
their
geochemical
characteristics
may
have
far-reaching
implications
for
our
current
scientific
understanding
of
the
Moon.
INTRODUCTION
Despite
contributions
from
the
Apollo
and
Luna
missions,
two-thirds
of
the
mare
regions
and
the
entire
far
side
of
the
Moon
are
not
represented
in
the
lunar
database
(Pieters
1978).
Furthermore,
Clementine
and
Lunar
Prospector
remote
sensing
data
indicate
that
the
near
and
far
sides
are
substantially
different
in
terms
of
inferred
chemical
composition
and
lithologies
(Spudis
et
al.
2000,
2002).
Thus,
it
is
likely
that
our
understanding
of
the
lunar
geologic
processes
and
history
is
incomplete.
However,
newly
discovered
lunar
meteorites
could
potentially
supply
the
samples
necessary
to
characterize
previously
unsampled
terrains
of
the
Moon.
Recent
meteorite
finds
from
the
Dhofar
region
of
Oman
(which
account
for
nearly
half
of
the
30
known
lunar
meteorites)
may
represent
such
samples.
In
this
study,
we
have
examined
the
mineralogy
and
petrology
of
the
four
highland
breccia
meteorites
Dhofar
025
(Dho
025),
Dhofar
081
(Dho
081),
Dar
al
Gani
262
(DaG
262),
and
Dar
al
Gani
400
(DaG
400).
We
have
used
geochemical
(major,
minor,
and
trace
element)
analyses
of
bulk
rock
and
individual
mineral
grains
to:
1)
provide
503
©
Meteoritical
Society,
2004.
Printed
in
USA.
504
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
evidence
for
the
lunar
origin
of
these
rocks;
2)
distinguish
between
mare
and
highland
clasts;
3)
identify
the
clasts
least
affected
by
shock
metamorphism;
4)
infer
near
or
far
side
origins
for
these
rocks;
and
5)
determine
how
this
information
can
further
improve
our
current
understanding
of
the
Moon.
ANALYTICAL
TECHNIQUES
Thin
sections
of
each
meteorite
were
examined
with
an
optical
microscope
using
transmitted
and
reflected
light.
Major
and
minor
element
mineral
compositions
of
plagioclase,
olivine,
and
pyroxene
in
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
were
determined
on
a
fully
automated
CAMECA
SX-50
electron
microprobe
at
the
University
of
Tennessee
using
an
accelerating
voltage
of
15
kV.
For
plagioclase
analyses,
a
beam
current
of
20
nA
and
a
spot
size
of
5
gm
was
used.
Other
minerals
were
analyzed
with
a
beam
current
of
30
nA
and
a
2
gm
spot
size.
The
counting
times
were
20
sec
for
all
elements
analyzed
in
plagioclase
and
30
sec
for
elements
in
all
other
minerals.
Standard
online
matrix
corrections
(PAP)
were
applied
to
all
analyses.
The
oxygen
isotopic
composition
of
Dho
025
was
determined
at
the
University
of
Chicago.
Separate
splits
weighing
-10
mg
were
analyzed
using
the
procedure
outlined
by
Clayton
and
Mayeda
(1983,
1996).
The
whole
rock
chemical
composition
of
Dho
025
was
determined
at
the
Vernadsky
Institute,
Moscow,
Russia.
An
aliquot
of
a
1-g
sample
was
powdered
in
an
agate
mortar
to
obtain
homogeneous
material
for
whole
rock
analyses.
Silicon,
Ti,
Al,
Cr,
Fe,
Mn,
Mg,
and
Ca
were
determined
by
XRF
and
ICP.
Sodium
and
K
were
measured
by
atomic
absorption.
Trace
elements
were
analyzed
by
instrumental
neutron
activation
analysis
(INAA).
Minor
and
trace
element
(including
REE)
concentrations
were
determined
for
selected
mineral
grains
and
clasts
in
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
using
the
modified
CAMECA
IMS
3f
ion-microprobe
at
Washington
University,
St.
Louis
following
the
methods
outlined
by
Zinner
and
Crozaz
(1986a).
Analyses
were
obtained
using
an
0
-
beam
with
an
accelerating
voltage
of
12.5
kV.
Secondary
ions
were
collected
at
low
mass
resolution
using
energy
filtering
(100
V
offset)
to
remove
complex
molecular
interferences.
Simple
interferences
not
removed
by
this
method
were
corrected
by
deconvolution
of
major
molecular
interferences
in
the
mass
regions
K-Ca-Ti,
Rb-Sr-Y-Zr,
and
Ba-REEs
(Alexander
1994).
Concentrations
were
obtained
using
sensitivity
factors
reported
by
Floss
and
Jolliff
(1998),
Hzu
(1995),
and
Zinner
and
Crozaz
(1986b)
for
the
REE
and
by
Hsu
(1995)
for
other
elements.
All
mineral
analyses
were
normalized
to
the
reference
element,
Si,
using
Si0
2
concentrations
determined
by
electron
microprobe.
Polymineralic
clast
analyses
were
normalized
using
an
Si0
2
concentration
of
50
wt%,
a
value
that
should
be
fairly
representative
of
the
average
Si0
2
concentrations
of
the
clasts,
based
on
the
abundances
of
the
minerals
present
(plagioclase,
pyroxene,
and
olivine)
and
their
average
Si0
2
concentrations
(44
wt%,
50
wt%,
and
35
wt%,
respectively).
This
approach
may
overestimate
the
trace
element
concentrations
of
clasts
with
high
proportions
of
plagioclase
and
olivine,
but
the
effect
should
be
less
than
15%
in
most
clasts.
Some
error
may
also
be
introduced
by
the
fact
that
different
minerals
in
the
matrices
of
polymineralic
clasts
have
different
ion
yields,
but
it
is
difficult
to
estimate
the
magnitude
of
this
effect.
However,
we
note
that
the
difference
in
relative
sensitivity
factors
between
various
REE
is
<30%
for
a
wide
variety
of
standards
(including
oxides,
silicates,
and
glass)
and,
thus,
relative
REE
concentrations
(i.e.,
the
shapes
of
the
patterns)
are
not
affected
by
this
approach.
PETROGRAPHY
AND
MINERAL
CHEMISTRY
Dho
025,
an
anorthositic
regolith
breccia
weighing
751
g,
was
found
in
Dhofar,
Oman
in
January
of
2000
(Grossman
2000).
Dho
081,
a
shocked, feldspathic
fragmental
highlands
breccia,
was
discovered
a
year
earlier.
The
cosmogenic
exposure
age
for
Dho
025
is
between
13-20
Myr
(Nishiizumi
et
al.
2002).
However,
for
Dho
081,
the
transition
time
between
the
Moon
and
the
Earth
was
too
short
for
detectable
amounts
of
long-lived
nuclides
to
be
produced
(Nishiizumi
et
al.
2002).
The
lithologies
present
in
these
two
meteorites
include:
1)
lithic
clasts,
2)
granulites,
and
3)
mineral
fragments.
A
summary
of
clast
types
and
their
mineral
compositions
is
listed
in
Table
Al.
Lithic
clasts
are
the
dominant
lithology
in
Dho
025
(Figs.
la—lb).
These
clasts
are
partially
recrystallized
monomict
and
polymict
rocks
with
anorthositic
to
troctolitic-anorthosite
compositions.
Monomict
rocks
consist
of
single-crystal
plagioclase
with
subhedral
to
spherical
mafic
inclusions
(Figs.
1
c-1
d),
similar
to
rocks
from
North Ray
Crater
(Norman
1981).
These
clasts
are
100-200
gm
in
size
and
are
predominantly
plagioclase
(AN#
96-98)
with
olivine
inclusions
of
homogenous
composition
(Fo
69-80).
Polymict
rocks
range
from
recrystallized
anorthosites
to
microporphyritic
crystalline
melt-rocks.
They
consist
mainly
of
plagioclase
(AN#
94-98),
with
minor
amounts
of
mafic
minerals
(Mg#
64-83)
(Fig.
2a).
Mafic
minerals
in
these
clasts
have
subhedral
shapes
due
to
interaction
with
an
impact
melt.
Only
one
granulitic
troctolite
clast
was
observed
in
Dho
025
(Fig.
l
e).
It
has
a
granoblastic
texture
(Cushing
et
al.
1999)
and
consists
of
plagioclase
(AN#
96)
and
olivine
(Fo
79)
grains.
Mineral
fragments
(Fig.
1f)
present
in
the
breccia
matrix
include
plagioclase
(AN#
95-98),
orthopyroxene
(Mg#
—75),
pigeonite
(Mg#
65-69),
and
augite
(Mg#
66-80).
Accessory
minerals
include
spinel,
ilmenite,
FeNi
metal,
troilite,
and
silica.
Akaganeite
((3-Fe0OH)
occurs
as
rims
on
FeNi
metal
grains
and
is
most
likely
of
terrestrial
origin.
Other
terrestrial
alteration
products
(calcite,
celestite,
and
gypsum)
are
also
present
in
the
meteorite,
mainly
filling
cracks.
Compared
to
Dho
025,
Dho
081
is
poor
in
mafic
mineral
(e)
PI
atrix
Clast
100
microns
ti
100
microns
t
.
0I
PI
tY
'
r.
50
microns
..
-
Fragerie
100
microns
Mast
PI
t•
c
100
microns
t
t
i
50
microns
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
505
Fig.
1.
Backscattered
electron
images
of
lunar
meteorite
Dho
025:
a
and
b)
lithic
clasts
with
embayed
mafic
minerals
resulting
from
interaction
with
impact
melt.
These
clasts
are
surrounded
by
a
fine-grained
and
glassy
meteorite
matrix;
c
and
d)
two
single-crystal
plagioclase
clasts
with
spherical
olivine
inclusions;
e)
granulite
clast
consisting
of
plagioclase
and
olivine
mineralogy
and
exhibiting
a
granoblastic
texture;
f)
bimineralic
pyroxene
fragment
consisting
of
augite
and
orthopyroxene.
i
V
V
V
V
V
506
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
(a)
Di
Dhofar
025
0
o
0
0
0
o
O
cc)
En
V
V
V V
10
5
11
I
Fa
0
I
17
F
100
40
20
811
60
(b)
Di
Dhofar
081
e
cicc°06
0
se:
En
10
Fo
11
,
NO
40
20
Fig.
2.
Pyroxene
and
olivine
major
element
compositions
for
lunar
meteorites
(a)
Dho
025
and
(b)
Dho
081.
Fa
Fs
constituents.
Lithic
clasts
in
this
breccia
are
partially
recrystallized
anorthosites
that
dominantly
consist
of
plagioclase
(AN#
94-97),
with
embayed
and/or
zoned
mafic
minerals
(Figs.
3a-3c).
Olivine
is
the
most
abundant
mafic
mineral
(Fo
56-83),
while
pyroxene
(Mg#
58-78)
is
a
minor
constituent
in
these
clasts
(Fig.
2b).
Granulite
lithologies
in
Dho
081
range
from
200-500
gm
in
size
and
have
granoblastic
textures
(Fig.
3d).
Though
consisting
mostly
of
plagioclase
(AN#
96-97),
these
clasts
also
contain
fine-
grained
olivines
with
compositions
of
Fo
70-75.
The
majority
of
Dho
081
clasts
are
individual
mineral
fragments
(Figs.
3e-
3f).
Plagioclase
fragments
(AN#
94-98)
are
most
abundant,
while
mafic
mineral
fragments
are
mainly
olivine,
often
with
pyroxene
rims.
Olivine
fragments
commonly
exhibit
reverse
zoning
(e.g.,
core:
Fo
—71
versus
rim:
Fo
—80).
One
olivine
grain
(-350
gm;
Fig.
3e)
in
particular
is
characterized
by
a
(a)
Clas
Matrix
P
50
microns
(c)
Cla
Pi
Px
Matrix
100
microns
atrix
P1
Fo
7
50
microns
Matrix
I
d
50
microns
(b)
clast
'
s*
Matrix
50
microns
(d)
4
ast
Mat
41
50
microns
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
507
Fig.
3.
Backscattered
electron
images
of
lunar
meteorite
Dho
081:
a—c)
mafic-poor
lithic
clasts;
d)
granoblastic
granulite
with
fine-grained
olivine
mineralogy;
e)
backscattered
electron
image
of
a
heavily
melted
and
embayed
relic
olivine
mineral
fragment
with
several
vesicles
in
and
around
the
edges.
This
olivine
fragment
has
reverse
zonation
(core:
Fo
—50;
rims:
Fo
—70)
probably
due
to
re-equilibration
with
the
impact
melt
matrix;
f)
olivine
mineral
fragment
with
chromite
vein.
Lithic
Cfasts
Granulites
Mafic
Mineral
Fragments
_
1111111111
1
1
1
111111
Plagioclase
Mineral
_
6-
Fragments
11
Dhofar
025L
HM
S
FAN
8
6
4
2
#
o
f
Gra
ins
90
80
it
7
a)
60
50
#
o
f
Gra
ins
It
2
508
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
compositional
variance
of
Fo
—20
from
core
to
rim
(i.e.,
Fo
—50
to
Fo
—70).
Reverse
zoning
is
likely
due
to
interaction
with
an
impact
melt.
Monomineralic
pyroxene
grains
are
also
compositionally
variable
(Mg#
41-72).
Accessory
minerals
in
the
meteorite
matrix
include
Cr-spinel,
Ti-chromite,
and
troilite.
Lunar
meteorites
DaG
262
and
DaG
400
are
also
anorthositic
breccias
(Bischoff
et
al.
1998;
Zipfel
et
al.
1998).
In
the
present
study,
we
have
only
made
trace
element
measurements
in
a
number
of
DaG
262
and
DaG
400
clasts.
Bischoff
et
al.
(1998)
carried
out
a
detailed
characterization
of
the
types
of
clasts
present
in
DaG
262
and
their
mineral
chemistries
and
note
that
this
meteorite
is
dominated
by
feldspathic,
fine-grained
to
microporphyritic
crystalline
melt
clasts.
Granulitic
clasts,
as
well
as
recrystallized
and
cataclastic
anorthosites,
are
also present,
but
mafic
mineral-
rich
clasts
are
rare.
Plagioclase
is
highly
anorthitic
(AN#
95),
and
mafic
minerals
(olivine
and
pyroxene)
have
Mg#s
ranging
from
50
to
70
(Jolliff
et
al.
1999),
suggesting
an
affinity
to
the
ferroan
anorthosite
(FAN)
suite
for
much
of
the
material
in
this
meteorite.
Similarly,
DaG
400
is
dominated
by
anorthositic
clasts,
most
of
which
are
fine-grained
to
microporphyritic
impact
melt
clasts
(Zipfel
et
al.
1998).
Recrystallized
anorthosites,
granulites,
and
mineral
fragments
are
also
present,
but
as
in
DaG
262
and
Dho
081,
mafic
lithologies
are
rare.
Plagioclase
in
all
DaG
400
lithologies
ranges
from
AN
94-98
(Semenova
et
al.
2000).
Mafic
minerals
associated
with
anorthosites
(which
make
up
95%
of
all
clasts)
have
more
ferroan
compositions
(in
the
FAN
range)
than
anorthositic
norites
and
troctolites,
which
fall
in
the
FAN-
high
magnesium
suite
(HMS)
"gap"
(Semenova
et
al.
2000).
Like
DaG
400,
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
have
lithologies
with
strong
FAN
affinities,
but
some
clasts
plot
within
the
FAN-HMS
gap
(Figs.
4
and
5).
Traditionally,
pristine
Apollo
and
Luna
rocks,
as
well
as
other
lunar
meteorites
have
plotted
within
the
FAN
and
HMS
envelopes.
Rocks
that
plot
in
between
(i.e.,
in
the
FAN-HMS
gap)
have
been
classified
under
the
general
term
"lunar
granulites"
(Bickel
and
Warner
1978;
Lindstrom
and
Lindstrom
1986;
Norman
1981).
Several
other
recent
characterizations
of
minerals
in
lunar
meteorites
have
revealed
clast
compositions
plotting
regularly
in
this
gap
but
without
textures
typical
of
granulites
(Cushing
et
al.
1999).
Meteorites
that
display
these
gap
compositions
without
characteristic
granulitic
textures
include
three
of
the
four
lunar
meteorites
in
this
study
(DaG
400,
Dho
025,
and
Dho
081)
and
several
other
Dhofar
meteorites
(Dho
280,
Dho
301,
Dho
302,
and
Dho
303)
(Anand
et
al.
2002;
Nazarov
et
al.
2002;
Semenova
et
al.
2000).
Since
the
clasts
in
these
meteorites
show
neither
pristine
nor
granulitic
textures,
we
have
classified
them
as
mixed
impactites.
This
designation
denotes
the
possibility
that
these
clasts
are
mixtures
of
FAN
and
HMS
components
created
by
impact
melting.
However,
the
possibility
exists
that
these
clasts
may
retain
information
from
pristine
crustal
80 85
90
95
2
4
6
8
AN
#
of
Grains
Fig.
4.
Mafic
phase
(olivine
and
pyroxenes)
Mg#
versus
AN#
in
plagioclase
for
Dho
025
clasts.
Compositional
fields
for
FAN
and
HMS
rock
suites
are
shown
for
comparison
(Warren
1985).
Mg#
for
mafic
mineral
fragments
that
lack
coexisting
plagioclase
grains
are
shown
on
the
right
portion
of
the
diagram,
and
AN#
for
plagioclase
fragments
lacking
coexisting
mafic
mineral
grains
are
shown
on
the
top
portion
of
the
diagram.
11111
1
11111
6
4
Plagioclase
Mineral
Fragments
Mil
1
II
-
Dhofar
081
11
Ii1
80
HMS
7
FAN
60
0
50
Mafic
Lithic
Clasts
Mineral
Granulites
Fragments
40
11.11.111.11 JJJJJJJ
1
111111111
80
85
90
95
2
4
6
8
AN
#
of
Grains
Fig.
5.
Mg#
versus
AN#
plot
for
Dho
081
clasts.
The
symbols
and
fields
are
the
same
as
in
Fig.
4.
-
(a)
.
Chondrites
Mars
Earth
Moon
Dh-025
Pyroxenes
i
i
(b)
.
.
Chondrites
ars
Earth
o
Moon
o
c5
/
Dh-081
Pyroxenes
I
i
(c)
.
Chondrites
Mars
Earth
Moon
Dh-025
Olivine
.
.
.
(d)
Chondrites
Mars
rth
Moon
c?
+
Error
Dh-081
Olivine
.
. .
0.03
0.02
Mn
(afu)
0.01
0.03
0.02
Mn
(afu)
0.01
0
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
509
lithologies.
Therefore,
both
possibilities
were
investigated
further
using
whole
rock,
clast,
and
mineral
composition
data.
EVIDENCE
FOR
LUNAR
ORIGIN
Fe-Mn
Ratios
It
is
well
known
that
Fe
and
Mn
distributions
in
some
minerals
are
diagnostic
of
their
parent
bodies
(Laul
et
al.
1972).
Conditions
of
the
initial
accreted
material,
the
extent
of
core
formation,
and
the
oxygen
fugacity
of
a
particular
body
constrain
the
Fe-Mn
ratios
of
the
parent
body
(Papike
1998).
In
the
case
of
the
Moon,
an
additional
factor
affecting
Fe-Mn
distributions
among
minerals
may
have
been
the
loss
of
relatively
volatile
Mn
during
the
Moon-forming
impact
event
(Papike
1998;
Papike
et
al.
2003).
Figure
6
shows
the
Fe-Mn
ratios
of
olivines
and
pyroxenes
from
Dho
025
and
Dho
081.
Although
olivines
from
both
meteorites
plot
along
the
lunar
trend,
pyroxenes
appear
to
have
slightly
elevated
Mn
with
average
pyroxene
Fe-Mn
ratios
in
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
of
49.7
and
52.3,
respectively.
These
observations
may
indicate
that
fractionation
of
Fe
and
Mn
in
olivine
differs
slightly
from
that
of
pyroxene.
However,
this
is
difficult
to
determine
considering
the
low
concentrations
of
both
Fe
and
Mn
in
these
minerals.
A
simpler
explanation
may
be
that
the
observed
variations
are
due
to
the
difference
in
lithologies
analyzed
in
this
study
compared
to
that
by
Papike
(1998)
(i.e.,
anorthosite
versus
basalt),
which
established
the
basis
for
such
discriminations.
Differences
between
these
two
rock
types
in
starting
bulk
composition
or
subsequent
crystallization
sequences
may
account
for
the
elevated
levels
of
Mn.
Nonetheless,
the
average
Fe-Mn
ratios
in
the
olivine
and
pyroxene
of
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
(86.0
and
87.9,
respectively)
are
consistent
with
Apollo
and
Luna
rocks.
Furthermore,
the
whole
rock
Fe-Mn
ratio
for
Dho
025
is
65.7,
similar
to
the
lunar
meteorite
average
of
70
(Palme
et
al.
1991).
Oxygen
Isotopes
The
Dho
025
oxygen
isotope
composition
is
8
18
0
=
+5.47%o
and
8
17
0
=
+2.81%0
(Taylor
et
al.
2001).
This
composition
lies
along
the
terrestrial-lunar
fractionation
line
(TLFL)
(Fig.
7)
and
is
consistent
with
results
for
other
lunar
meteorites
including
DaG
262
and
DaG
400.
In
addition,
the
oxygen
isotope
data
also
agree
with
those
of
Apollo
mare
basalts
and
highlands
rocks.
Minor
deviations
from
the
TLFL
are
attributed
to
desert
weathering
influences
(Stelzner
et
al.
1999).
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
Fe
{afu)
Fe
(afu)
Fig.
6.
Fe-Mn
ratios
for
Dho
025
and
Dho
081:
a
and
b)
pyroxene;
c
and
d)
olivine.
The
Fe-Mn
ratios
in
olivines
are
typical
of
lunar
rocks.
However,
the
Mn
concentrations
in
pyroxenes
for
both
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
are
slightly
elevated.
The
Fe-Mn
trends
for
various
planetary
bodies
are
from
Papike
(1988)
and
Papike
et
al.
(2003).
,,,,
I:
Apollo
mare
basalts
-
0
Apollo
highland
rocks
_
0
Lunar
meteorites
1
I I
DaG
262
DaG
400
-
cb
C
ccD
0
Dh-025
CH
Ra
G
262
Terrestrial-Lunar
Fractionation
Line
I
Imiji
I
Combined
Errors
510
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
3.45
0
3.25
Vi
i;
3.05
a
a
2.85
2.65
2.45
4.8
5.2
5.6
6
6.4
6.8
6
18
0
(%
rel.
SMOW)
Fig.
7.
The
oxygen
isotopic
composition
of
Dho
025
compared
to
other
lunar
meteorites,
Apollo
mare
basalts,
and
Apollo
highland
rocks
(Arai
and
Warren
1999;
Clayton
and
Mayeda
1983,
1996;
Fagan
et
al.
2000,
2001a;
Kaiden
and
Kojima
2002;
Kojima
and
Imae
2001;
Wiechert
et
al.
2001).
Data
for
DaG
262
and
400
were
reported
by
Bischoff
et
al.
(1998)
and
Zipfel
et
al.
(1998),
respectively.
One
analyses
of
DaG
262
was
made
at
Chicago
University
(CH)
and
one
at
Open
University
(OU).
WHOLE
ROCK
COMPOSITIONS
The
whole
rock
composition
of
Dho
025
was
compared
to
those
of
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
DaG
400,
other
lunar
highlands
and
mare
meteorites,
as
well
as
Apollo
samples
(Table
1).
Most
of
the
known
lunar
meteorites
(-80%)
are
breccias
or
impact
melts
with
highlands
characteristics
(e.g.,
Dho
026,
MAC
88104/5,
Y-86032,
Y-82192,
ALH
A81005,
Y-791197,
and
QUE
93069).
However,
some
lunar
meteorites
(e.g.,
Dho
287,
QUE
94281,
Y-793272,
Y-981031,
EET
87521,
EET
96008,
A-881757,
and
NWA
032)
contain
substantial
mare
basalt
components.
Highlands
rocks
and
mare
basalts
can
have
similar
trends
on
Mg#
versus
AN#
plots,
but
they
can
be
distinguished
by
their
Fe-Sc
ratios
(Palme
et
al.
1991).
Figure
8
shows
that
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
have
similar
Fe-Sc
ratios,
close
to
the
typical
highland
average
of
—4000.
Figure
9
compares
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
DaG
400,
and
other
lunar
highland
meteorites
with
highlands
regolith
samples
from
the
Apollo
14
and
16
sites
(Korotev
1997;
Warren
and
Wasson
1980).
Using
these
diagrams,
the
relative
proportions
of
modal
pyroxene
(Sc,
Sm)
and
plagioclase
(A1
2
0
3
)
can
be
inferred.
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
have
similar
concentrations
of
Sc
and
A1
2
0
3
to
Apollo
16
regolith
breccias
(Fig.
9a).
In
contrast,
all
lunar
highlands
meteorites
have
systematically
depleted
Sm
concentrations
(by
a
factor
of
10)
compared
to
Apollo
14
and
16
highlands
regolith
(Fig.
9b).
Thus,
these
data
suggest
that
although
these
meteorites
are
composed
of
highlands
material,
they
are
compositionally
different
from
the
Apollo
and
Luna
highlands
regolith
samples
collected
to
date.
The
large
compositional
separation
between
Apollo
regolith
breccias
and
lunar
meteorites,
in
Fig.
9b,
suggests
that
these meteorites
represent
a
distinct
compositional
suite.
Considering
their
highly
anorthositic
nature
and
the
apparent
lack
of
KREEP,
these
meteorites
may
represent
a
type
of
crustal
terrain
that
differs
significantly
from
the
KREEPy
impact
melt
breccias
that
are
prevalent
in
the
Apollo
collection.
Because
of
these
readily
apparent
differences,
the
highland
regions
of
the
lunar
far
side
appear
to
be
likely
candidates
for
the
source
areas
of
these
rocks.
However,
it
is
also
possible
that
a
previously
unsampled
KREEP-poor
highland
terrain
on
the
lunar
near
side
is
the
source
region
for
these
meteorites.
In
either
case,
these
lunar
meteorites
represent
new
lithological
variants
in
the
lunar
database
and
may
provide
additional
clues
about
the
genetic
history
of
the
Moon.
Dho
025
has
a
lower
A1
2
0
3
concentration
(26.1
wt%)
compared
to
most
other
lunar
highlands
meteorites.
In
contrast,
Dho
081
and
DaG
400
have
the
highest
concentrations
of
A1
2
0
3
(30.5
and
29.2
wt%,
respectively)
and,
thus,
are
consistent
with
having
the
largest
modal
percentage
of
plagioclase
relative
to
other
lunar
meteorites.
These
two
meteorites
represent
the
most
anorthositic
compositions
of
all
lunar
highlands
meteorites
reported
to
date
(Fig.
9a).
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
have
low
concentrations
ofNa,
Th,
Ti,
and
other
incompatible
elements
compared
to
typical
Apollo
14
and
16
highlands
regolith
-
Highland
Breccias
O
Dh-025
Average
/
Highlands
Fe/Sc
a
z
G
262
=
4000
t
.
,..4
-
r -
DaG
400
(b)
Dh-0
Apollo
14
Regolith
Breccias
Apollo
16
Regolith
Breccias
(b)
Dh-025
-
Far
side
Highlands
Regolith?
DaG
262
0
.
-
9—
Dh-081
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
511
100
80
a
50
U
40
0
0
I
O.*
Highland
o
Mare
Meteorites
7"
--
0
Mare
,
Basa
lts
Meteorites
Average
Highlands
Fe/Sc
=
-
4000
E
ta.
a_
U
Cs)
18
16
14
12
10
Apollo
16
Regolith
8
Breccias
(a)
Highland
0
Breccias
20
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0
5
10
Fe
(wt%)
Fig.
8.
Whole
rock
Fe
versus
Sc
easily
distinguishes
mare
and
highland
lithologies:
a)
mare
and
mixed
lithologies
(Dho
287,
QUE
94281,
Y-793272,
Y-981031,
EET
87521,
EET
96008,
A-881757,
and
NWA
032)
are
shown
as
open
circles
(Anand
et
al.
2003;
Demidova
et
al.
2002;
Fagan
et
al.
2001b;
Jolliff et
al.
1998;
Koeberl
et
al.
1991b;
Lindstrom
et
al.
1991;
Snyder
et
al.
1999;
Warren
and
Kallemeyn
1989,
1993);
b)
enlarged
view
of
the
highland
breccia
suite.
The
filled
diamonds
are
lunar
highland
meteorites
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
(Bischoff
et
al.
1998;
Warren
et
al.
2001;
Zipfel
et
al.
1998).
The
open
diamonds
represent
highland
meteorites
from
other
studies
(Dho
026,
MAC
88104/5,
Y-86032,
Y-
82192,
ALIT
A81005,
Y-791197,
and
QUE
93069)
(Cohen
et
al.
2003;
Koeberl
et
al.
1991a;
Korotev
et
al.
1996;
Neal
et
al.
1991;
Palme
et
al.
1991;
Semenova
et
al.
2000;
Spettel
et
al.
1995).
breccias
but
have
concentrations
similar
to
those
of
other
lunar
meteorites
(Table
1).
Siderophile
element
(Re,
Os,
Ir,
and
Au)
abundances
in
Dho
025
are
similar
to
other
highlands
meteorites,
but
Dho
081
is
depleted
(Bischoff
et
al.
1998;
Palme
et
al.
1991).
Compared
to
other
FAN,
HMS,
and
KREEP
rocks
(Taylor
1982),
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
and
DaG
262
have
intermediate
Ti-Sm
ratios
(Fig.
10).
All
highlands
meteorites
(with
the
exception
of
Y-82192
and
QUE
93069)
have
similar
Ti-Sm
ratios
and
Mg#.
These
compositions
may
have
resulted
E
Q.
E
0
15
20
25
30
35
A1
2
0
3
(wt%)
Fig.
9.
Whole
rock
Sc
and
Sm
versus
A1
2
0
3
in
lunar
meteorites:
a)
Apollo
16
regolith
compositional
envelope
(Korotev
1997)
is
shown
for
comparison;
b)
compositional
envelopes
for
Apollo
14
and
Apollo
16
regoliths
(Warren
and
Wasson
1980)
are
shown
for
comparison.
Lunar
highlands
meteorites
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
and
DaG
262
are
shown
as
filled
diamonds
(Bischoff
et
al.
1998;
Warren
et
al.
2001;
Zipfel
et
al.
1998).
Other
lunar
highland
meteorites
are
shown
as
open
diamonds
(Cohen
et
al.
2003;
Koeberl
et
al.
1991a;
Korotev
et
al.
1996;
Neal
et
al.
1991;
Palme
et
al.
1991;
Semenova
et
al.
2000;
Spettel
et
al.
1995).
from
mixing
between
HMS
and
FAN-rich
constituents.
However,
another
possible
interpretation
is
that
these
meteorites
are,
in
fact,
FAN
rocks,
and
the
FAN
and
HMS
rocks
are
more
closely
related
than
previously
thought.
We
have
attempted
to
further
constrain
these
two
possibilities
by
analyzing
trace
elements
in
single,
fine-grained
to
microcrystalline
clasts
with
SIMS.
A
major
premise
of
these
analyses
is
that
they
represent
whole
rock
compositions
of
individual
clasts
without
the
influence
of
the
meteorite
matrix.
Terrestrial
Weathering
It
has
been
noted
previously
that
desert
weathering
tends
to
alter
the
LREE
chemistry
of
hot-desert
meteorites,
25
20
15
0.
0)
10
5
0
6
4
2
100
10
O
Dh-025
O
Dh-081
DaG
400
DaG
262
Highland
Meteorites
Si0
2
(wt%)
TiO
2
A1
2
0
3
Fe0
Mn0
Mg0
Ca0
Na
2
0
K
2
0
P2
0
,
H
2
O
Sc
(ppm)
Cr
Co
Ni
Ga
Sr
Ba
Zr
Cs
La
Ce
Nd
Sm
Eu
Tb
Ho
Yb
Lu
Hf
Ta
Th
U
Re
(ppb)
Os
Jr
Au
(1)
43.9
0.30
26.1
4.98
0.08
6.53
16.1
0.282
0.07
0.08
0.03
10.2
674
16.5
200
3.10c
2010
130c
62.0
0.550
3.60
8.60
5.20
1.50
1.30
0.35
0A4c
1.20
0.210
1.30
<0.3c
0.80
0.27
<20C
<300c
7.20
3.00
(2)
44.9
0.15
30.5
2.93
n.d.
2.82
16.8
0.31
0.02
n.d.
n.d.
5.40
410
9.80
85.0
2.40
240
19.0
n.d.
n.d.
1.43
3.40
1.90
0.630
0.700
0.150
0.180
0.510
0.073
0.440
<0.1
<10
<300
5.00
5.20
0.200
0.070
(
3
)
n.d
.b
0.22
27.5
4.40
n.d.
5.21
16.5
0.35
0.05
0.06
n.d.
7.85
639
22.0
270
4.25
245
240
34.0
0.120
2.44
7.25
3.25
1.15
0.730
0.240
0.300
0.910
0.130
0.850
0.110
0.430
0.210
n.d.
n.d.
12.0
4.30
(4)
43.4
0.23
28.6
3.52
0.06
3.80
18.7
0.33
0.10
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
(
5
)
n.d.
0.18
29.2
3.78
0.05
5.14
17.4
0.32
0.07
0.11
n.d.
5.40
550
14.0
113
n.d.
190
140
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
4.0
n.d.
159
9.59
31
0.019
0.334
0.838
0.691
0.131
0.769
0.036
n.d.
0.16
0.014
0.126
n.d.
0.0364
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
0.351
0.441
102
194
84
0.29
7.66
19.9
12.5
3.10
1.19
0.663
n.d.
2.05
0.284
0.804
n.d.
1.26
0.239
n.d.
n.d.
0.072
0.075t
512
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
Table
1.
Bulk
composition
of
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
DaG
400,
and
other
lunar
highland
meteorites.a
Average
mare/mixed
meteorites
Average
A-16
highland
regolith
Average
FANs
Average
HMS
(
7
)
(8)
(
9
)
(10)
n.d.
n.d.
44.7
45.8
0.57
0.38
0.09
0.30
24.8
28.4
32.9
19.0
6.60
4.18
1.71
6.45
n.d.
n.d.
0.03
0.09
6.80
4.53
1.62
16.6
15.8
16.4
18.6
10.7
0.45
0.33
0.12
0.03
n.d.
0.02
n.d.
n.d.
52.0
7.46
3.77
3.30
1927
561
207
729
39.7
17.8
4.16
24.8
87.8
212
9.56
115
6.75
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
251
159
181
65.5
101.5
81.9
35.4
97.6
168
0.142
0.075
0.126
2.58
7.36
6.64
6.60
19.1
30.9
3.80
13.9
18.4
1.17
4.00
3.10
0.810
1.00
1.04
0.243
0.880
1.12
0.282
n.d.
n.d.
0.966
3.31
2.28
0.142
0.482
0.321
0.874
2.78
n.d.
0.130
0.380
n.d.
0.411
0.923
1.095
0.132
0.248
0.526
22.5
n.d.
n.d.
283
n.d.
n.d.
38.9
6.40
12.2
3.27
3.10m
9.94
Average
highland
Dho
025
Dho
081
DaG
262
DaG
400
DaG
400
meteorites
(6)
n.d.
0.27
26.3
5.24
0.07
6.10
15.4
0.33
0.02
0.02
0.30
9.06
699
17.0
177
3.43
0.45
0.07
n.d.
n.d.
0.34
0.08
0.25
n.d.
a
(1)
This
study;
(2)
Warren
et
al.
(2001);
(3)
Bischoff
et
al.
(1998);
(4)
Semenova
et
al.
(2000);
(5)
Zipfel
et
al.
(1998);
(6)
Cohen
et
al.
(2002),
Palme
et
al.
(1991),
Koeberl
et
al.
(1991),
Neal
et
al.
(1991),
Spettel
et
al.
(1995),
Korotev
et
al.
(1996),
Warren
et
al.
(2001),
Bischoff
et
al.
(1998),
Semenova
et
al.
(2000),
Zipfel
et
al.
(1998);
(7)
Anand
et
al.
(2002),
Jolliff
et
al.
(1998),
Lindstrom
et
al.
(1991),
Warren
and
Kallemeyn
(1989,
1991,
1993),
Koeberl
(1993),
Snyder
et
al.
(1999),
Fagan
et
al.
(2002);
(8)
Korotev
(1996);
(9)
and
(10)
Papike
et
al.
(1988).
bn.d.
=
not
determined.
cElemental
abundances
taken
from
Warren
et
al.
(2001).
particularly
through
alteration
of
olivine
and
pyroxenes
(Crozaz
and
Wadhwa
2001;
Crozaz
et
al.
2003;
Floss
and
Crozaz
2001).
However,
petrogenetic
information
can
still
be
extracted
due
to
the
heterogeneous
nature
of
terrestrial
weathering
processes
(Crozaz
and
Wadhwa
2001).
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
have
relatively
young
terrestrial
exposure
ages
(<100
kyr)
(Nishiizumi
et
al.
2002),
while
Dho
025
has
the
oldest
terrestrial
exposure
age
of
500-
600
kyr
(Nishiizumi
et
al.
2002)
of
all
hot-desert
meteorites.
Dho
025
shows
a
pronounced
enrichment
of
Sr
(2010
ppm),
most
likely
due
to
terrestrial
weathering
(Table
1).
Other
elements
that
may
have
been
affected
by
terrestrial
weathering
include
Ca,
Ba,
and
K.
Dho
025,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
are
all
elevated
in
Ca,
Ba,
and
K
compared
to
the
lunar
highland
meteorite
average,
while
Dho
081
is
only
elevated
in
Ca.
Mineral
phases
that
formed
due
to
terrestrial
alteration
in
these
meteorites
include
barite,
celestite,
calcite,
gypsum,
and
opal.
Only
celestite
is
seen
frequently
within
Dho
025
cracks.
Although
it
seems
logical
that
a
longer
exposure
time
in
the
desert
would
result
in
a
greater
amount
of
terrestrial
alteration,
studies
have
shown
that
weathering
occurs
most
rapidly
in
the
early
part
of
the
exposure
to
the
terrestrial
environment
(Barrat
et
al.
1999;
Bland
et
al.
1996;
Crozaz
and
Wadhwa
2001).
This
is
due
to
the
rapid
infilling
of
pores
and
fractures
within
the
meteorite.
As
space
within
a
meteorite
is
FAN
New
additions
/
to
the
FAN
Suite
or
a
FAN/HMS
Mixture?
h-081
DE
7
02t
KREERKZ:)
-
p•
Highland
Meteorites
DaG
262
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
513
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Mg#
Fig.
10.
Whole
rock
Ti/Sm
versus
Mg/(Mg
+
Fe)
(Longhi
and
Boudreau
1979)
for
various
lunar
highlands
meteorites.
FAN,
HMS,
and
KREEP
compositional
envelopes
are
shown
for
comparison
(Taylor
1982).
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
and
DaG
262
are
shown
by
filled
diamonds
(Bischoff
et
al.
1998;
Warren
et
al.
2001;
Zipfel
et
al.
1998),
and
lunar
highlands
meteorites
from
other
studies
are
shown
as
open
diamonds
(Cohen
et
al.
2003;
Koeberl
et
al.
1991a;
Korotev
et
al.
1996;
Neal
et
al.
1991;
Palme
et
al.
1991;
Semenova
et
al.
2000;
Spettel
et
al.
1995).
filled
with
alteration
material,
the
rate
of
weathering
decreases
with
time.
Thus,
the
high
degree
of
terrestrial
alteration
observed
in
Dho
025
may
be
due
to
a
larger
volume
of
pore
and
fracture
spaces
in
this
meteorite.
Indeed,
a
comparison
of
thin
sections
of
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
shows
that
Dho
025
has
many
more
fractures
and
pore
spaces
than
Dho
081.
TRACE
ELEMENT
DISTRIBUTIONS
IN
INDIVIDUAL
CLASTS
AND
MINERALS
We
measured
minor
and
trace
element
(including
REE)
compositions
in
individual
minerals
(plagioclase,
pyroxene
and
olivine)
and
in
bulk
clasts
from
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
(Tables
2-4).
With
these
data,
we
attempt
to:
1)
determine
if
any
lunar
meteorite
clasts
are
pristine
(retain
inherited
igneous
chemistry)
using
mineral-mineral
REE
concentration
ratios;
2)
compare
the
mineral
and
clast
chemistries
with
those
of
Apollo
lunar
samples
to
constrain
their
origins;
and
3)
evaluate
how
impact
processes
affected
mineral
compositions.
A
more
complete
account
of
these
data
can
be
found
in
Cahill
(2003).
Trace
element
concentrations
typical
of
FAN,
HMS,
and
high-alkali
suite
(HAS)
minerals
were
compiled
from
the
literature
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
Papike
et
al.
1994,
1996, 1997;
Papike
1996;
Shervais
et
al.
1997;
Shervais
and
McGee
1998a,
b,
1999;
Snyder
et
al.
Forthcoming)
for
comparison
with
Dhofar
and
DaG
individual
mineral
grains.
All
lunar
samples
in
these
publications
are
considered
pristine
with
a
high
level
of
confidence
(pristinity
levels
of
6-8)
(Warren
1993).
Preliminary
trace
element
data
on
Dho
025,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
were
presented
by
Cahill
(2001)
and
Floss
and
Crozaz
(2001).
Earlier,
we
noted
that
these
meteorites
have
affinities
to
FANs
(Figs.
4
and
5).
However,
some
of
the
clasts
plot
within
the
FAN-HMS
gap.
Furthermore,
whole
rock
data
also
indicate
possible
mixing
of
FAN
and
HMS
lithologies
(Fig.
10).
Therefore,
to
evaluate
this
further,
we
analyzed
single
clasts,
in
addition
to
the
single
minerals
mentioned
earlier,
with
the
ion
microprobe
(Table
2).
We
expected
that
analysis
of
fine-grained
and
microcrystalline
clasts
would
eliminate
the
influence
of
matrix
chemistry,
the
chemical
mixing
of
several
clasts,
that
whole
rock
data
show
and
provide
us
with
a
representative
clast
whole
rock
chemistry
that
will
allow
us
to
trace
its
origin.
"Bulk"
Clast
Inventory
The
clasts
we
analyzed
from
Dhofar
and
DaG
highland
meteorites
are
compared
to
Apollo
16,
sample
67513
(2-
4
mm
rock
fragments)
(Jolliff
and
Haskin
1995)
on
a
Sc
versus
Sm
diagram
(Fig.
11).
Sm
tracks
the
relative
incompatible
trace
element
(ITE)
enrichment,
while
Sc
(which
is
compatible
in
pyroxene)
is
an
indicator
of
the
proportion
of
mafic
assemblage
in
the
sample.
One
of
two
trends
emerges
in
this
type
of
elemental
comparison
(Fig.
11a).
One
is
a
ITE-depleted
(Sc/Sm
values
>12)
trend
that
is
typical
of
the
FAN
suite
(Norman
and
Ryder
1980),
while
the
other
ITE-rich
trend
is
compositionally
similar
to
impact
melt
breccias
(Korotev
1994;
Lindstrom
et
al.
1990).
Figure
1
lb
focuses
on
the
ITE-depleted
trend
of
this
diagram.
Low
Sm
and
Sc
abundances
are
indicative
of
plagioclase-rich
mineralogies,
while
higher
Sm
and
Sc
concentrations
are
indicative
of
pyroxene-rich
mineralogies.
In
general,
Dhofar
and
DaG
clasts
fall
along
the
ITE-poor
trend
and
have
characteristics
similar
to
67513
anorthositic
rock
fragments
(Fig.
11b).
All
four
meteorites
are
slightly
depleted
in
Sm
at
a
given
Sc
value,
compared
to
sample
67513.
This
may
indicate
their
transitional
nature
between
FAN
and
HMS
suites,
as
suggested
by
earlier
observations.
However,
we
cannot
rule
out
analytical
artifacts
in
the
SIMS
analyses,
since
ion
yields
are
not
as
well-known
for
these
bulk
clast
compositions
as
they
are
for
single
mineral
analyses.
Both
Dho
025
and
DaG
400
also
have
single
clasts
with
slightly
ITE
and
mafic
mineral-rich
chemistries
(Sm
>2.5
ppm
and
Sc
>30
ppm).
Whole
rock
compositions
of
several
other
lunar
highlands
meteorites
(MAC
88104/5,
ALH
A81005,
Y-791197,
Y-
88032,
and
Y-82192)
have
elevated
Sm
compared
to
Apollo
16
sample
67513
(Jolliff
et
al.
1991;
Jolliff
and
Haskin
1995;
Koeberl
et
al.
1991a;
Warren
and
Kallymeyn
1991).
This
may
be
because
these
studies
used
whole
rock
analyses
(matrix
+
multiple
clast
chemistries)
instead
of
the
single
clast
analyses
10000
100
514
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
Table
2.
Bulk
minor,
trace,
and
REE
concentrations
(ppm)
for
lunar
meteorite
clasts.a
Dho
025
Clast
1
Clast
2
Clast
3
Clast
4
Clast
5
Clast
6
Clast
7
Clast
8
Clast
10
Na
K
Sc
Ti
Sr
2416
213
4.26
195
164
2023
198
7.47
322
141
2630
406
11.7
752
133
2302
506
11.4
690
1765
2779
426
30.8
2132
111
2038
203
3.89
63
157
3195
1045
20.8
3565
126
3026
493
17.4
1407
145
2577
504
31.7
2253
113
Y
1.16
3.51
3.74
4.95
12.4
1.45
25.8
9.12
11.4
Zr
3.62
15.2
13.1
15.2
22.2
1.28
154
32.9
26.7
Ba
16.0
12.7
14.3
1472
12.9
6.85
53.2
23.7
14.6
La
0.69
(2)
0.92
(5)
1.10
(7)
1.74
(8)
1.17
(4)
0.44
(4)
5.62
(19)
2.34
(9)
1.42
(7)
Ce
1.79
(5)
2.52
(10)
2.71
(14)
3.42
(13)
3.60
(12)
1.05
(7)
17.0
(4)
6.35
(23)
4.19
(15)
Pr
0.24
(1)
0.30
(2)
0.35
(2)
0.52
(3)
0.56
(3)
0.15
(1)
2.14
(10)
0.88
(5)
0.57
(4)
Nd
0.94
(2)
1.44
(5)
1.64
(7)
1.98
(9)
2.79
(9)
0.56
(2)
10.0
(3)
3.73
(12)
2.79
(10)
Sm
0.23
(2)
0.37
(3)
0.37
(4)
0.49
(3)
0.88
(4)
0.15
(1)
2.70
(15)
0.96
(7)
0.87
(6)
Eu
0.60
(2)
0.55
(2)
0.50
(3)
0.44
(9)
0.47
(2)
0.48
(3)
0.61
(4)
0.59
(3)
0.45
(3)
Gd
0.22
(2)
0.49
(4)
0.46
(6)
0.49
(6)
1.20
(7)
0.17
(2)
3.28
(23)
1.11
(9)
1.25
(9)
Tb
0.030
(4)
0.074
(7)
0.075
(7)
0.088
(9)
0.26
(2)
0.045
(4)
0.58
(5)
0.19
(2)
0.21
(2)
Dy
0.18
(1)
0.52
(3)
0.47
(3)
b.d.b
1.75(5)
0.20
(1)
3.63
(14)
1.35
(6)
1.54
(6)
Ho
0.036
(3)
0.11
(1)
0.12
(1)
b.d.
0.39
(2)
0.047
(6)
0.77
(4)
0.28
(2)
0.38
(3)
Er
0.13
(1)
0.34
(2)
0.34
(2)
b.d.
1.08(4)
0.14
(1)
2.29
(9)
0.85
(4)
1.11
(5)
Tm
0.013
(3)
0.040
(5)
0.065
(8)
b.d.
0.15(1)
0.012
(4)
0.32
(3)
0.11
(1)
0.15
(1)
Yb
0.078
(9)
0.28
(2)
0.36
(3)
b.d.
0.98(5)
0.12
(1)
1.92
(10)
0.74
(6)
1.02
(6)
Lu
0.014
(9)
0.048
(5)
0.074
(10)
b.d.
0.15
(1)
0.015
(3)
0.36
(4)
0.12
(1)
0.18
(2)a
Dho
081
Clast
1
Clast
2
Clast
3
Clast
4
Clast
5
Clast
6
Clast
7
Clast
8
Clast
9
Clast
10
Na
2527
2243
2039
1300
2819
2199
2558
1932
2550
2660
K
97.7
158
162
113
80.7
62.6
176
92.3
197
194
Sc
4.55
18.8
20.3
18.9
3.78
3.68
15.4
3.84
13.2
12.5
Ti
74.2
1045
1035
883
80.0
64.1
1021
113
781
770
Sr
147
126
902
131
151
140
125
149
133
136
Y
0.488
4.58
4.10
3.96
0.611
0.241
3.98
0.391
4.83
3.20
Zr
0.29
14.6
14.2
13.4
0.31
0.16
12.9
0.51
17.5
9.70
Ba
5.45
8.96
19.9
7.26
6.15
3.60
9.13
5.84
11.9
7.23
La
0.14
(1)
0.66
(3)
0.95
(5)
0.60
(4)
0.23
(1)
0.10
(1)
0.63
(3)
0.23
(2)
0.91
(4)
0.47
(3)
Ce
0.37
(2)
1.92
(7)
2.23
(9)
1.71
(9)
0.58
(3)
0.25
(1)
1.70
(7)
0.50
(4)
2.52
(8)
1.29
(7)
Pr
0.048
(3)
0.23
(2)
0.29
(2)
0.27
(2)
0.073
(5)
0.031
(3)
0.23
(1)
0.057
(7)
0.36
(1)
0.17
(1)
Nd
0.20
(1)
1.22
(4)
1.36
(5)
1.07
(4)
0.31
(1)
0.13
(1)
1.06
(3)
0.27
(1)
1.55
(4)
0.82
(3)
Sm
0.069
(6)
0.36
(3)
0.35
(3)
0.31
(3)
0.010
(9)
0.042
(6)
0.35
(2)
0.086
(13)
0.45
(2)
0.24
(2)
Eu
0.53
(2)
0.46
(2)
0.39
(2)
0.47
(3)
0.54
(2)
0.46
(2)
0.46
(2)
0.53
(2)
0.50
(2)
0.51
(2)
Gd
0.063
(6)
0.43
(3)
0.41
(4)
0.36
(4)
0.090
(9)
0.042
(6)
0.43
(3)
0.080
(12)
0.47
(4)
0.32
(3)
Tb
0.0094
(13)
0.080
(8)
0.071
(7)
0.077
(8)
0.015
(2)
0.006
(1)
0.085
(8)
0.014
(4)
0.089
(9)
0.056
(8)
Dy
0.060
(4)
0.61
(2)
0.56
(3)
0.55
(3)
0.089
(5)
0.037
(4)
0.56
(2)
0.060
(7)
0.71
(3)
0.44
(2)
Ho
0.012
(1)
0.14
(1)
0.12
(1)
0.13
(1)
0.018
(2)
0.0085
(14)
0.13
(1)
0.013
(3)
0.15
(1)
0.099
(9)
Er
0.036
(3)
0.42
(2)
0.39
(2)
0.33
(2)
0.044
(5)
0.016
(3)
0.40
(2)
0.032
(6)
0.45
(2)
0.26
(2)
Tm
0.0045
(26)
0.063
(6)
0.054
(6)
0.047
(6)
b.d.
b.d.
0.047
(5)
0.0028
(40)c
0.063
(7)
0.043
(6)
Yb
b.d.
0.38(2)
0.42
(3)
0.34
(2)
0.042
(5)
b.d.
0.35(2)
0.018
(7)
0.48
(2)
0.25
(2)
Lu
b.d.
0.063
(5)
b.d.
0.064
(8)
b.d.
b.d.
0.052
(5)
0.0026
(20)c
0.081
(6)
0.037
(8)
DaG
262
Clast
1
Clast
2
Clast
3
Clast
4
Clast
5
Clast
6
Clast
7
Clast
8
Clast
10
Clast
11
Na
2962
3226
3082
988
2896
4527
2386
3272
3810
3138
K
602
694
531
204
432
558
394
664
459
707
Sc
15
18
16
11
19
21
5.9
16
13
14
Ti
792
1043
879
420
1207
1400
48
1650
748
1523
Sr
n.r.d
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
Y
5.2
7.6
6.3
1.4
7.3
9.9
1.3
4.7
4.5
6.2
Zr
31
35
30
6.8
35
42
3.5
87
27
52
Ba
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
La
1.08
(8)
1.96
(12)
1.37
(14)
0.40
(5)
1.51
(14)
1.84
(11)
0.33
(3)
1.62
(15)
0.96
(7)
1.50
(7)
Ce
2.82
(15)
4.88
(23
3.46
(30)
1.06
(9)
3.23
(29)
5.74
(30)
0.64
(4)
3.02
(26)
1.96
(12)
3.91
(16)
Pr
0.46
(3)
0.66
(5)
0.32
(4)
0.085
(16)
0.48
(5)
0.73
(5)
0.10
(1)
0.45
(4)
0.29
(3)
0.59
(4)
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
515
Table
2.
Bulk
minor,
trace,
and
REE
concentrations
(ppm)
for
lunar
meteorite
clasts.a
Continued.
DaG
262
Clast
1
Clast
2
Clast
3
Clast
4
Clast
5
Clast
6
Clast
7
Clast
8
Clast
10
Clast
11
Nd
1.50
(6)
2.70
(11)
1.78
(13)
0.51
(4)
1.98
(13)
3.35
(13)
0.36
(2)
1.87
(13)
1.11
(7)
2.32
(9)
Sm
0.47
(5)
0.60
(6)
0.49
(7)
0.14
(4)
0.72
(8)
0.85
(8)
0.10
(2)
0.44
(8)
0.26
(5)
0.62
(6)
Eu
0.45
(6)
0.62
(9)
0.49
(11)
0.13
(5)
0.40
(14)
0.39
(7)
0.35
(7)
0.20
(19)
0.37
(6)
0.66
(7)
Gd
0.47
(6)
0.92
(11)
0.60
(11)
0.20
(4)
0.57
(13)
1.11
(13)
0.12
(2)
0.47
(11)
0.35
(6)
0.58
(8)
Tb
0.11
(1)
0.14
(1)
0.11
(3)
0.03
(8)
0.13
(3)
0.19
(3)
0.024
(5)
0.091
(20)
0.068
(12)
0.10
(2)
Dy
0.66
(4)
1.11
(5)
0.77
(8)
0.16
(2)
0.93
(9)
1.41
(7)
0.18
(2)
0.67
(6)
0.58
(5)
0.79
(5)
Ho
0.15
(2)
0.28
(2)
0.24
(4)
0.042
(10)
0.24
(3)
0.27
(2)
0.068
(8)
0.14
(2)
0.13
(1)
0.18
(2)
Er
0.40
(3)
0.77
(5)
0.57
(6)
0.11
(2)
0.75
(6)
0.89
(6)
0.12
(2)
0.50
(5)
0.46
(4)
0.50
(3)
Tm
0.078
(10)
0.080
(16)
0.071
(20)
0.035
(10)
0.10
(2)
0.14
(1)
0.011
(6)
0.058
(20)
0.067
(14)
0.046
(9)
Yb
0.45
(6)
0.64
(6)
0.53
(10)
0.22
(4)
0.56
(9)
0.86
(8)
0.11
(2)
0.35
(9)
0.50
(8)
0.41
(5)
Lu
0.060
(12)
0.11
(1)
0.061
(17)
0.034
(12)
0.11
(2)
0.13
(2)
0.017
(6)
0.055
(18)
0.095
(17)
0.050
(11)
DaG
400
Clast
1
Clast
2
Clast
3
Clast
4
Clast
5
Clast
6
Clast
7
Na
2232
3285
1753
2517
643
3701
2745
K
926
895
824
497
368
1669
1166
Sc
22
19
8.7
20
10
34
5.6
Ti
1293 1273
303
1342
941
4659
924
Sr
n.r.
n.r.
n.r. n.r.
n.r.
n.r. n.r.
Y
16
7.8
0.95
9.0
2.6
33
2.8
Zr
46
28
2.84
41.7
9.5
146
4.2
Ba
n.r.
n.r.
n.r. n.r.
n.r.
n.r. n.r.
La
1.18
(1)
1.24
(13)
0.25
(5)
1.75
(12)
0.29
(3)
6.30
(39)
0.63
(6)
Ce
4.00
(27)
3.35
(26)
0.62
(5)
4.97
(31)
0.49
(4)
15.4
(69)
1.74
(15)
Pr
0.70
(7)
0.48
(5)
0.09
(1)
0.72
(6)
0.069
(9)
2.08
(14)
0.16
(2)
Nd
2.55
(16)
2.31
(13)
0.41
(3)
2.54
(13)
0.31
(2)
9.45
(38)
0.74
(5)
Sm
1.12
(14)
0.61
(10)
0.11
(2)
0.91
(11)
0.10
(2)
2.50
(2)
0.21
(4)
Eu
0.35
(5)
0.53
(6)
0.34
(3)
0.41
(4)
0.046
(67)c
0.41
(8)
0.48
(4)
Gd
1.39
(17)
0.65
(12)
0.077
(23)
0.95
(13)
0.12
(2)
2.50
(38)
0.24
(5)
Tb
0.36
(5)
0.13
(2)
0.017
(5)
0.22
(3)
0.036
(6)
0.62
(7)
0.056
(10)
Dy
2.23
(15)
0.98
(7)
0.11
(2)
1.28
(8)
0.29
(2)
4.12
(23)
0.43
(4)
Ho
0.44
(5)
0.21
(2)
0.035
(6)
0.22
(3)
0.075
(9)
0.83
(11)
0.076
(14)
Er
1.46
(10)
0.78
(7)
0.092
(13)
0.74
(5)
0.29
(2)
2.74
(13)
0.20
(3)
Tm
0.22
(3)
0.066
(12)
b.d.
0.089
(2)
0.038
(6)
0.32
(4)
0.023
(9)
Yb
1.16
(16)
0.55
(7)
b.d.
0.85
(8)
0.28
(3)
2.30
(34)
b.d.
Lu
0.14
(3)
0.10
(2)
0.011
(5)
0.12
(2)
0.036
(7)
0.48
(8)
0.020
(8)
aErrors
are
10
-
due
to
counting
statistics.
bb.d.
=
below
detection.
cNotc
the
larger
than
normal
errors.
dn.r.
=
values
not
reported
due
to
probable
terrestrial
contamination.
See
Floss
and
Crozaz
(2001).
of
this
study
and
that
of
Jolliff
and
Haskin
(1995).
Dhofar
and
DaG
clast
analyses
clearly
show
stronger
affinities
to
FAN
than
previously
seen
in
whole
rock
analyses
(Bischoff
et
al.
1998;
Semenova
et
al.
2000;
Zipfel
et
al.
1998).
Compositional
Mixing
Model
A
closer
examination
of
the
REE
concentrations
of
Dhofar
and
DaG
clasts
compared
to
FAN
and
HMS
rocks
suggests
the
possibility
that
Dhofar
and
DaG
chemistries
were
subjected
to
a
degree
of
mixing.
Mixing
of
average
HMS
components
and
average
FAN
composition
(Papike
1998)
and
comparison
with
the
clast
data
show
that
clasts
from
all
four
meteorites
contain
an
appreciable
HMS
component.
Most
Dhofar
and
DaG
clasts
show
<12%
HMS
component,
but
one
DaG
400
clast
contains
62%
of
an
HMS
component
and
one
Dho
025
clast
contains
71%
of
an
HMS
component.
Plagioclase
Inventory
The
REE
patterns
for
individual
plagioclase
grains
from
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
are
shown
in
Fig.
12.
All
plagioclase
analyses have
REE
abundances
similar
to
those
seen
in
FAN
rocks.
However,
some
Dho
025
clasts
have
plagioclases
that
are
enriched
in
heavy
rare
earth
elements
(HREE)
compared
to
typical
pristine
FAN
plagioclase
(Fig.
12a).
In
addition,
light
rare
earth
elements
(LREE)
in
Dho
025
plagioclase
tend
to
be
enriched
relative
to
plagioclase
from
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400.
Despite
the
HREE
enrichments
in
many
Dho
025
plagioclase
grains,
five
grains
show
REE
trends
typical
of
pristine
FAN
lithologies
(clasts
AA,
AI,
108b,
BA,
and
BB;
Fig.
12a).
All
Dho
081
plagioclases
have
lower
REE
abundances
than
those
in
the
other
meteorites
analyzed,
with
patterns
that
fall
toward
the
lower
end
of
the
range
observed
for
FANs
(Fig.
12b).
DaG
Table
3.
Major,
minor,
trace,
and
REE
concentrations
(ppm)
of
Dho
025
lunar
highlands
plagioclase.a
Dho
025
AA
AB
AF
AI
108b
AE
AG
BA
BB
BD
BH
BL
Na
Mg
K
Ca
Sc
2420
666
68
126789
3.5
1504
1410
111
129617
4.4
2363
986
179
126143
4.4
1612
732
117
125922
3.5
3361
727
152
124663
3.4
4246
721
397
121047
3.1
2961
714
242
122414
4.4
2141
619
98
126255
3.4
1746
769
85
127081
3.8
2461
816
204
130594
4.1
2193
1311
242
128096
4.2
3471
1226
194
125814
3.9
Ti
87
226
235
56
125
204
193
94
57
434
265
218
Fe
1437
2428
1978
1291
1054
1526
1501
1492 1512
1997
2528
2072
Sr
114
110
120
107
111
138
110
107
103
109
109
114
Y
0.5
3.6
3.6
0.7
0.6
2.2
1.8
0.8
0.7
3.7
4.3
3.7
Zr
0.3
6.7
7.3
0.3
0.2
3.0
10.9
0.6
1.0
14.8
11.1
8.5
Ba
6.0
5.8
12.5
5.0
8.7
27.0
16.6
7.0
2.5
13.7
10.9
7.4
La
0.68
(8)
0.77
(6)
1.52
(7)
0.49(4)
1.06
(8)
2.31
(16)
2.14
(12)
0.82
(8)
0.31
(4)
1.76
(8)
1.39
(9)
0.84
(6)
Ce
1.69
(18)
2.32
(13)
4.13
(15)
1.15
(7)
2.35
(18)
5.96
(35)
5.97
(30)
1.91
(11)
0.82
(8)
4.18
(20)
3.75
(24)
2.89
(15)
Pr
0.21
(3)
0.32
(2)
0.54
(2)
0.16
(2)
0.29
(3)
0.68
(4)
0.70
(5)
0.31
(3)
0.10
(2)
0.56
(4)
0.45
(4)
0.37
(2)
Nd
0.85
(7)
1.38
(5)
2.18
(6)
0.62
(4)
1.11
(7)
2.33
(13)
2.97
(11)
1.00
(6)
0.42
(4)
2.25
(8)
2.11
(11)
1.60
(7)
Sm
0.15
(4)
0.38
(6)
0.57
(5)
0.20
(3)
0.20
(4)
0.53
(7)
0.52
(6)
0.17
(4)
0.10
(4)
0.52
(5)
0.63
(9)
0.50
(5)
Eu
0.84
(5)
0.77
(4)
0.89
(4)
0.85
(4)
0.72
(5)
1.09
(7)
0.87
(5)
0.74
(5)
0.70
(4)
0.74
(4)
0.77
(5)
0.85
(3)
Gd
0.11
(5)
0.49
(5)
0.61
(7)
0.13
(3)
0.20
(5)
0.58
(10)
0.37
(8)
0.14
(5)
0.11
(4)
0.55
(7)
0.54
(10)
0.63
(6)
Tb
0.021
(9)
0.070
(11)
0.10
(1)
0.015
(6)
0.017
(9)
0.076
(19)
0.057
(13)
0.024
(1)
0.029
(10)
0.10
(1)
0.13
(2)
0.10
(1)
Dy
0.092
(20)
0.49
(3)
0.66
(3)
0.13
(2)
0.087
(20)
0.43
(4)
0.36
(3)
0.095
(21)
0.13
(3)
0.66
(4)
0.90
(7)
0.69
(4)
Ho
0.01
9
(9)
0.11
(1)
0.11
(1)
0.023
(6)
0.028
(9)
0.063
(13)
0.086
(11)
0.018
(7)
0.013
(7)
0.15
(2)
0.16
(2)
0.14
(1)
Er
0.052
(18)
0.29
(3)
0.36
(2)
0.035
(13
0.051
(18)
0.25
(4)
0.18
(2)
0.081
(20)
0.056
(20)
0.33
(3)
0.46
(5)
0.36
(3)
Tm
0.0055
(58)"
0.050
(11)
0.059
(9)
b.d
.e
b.d.
0.030
(15)
b.d.
b.d. b.d.
0.063
(11)
0.042
(17)
0.04
(1)
Yb
0.031
(24)
0.29
(4)
0.31
(3)
0.046
(19)
0.040
(24)
0.17
(4)
0.11
(3)
0.092
(30)
b.d.
0.34
(3)
0.39
(7)
0.30
(4)
Lu
b.d.
0.024
(9)
0.051
(8)
b.d.
b.d. b.d. b.d.
b.d.
0.0055
(80)"
0.05
(1)
b.d.
0.042
(11)
Dho
081
DaG
262
DaG
400
AE
C
F
H
L
V
1
2
3
1
2
3
Na
2293
2471
2428
2240
2446
1996
2438
2998
3098
2713
3969
3418
Mg
472
667
418
886
1006
573
1162
3725 3425
925
446
1098
K
74
66
128
58
86
53
143
288
263
515
301
494
Ca
123739
125963
123937
128879
124359
124199
125124
126984
107470
127627
131551
129481
Sc
3.9
3.6
2.9
3.5
3.2
4.2
3.4
4.4
3.2
3.0
3.4
4.0
Ti
36
82
28
32
56
21
80
68
90
118
62
171
Fe
1328
1294
1511
1615 1995
1511
1539
1667
1712
1092
1878
1224
Sr
104
115
111
103
100
104
n.r.d
n.r.
n.r.
n.r. n.r.
n.r.
Y
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.9
0.8
0.7
Zr
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.7
0.2
0.1
1.0
2.1
2.9
0.4
0.2
0.3
Ba
4.1
4.4
8.5
3.1
3.8
2.4
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
n.r.
T
E
l
a
IM
MO
a 1
Table
3.
Major,
minor,
trace,
and
REE
concentrations
(ppm)
of
Dho
025
lunar
highlands
plagioclase.a
Continued.
Dho
081
AE
C
F
H
L
V
DaG
262
1
2
3
DaG
400
1
2
3
La
0.23
(3)
0.32
(3)
0.19
(2)
0.13
(1)
0.13
(2)
0.094
(15)
0.76
(4)
0.38
(3)
0.29
(3)
0.80
(5)
0.51
(4)
0.95
(5)
Ce
0.63
(7)
0.81
(6)
0.44
(4)
0.30
(3)
0.35
(4)
0.19
(3)
2.04
(9)
1.04
(7)
0.67
(5)
1.88
(11)
1.33
(7)
2.26
(11)
Pr
0.10
(1)
0.13
(1)
0.054
(12)
0.034
(7)
0.05
(1)
0.043
(9)
0.25
(2)
0.12
(1)
0.10
(1)
0.26
(2)
0.17
(1)
0.30
(2)
Nd
0.41
(4)
0.38
(3)
0.26
(3)
0.17
(2)
0.19
(3)
0.094
(18)
0.93
(5)
0.39
(3)
0.39
(3)
1.02
(5)
0.66
(3)
1.07
(4)
Sm
0.076
(31)
0.10
(3)
b.d.
b.d.
b.d.
b.d.
0.17
(3)
0.097
(24)
0.11
(3)
0.27
(4)
0.17
(2)
0.27
(3)
Eu
0.71
(5)
0.72
(3)
0.79
(5)
0.60
(3)
0.61
(4)
0.60
(4)
0.67
(3)
0.81
(8)
0.44
(6)
0.68
(4)
0.88
(4)
0.75
(3)
Gd
0.074
(27)
0.14
(3)
0.034
(26)
0.038
(16)
0.032
(19)
b.d.
0.16
(3)
0.098
(23)
0.081
(23)
0.23
(4)
0.16
(3)
0.17
(3)
Tb
0.007
(6)
0.016
(7)
0.0092
(75)
0.0073
(43)
b.d.
0.0025
(37)b
0.013
(6)
0.0062
(44)
0.012
(5)
0.025
(8)
0.025
(6)
0.026
(6)
DY
0.034
(14)
0.12
(2)
0.035
(18)
0.039
(11)
0.020
(10)
b.d.
0.11
(2)
0.093
(15)
0.077
(13)
0.14
(2)
0.13
(1)
0.13
(1)
Ho
0.0059
(50)b
0.027
(8)
b.d.
0.016
(5)
b.d.
0.0023
(34)b
0.017
(5)
0.051
(8)
0.036
(7)
0.033
(7)
0.035
(6)
0.033
(5)
Er
0.012
(13)b
0.037
(14)
0.0082
(142)b
0.028
(11)
b.d.
0.0039
(77)b
0.050
(12)
0.068
(14)
0.049
(12)
0.055
(15)
0.043
(10)
0.051
(11)
Tm
b.d.
b.d.
b.d.
b.d.
b.d.
b.d. b.d.
b.d. b.d.
0.011
(8)
b.d.
0.0051
(57)c
Y
b.d.
0.021
(17)b
b.d.
b.d.
b.d.
b.d.
0.056
(19)
0.035
(21)
0.038
(19)
0.036
(19)
0.055
(19)
0.043
(15)
Lu
b.d.
0.0014
(55)b
b.d.
b.d.
b.d.
b.d. b.d.
b.d. b.d. b.d.
0.0051
(39)
b.d.
aErrors
are
16
due
to
counting
statistics.
bNote
the
larger
than
normal
errors.
cb.d.
=
below
detection.
dn.r.
=
values
not
reported
due
to
probable
terrestrial
contamination.
See
Floss
and
Crozaz
(2001).
Table
4.
Major,
minor,
trace,
and
REE
concentrations
(ppm)
of
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
pyroxene
and
olivine.a
Dho
025
Dho
081
DaG
262
DaG
400
108b
opx
BM
opx
ACB
pig
108b
aug
108b
aug
BA
aug
BH
aug
BL
aug
F
opx
1
aug
2
opx
1
of
Na
144
120
339
692
558
487
518
583
116
291
183
104
Mg
158268 165688
144925
98878
104638
103798
109237
162851
154448
70780
112336
223297
K
132
78
206
103
103
79
123
365
53
163
185
75
Ca
12201
9392
24729
114243
117264 107434
107773
69010
12010
88824
13338
1089
Sc
24
25
29
52
56
60
75
55
26
95
30
8
Ti
3247
3439 2691
6229
6474
4632
5477
5164
3478
3001
2687
159
Fe
57316
54422
81324
35572
38760
50516
42399
163533
93678
305743
192382
220049
Sr
4.4
6.4
8.6
8.2
9.6
8.9
37
58
1.2
n.r.
n.r. n.r.
Y
7.5
9.2
10
41
39
33
36
32
7.5
57
5.2
0.19
Zr
26
27
27
180
155
120
126
74
21
107
6.0
0.25
Ba
0.63
0.35
2.2
3.1
1.2
1.7
33
1.7
0.14
n.r.
n.r. n.r.
La
0.14
(1)*
0.27
(4)
0.37
(5)
1.73
(13)
1.05
(9)
0.86
(9)
0.92
(9)
0.98
(9)
0.028
(6)
0.71
(9)
b.d.c
b.d.
Ce
0.51
(4)
0.86
(11)
1.39
(14)
7.19
(40)
5.43
(32)
4.37
(35)
4.55
(29)
3.99
(29)
0.093
(14)
3.47
(33)
b.d.
b.d.
Pr
0.077
(12)
0.089
(21)
0.19
(2)
1.47
(12)
1.32
(10)
0.90
(8)
1.00
(8)
0.83
(7)
0.026
(6)
0.89
(9)
b.d.
b.d.
P
et
r
o
gen
esi
s
of
l
un
ar
hi
ghl
and
s
m
et
eori
t
es
oq
In
oq
VD
on
cl
oo
ch
rq
00
76 76 76 76 76
g 8 8
oo
8
4m 4m 4m 4m
46
4
6
c5
0 0 0 0
1/
40
76 76
2
m
NO'
4m 4m 4m
4
6
c5
0 0 0 0 0 0
w.
vl
00
el
1/4
0
CD
on
N
vn
, r
on
4
w.
VD
O1
4
on
1/4
0
'1
-
V;)
V;) V;)
CD
C2.
(
1
(
1
°q
C;)
VI
el
CD
VD
w.
C-
w.
VI
CD
rq
N
e,
4
e,
on
VD
'—'
VI
rq
VI
O.4
00
VD
Ch
CD
O.4
00
on
O
rq rq
Cr%
N
C;
en
c'.!
01N
o
0
w.
c>
0
c>
0
c> c> c>
0 0 0
ti
on
VD
00
e,
00
Ch
In
rq
on
r-
rq
rq
ze,
r q
rq
00 VI
VI
on
C-
Ch
w
,
VD
4
.
CD
Ol
VD
4
.
,
VI
4 4
.
4
.
4
cv
c5
on
c5
v1
ri
c>
cv
CD
CD
e,
on
vn
on
vn
F
N
VD
rq
O.4 O.4
'—'
on
r-
rq
cr,
O.4
41
m
on
Or,
O
on
Or,
O
-1
00
4
VD
rn
vi
(-41
0 0 0 0
c5
(-41
c5
b.
VI
(
7,
1
VI
C-
CI
VI
CV
4
e,
C-
VD
VI
c,
CD CD CD
C-
VD
00
C-
on
(-4
cl
CD
VD
n
VI
Ch
on
rl
on
vi
N
0
to
0 4 0
en
0
cV
c5
tn
on
oa
e,
on
on on
4
on
Ch
Oq
O.4
r-
In
'8
2i
N
O
4
`02
R
:
2g
4
N
on
0 4
1/4
16
-4
or;
0
r
c5
VD
on
N
e-
'
r-
CV
to
enc‘1
,
-'•1
-
00
en
"7"Inel
1/40
`4
R'
00
(,;
0 4 0
v6
4
0
r
c>
rn
00
e,
w.
/1
CD
00
VD
,
r
on
r-
on on
rq
rq
on
on
CD
on
Ch
4
4VD
4
oo
1 /4
0
e
on
n
cl
c‘i
. . . . . . . .
0
-
0
-0
e,
4
e,
O
VD
r
Ch
O.4
Ch
4
00
O.4
on
m
Ch
CD
4
on
CD
on
Ch
00 00
VI
I
CD
4
.
on
ol
O
c5 c5
c>
c5 c5
-4
c5
c>
,
r
00
tr,
v1
cv
v5
cv
N
CD
4 4
VI VI
Ch
O
c>
c5 c5 c5
c>
c5 c5 c5
g
4 z
w.4
-
0
••
,q
ai
0
0
S0,
1=1
0
N;
1=1
oo
1=1
O
1=1
0
El
0
a)
U
0
0
U
0
a;
c.)
cat
0
0
0
a)
VI
rq
CD
SD4
NI
0
eu
6-1
0
0,
CO
4:17
01
co
c:5
60
CO
2
o
00
X
C>
-
0
518
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
262
and
DaG
400
also
have
plagioclase
REE
concentrations
falling
within
the
typical
FAN
suite.
Concentrations
of
Ce,
K,
and
Ba
in
plagioclase
grains
are
similar
to
those
of
other
FAN
suite
rocks
(Fig.
13).
However,
Fe
and
Mg
abundances
are
elevated,
while
Sr
is
depleted,
although
still
similar
to
FAN
plagioclases.
This
suggests
that
the
terrestrial
Sr
influx
in
Dho
025,
interpreted
from
whole
rock
data,
is
dominated
by
surficial
additions
of
terrestrial
Sr-
bearing
minerals
and
that
exchange
with
Dho
025
plagioclase
was
limited.
Furthermore,
Sr
and
Ba
concentrations
show
slight
positive
trends
with
increasing
La
abundance
(Fig.
14),
similar
to
trends
seen
in
other
highlands
rocks
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
Snyder
et
al.
2003,
personal
communication).
This
suggests
that
Sr
may
behave
incompatibly
in
lunar
plagioclases
despite
the
fact
that
its
partition
coefficient
(K
D
s
r
)
is
1.61
(Phinney
and
Morrison
1990).
Pyroxene
Inventory
REEs
in
low-Ca
pyroxenes
from
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
and
DaG
262
have
concentrations
similar
to
those
from
typical
FAN
and
HMS
rocks
(Figs.
15a
and
15b).
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
low-Ca
pyroxenes
have
Ce
and
Zr
abundances
similar
to
those
observed
in
FAN
rocks
but
appear
to
be
slightly
depleted
in
both
Sc
and
Y
(Fig.
16).
However,
Sc
and
Y
concentrations
fall
along
the
trends
observed
for
FANs,
while
HMS
and
HAS
rocks
define
steeper
slopes,
particularly
for
Y
(Fig.
16).
High-Ca
pyroxenes
in
Dho
025
and
DaG
262
have
REE
abundances
similar
to
those
of
FAN
high-Ca
pyroxenes
(Fig.
15c).
One
Dho
025
analysis
has
a
much
deeper
negative
Eu
anomaly
(0.01
x
CI)
than
the
rest,
although
it
also
falls
within
the
FAN
compositional
range,
within
16
errors.
Cerium
and
Zr
are
positively
correlated,
similar
to
the
trend
seen
in
FANs
(Fig.
16).
Yttrium
concentrations
are
also
similar
to
those
in
the
FANs,
but
Sc
is
low
in
Dho
025
compared
to
DaG
262
and
other
FAN
pyroxenes.
Olivine
Inventory
A
few
SIMS
trace
element
analyses
have
been
reported
for
olivines
from
FAN
lithologies
(Floss
et
al.
1998).
Generally,
the
low
abundances
of
LREE
in
olivine
do
not
allow
their
quantitative
determination
with
this
technique.
Furthermore,
the
small
size
of
olivine
grains
in
the
meteorites
that
we
studied
did
not
allow
SIMS
measurements
in
any
troctolitic-anorthosite
clasts.
However,
one
olivine
grain
was
successfully
analyzed
in
DaG
400
(Fig.
15d).
This
grain
has
low
HREE
abundances
(<_0.5
x
CI)
and
falls
at
the
low
end
of
the
range
observed
for
FAN
olivines.
Plagioclase-Pyroxene
REE
Ratios
It
is
possible
to
evaluate
whether
a
rock
or
clast
represents
an
equilibrium
assemblage
by
comparing
(b)
10
20
30
40
Plagioclase
Rich
Dh-025
Dh-081
DaG
262
O
DaG
400
67513
Pyroxene
Rich
25
20
15
10
(a)
ITE-rich
impact-
melt
breccias,
low
Sc/Sm
ratios
ITE-poor
FAN
group,
high
Sc/Sm ratios
2
E
a.
E
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
519
3
10
20
30
40
Sc
(ppm)
Fig.
11.
Apollo
16
samples
show
two
compositional
trends
in
terms
of
Sc
and
Sm
as
illustrated
in
(a).
Impact
melt
breccias
are
incompatible
trace
element
(ITE)-rich,
while
ferroan
anorthosites
(FAN)
are
ITE-poor
(Jolliff
and
Haskin
1995;
Korotev
1994);
b)
enlargement
of
ITE-poor
portion
of
diagram
(a).
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
have
Sm
and
Sc
concentrations
similar
to
ITE-poor
and
plagioclase-rich
lithologies.
plagioclase-pyroxene
REE
concentration
ratios
(i.e.,
CP
1
REE
/
CPx
REE
)
with
experimentally
determined
mineral-melt
partition
coefficient
ratios
for
plagioclase
and
pyroxene
(i.e.,
K
D
P
1
REE
/K
D
x
REE
).
It
should
be
noted
that
all
the
polymineralic
clasts
we
analyzed
have
non-relict
textures.
In
Fig.
17,
the
concentration
ratios
of
several
impact-melt
clasts
are
compared
with
the
ratios
expected
from
experimentally
determined
distribution
coefficients.
If
a
rock,
or
clast,
preserves
the
chemical
signature
inherited
from
its
parental
melt,
then
these
ratios
should
be
identical.
The
assumption
that
the
chosen
K
D
values
are
valid
is
inherent
here.
Distribution
coefficients
were
selected
from
studies
by
McKay
et
al.
(1986,
1991)
and
Weill
and
McKay
(1975).
Mineral-melt
ratio
errors
are
16,
based
on
a
partition
coefficient
uncertainty
of
20%
(McKay
1989).
Since
pyroxene
distribution
coefficients
are
sensitive
to
their
Ca
contents,
each
clast's
pyroxene
K
D
value
was
calculated
individually
(McKay
et
al.
1986).
We
used
caution
with
orthopyroxene,
since
K
D
values
were
determined
at
a
time
when
the
difficulties
in
measuring
low
concentrations
of
the
REE
with
electron
microprobe
were
not
fully
appreciated
(McKay
1989;
Weill
and
McKay
1975).
Out
of
the
five
clasts
evaluated,
only
two
(108b
and
BA)
show
plagioclase-
pyroxene
ratios
concordant
with
those
of
experimentally
determined
plagioclase-pyroxene
ratios
(Fig.
17).
Clast
108b
ratios
were
corroborated
using
three
sets
of
coexisting
minerals
within
this
clast.
Clast
BA
also
has
a
concordant
plagioclase-pyroxene
ratio,
although
the
error
associated
with
Eu
is
large.
All
other
clasts
have
discordant
plagioclase-
pyroxene
ratios
indicating
that
the
coexisting
minerals
do
not
represent
magmatic
equilibrium
conditions.
DISCUSSION
In
this
study,
we
analyzed
several
clasts
for
their
trace
element
concentrations
in
an
attempt
to
find
if
these
lunar
samples
contain
equilibrium
mineral
assemblages.
We
approached
this
task
by
evaluating
plagioclase-pyroxene
REE
ratios,
as
described
in
the
previous
section.
Clasts
with
concordant
REE
ratio
patterns
are
likely
samples
that
contain
unmodified
chemical
information
from
a
parental
melt
and
may
be
considered
pristine
lithologies.
Of
the
clasts
analyzed,
the
mineral
REE
ratios
show
that
the
minerals
in
two
Dho
025
clasts
(108b
and
BA)
have
retained
equilibrium
with
a
parent
1000
100
10
1
0.1
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
Conce
n
tra
t
ion
/
Cl
Chon
dr
ite
100
100
10
1
0.1
0.1
10
1
520
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
!
(a)
1
DIMS
Rocks
I
Dh-025
P
HAS
rRocks
,-
t
--
-
-
--
-
_
!
FAN
Suite
-
:
.
1
B
o
$
I
I I I
(b)
!
HMS
ocks
r
I
I
I I I I
I
i
/
I
Dh-081
HAS
1
\
f
-Racks
1
1
-
-
I
FAN
Suitel
----,
a
I
ii
I
I
I
I
I
:
(c)
!
HMS
I
III III
i—oi
DaG
262
E
HAS
ocks
i
1
1
°
I
FAN
Suite)
r
(d)
1
HMS
E
-
isi
iiI
..
tercks
I
-----___
I
1
FAN
Suite-
,
'/
.
114-1
DaG
400
HAS
!
f
-Rocks
1
I
1 I
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Dy
Ho
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu
Fig.
12. C
1
-chondrite
normalized
REE
patterns
for
plagioclase
grains
from
lunar
meteorites
Dho
025
(a),
Dho
081
(b),
DaG
262
(c),
and
DaG
400
(d).
The
normalization
values
are
from
Anders
and
Grevesse
(1989).
These
patterns
are
compared
to
pristine
plagioclase
grains
from
FAN,
HMS,
and
(high-alkali
suite)
HAS
rocks
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
Papike
et
al.
1996,
1997;
Shervais
et
al.
1997;
Shervais
and
McGee
1998a,
b,
1999;
Snyder
et
al.
2004).
The
Dho
025
patterns
with
bold
lines
and
symbols
represent
clasts
that
were
designated
as
texturally
"pristine"
in
this
study.
melt
(Fig.
17).
However,
the
other
three
clasts
show
discordant
REE
ratio
profiles
when
compared
to
experimentally
determined
REE
ratios.
Despite
not
representing
equilibrium
assemblages,
clasts
with
discordant
REE
ratio
profiles
can
still
provide
insight
about
the
processes
that
modified
them.
Discordant
REE
ratio
profiles
can
result
from
several
processes,
including:
1)
use
of
incorrect
distribution
coefficients;
2)
subsolidus
re-equilibration;
and
3)
impact
processes,
all
of
which
are
evaluated
below.
Distribution
Coefficients
Of
foremost
concern
when
determining
REE
ratios
is
the
use
of
appropriate
experimental
distribution
coefficients.
Plagioclase
melt
partition
coefficients
for
the
REEs
have
been
studied
specifically
for
lunar
conditions
(McKay
1982;
Phinney
and
Morrison
1990;
Weill
and
McKay
1975),
and
values
determined
experimentally
and
by
direct
measurement
are
in
good
agreement
(Phinney
and
Morrison
1990).
Thus,
distribution
coefficients
for
plagioclase
REEs
are
unlikely
to
be
a
large
source
of
error
here.
In
contrast,
the
behavior
of
REEs
in
pyroxene
has
not
been
rigorously
evaluated
for
lunar
conditions.
Pyroxene
distribution
coefficients
have
been
determined,
but
they
were
determined
for
a
shergottite
composition
and
oxidation
state
(McKay
et
al.
1986).
Despite
this,
preliminary
work
on
clinopyroxene
partitioning
under
lunar
conditions
does
not
indicate
substantial
differences
in
distribution
coefficients
compared
to
the
more
oxidizing
conditions
appropriate
for
shergottite
crystallization
(McKay
et
al.
1991).
Thus,
oxygen
fugacity
does
not
appear
to
have
a
large
effect
on
the
K
D
values
for
trivalent
REEs
in
pyroxene
(James
et
al.
2002).
Partition
coefficient
values
used
for
orthopyroxene
have
also
been
noted
to
be
a
topic
of
concern,
as
mentioned
earlier
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
McKay
1989);
however,
no
inherent
problems
with
these
distribution
coefficients
were
evident
in
this
study.
Subsolidus
Re-Equilibration
Subsolidus
re-equilibration
can
also
cause
discordant
mineral
REE
ratios
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
James
et
al.
2002;
Papike
1996;
Treiman
1996).
This
process
generally
involves
material
that
has
undergone
extensive
recrystallization
and
prolonged
thermal
metamorphism
(Floss
et
al.
1998).
Re-equilibration
can
occur
within
zoned
minerals
or
between
coexisting
minerals.
Homogenization
of
zoned
minerals
will
cause
higher
average
REE
concentrations
than
those
of
the
original
mineral
cores
(Floss
et
al.
1998).
Plagioclase-pyroxene
REE
ratios
will
have
lower
and
less
steep
patterns
than
experimental
REE
ratio
patterns
(Hsu
and
Crozaz
1996,
1997).
Recent
ion
microprobe
studies
have
also
demonstrated
that
both
the
HREEs
and
LREEs
may
be
redistributed
between
co-existing
pyroxene
and
plagioclase
in
a
manner
dependent
upon
their
crystal
chemistries
(Papike
1996;
Papike
et
al.
1996).
During
co-existing
mineral
re-
equilibration,
plagioclase
is
depleted
in
HREE,
and
pyroxene
is
depleted
in
LREE.
The
resulting
REE
ratio
pattern
would
have
a
steeper
negative
trend
than
would
a
pattern
reflecting
experimentally
determined
distribution
coefficients.
Problems
are
also
prevalent
when
considering
augite
and
orthopyroxene
formed
by
inversion
of
pigeonite
(James
et
al.
2002).
Upon
inversion,
extensive
internal
redistribution
of
major,
minor,
and
trace
elements
are
required
for
the
necessary
structural
changes
to
occur.
As
inversion
of
HMS
HAS
FA
N
o
E
0.
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
16
14
12
10
3000
E
t
2000
cr)
1000
0
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
521
1000
HAS
100
FAN
E
0.
I I
It'
HMS
1 1
HMS
HAS
"
zt
FAN
4
+
1
1
114
I
I
1
1 1
.
1
MS
FA
N
HAS
o
10
1000
100
2500
2000
1
500
1000
500
t
HMS
HAS
FAN
loe•
Plagioclase:
Dh-025
o
Dh-081
DaG
262
FAN
o
DaG
400
0
1000
10000
Na
(ppm)
1
0 0 0 0 0
1000
10000
1
0 0
0
0 0
Na
(ppm)
Fig.
13.
Minor
and
trace
element
data
for
plagioclase
grains
from
lunar
highlands
meteorites
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
compared
to
that
of
pristine
FAN,
HMS,
and
(high-alkali
suite)
HAS
plagioclase
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
Snyder
et
al.
2004).
pigeonite
and
subsequent
subsolidus
re-equilibration
take
place,
REEs
move
from
orthopyroxene
into
augite,
with
HREEs
migrating
with
a
greater
mobility
than
LREEs
(James
et
al.
2002).
Orthopyroxene-augite
REE
ratios
develop
lower
and
steeper
positive
trends.
Furthermore,
migration
of
LREEs
from
orthopyroxene
to
augite
will
result
in
plagioclase-augite
REE
ratio
patterns
with
steeper
negative
trends.
The
REE
ratio
patterns
for
discordant
clasts
tend
to
be
flatter
than
the
expected
K
D
ratio
patterns
(Fig.
17).
This
may
indicate
that
these
minerals
were
previously
zoned
and
have
homogenized,
although
homogenization
usually
entails
lower
overall
patters
in
addition
to
flatter
slopes.
Thus,
subsolidus
re-equilibration
may
have
been
one,
but
not
the
only,
influence
on
their
REE
ratio
patterns.
Impact
Processes
Impact-induced
mixing,
as
discussed
for
the
whole
rock
and
clast
analyses
of
these
meteorites,
may
have
influenced
some
of
the
mineral
analyses.
When
impact
processes
occur,
some
amount
of
material
may
be
vaporized,
and
a
larger
amount
of
material
will
be
melted
and/or
partially
melted.
Plagioclase
FANS
IM-025
Db-081
‘1•00--)
Plagioclase
HAS
HAS
HMS
FANS
?
.•
522
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
11
300
a
c
o
200
100
325
275
E
a
225
Cr)
175
125
75
4
6
8
10
La
(ppm)
Fig.
14.
Plagioclase
Ba,
Sr,
and
La
systematics
for
lunar
meteorites
Dho
025
and
Dho
081
compared
to
FAN,
HMS,
and
high-alkali
suite
(HAS)
data
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
Papike
et
al.
1997;
Snyder
et
al.
2004).
Certain
volatile
minor
elements,
such
as
Na
and
K,
are
likely
to
be
affected.
However,
it
is
also
important
to
consider
how
the
REEs
would
react
to
such
an
event.
As
shown
in
Fig.
13,
Fe
and
Mg
concentrations
are
elevated
in
the
lunar
meteorite
plagioclase
grains
compared
to
FAN,
HMS,
and
HAS
plagioclase.
This
suggests
that
impact
metamorphism
has
affected
these
clasts.
However,
Fe
concentrations
do
not
surpass
the
upper
limit
for
FeO
in
primary
igneous
plagioclases
from
Apollo
14
highlands
rocks
(1
wt%
FeO)
(Stoffler
and
Knoll
1977).
Furthermore,
Na
and
K
concentrations
in
clast
plagioclases
are
similar
to
FAN
lithologies
(Fig.
13)
and
do
not
suggest
volatilization.
In
addition,
optical
analyses
of
feldspar
crystals
do
not
exhibit
isotropic
characteristics
typical
of
maskelynite.
However,
impact
modification
does
appear
to
have
affected
the
REE
concentrations
of
some
Dho
025
plagioclase
grains
(Fig.
12a)
in
which
the
HREE
are
disproportionately
enriched.
The
source
of
these
REE
enrichments
could
be
exchange
with
a
surrounding
impact
melt
or
a
coexisting
HMS
Low
Ca-Px
-...._.
r
HAS
Low
Ca-Px
2
_—D--
-
'
FAN
Low
Ca-Px
(a)
Opx
!
I 1 1 I
I
HMS
Low
Ca-Px
HAS
Low
Ca-Px
FAN
Law
Ca-Px
(b)
Pig
H
,=
C•i
Px
FAN
High
Ca-Px
i
(c)
Aug
Dh-025
in
D11-081
r
e
DaG
262
o
DaG
400
FAN
Olivill-,
\
(d)
oiv
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Dy
1-lo
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu
Fig.
15.
Cl-chondrite
normalized
REE
patterns
for
pyroxenes
and
olivine
grains.
Normalization
values
are
from
Anders
and
Grevesse
(1989).
Orthopyroxene
(a)
and
pigeonite
(b)
REEs
are
compared
to
pristine
low-Ca
pyroxene
data
of
FAN,
HMS,
and
high-alkali
suite
(HAS)
rocks
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
Papike
et
al.
1994,
1996;
Papike
1996;
Shervais
et
al.
1997;
Shervais
and
McGee
1998a,
b,
1999;
Snyder
et
al.
2004).
High-Ca
pyroxene
(c)
and
olivine
(d)
analyses
are
compared
to
pristine
analyses
from
FAN
rocks
(Floss
et
al.
1998).
pyroxene.
During
normal
igneous
processes,
pyroxene
has
a
lower
melting
point
than
olivine
and
anorthite,
while
the
dynamics
of
impact-induced
melting
are
poorly
understood.
Discrimination
between
these
two
possible
sources
is
problematic,
however,
since
both
have
large
Fe,
Mg,
and
HREE
reservoirs.
Lunar
Provenance
and
Implications
Remote
sensing
studies
of
the
Moon
indicate
that
the
lunar
surface
is
heterogeneous
(Davis
and
Spudis
1985).
A
map
of
orbital
data
for
the
Th-Ti
ratio
versus
Fe
originally
made
it
possible
to
recognize
three
major
lunar
rock
types
500
400
Co
nce
n
tra
t
io
n
/
C
l
C
ho
n
dr
ite
1000
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
10
1
0.1
0.01
80
60
a.
a.
c"
40
20
81:1
60
a.
a.
40
20
200
150
E
0
.
Al
100
50
100
80
E
60
40
20
80
60
E
a-
40
20
0
Low-Ca
Px
HMS,
HAS
FAN
Low-Ca
Px
HMS
HAS
FAN
Low-Ca
Px
HAS
HMS
FAN
Augite
FAN
Augite
-
Augite
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
523
100
250
130
"
40
20
0
0.01
0.1
10
100
0
01
0.1
10
100
Ce
(ppm)
Ce
(ppm)
Pyroxene:
Dh•
025
O
Dh-081
O
DaG
262
Fig.
16.
Trace
element
concentrations
of
low-
and
high-Ca
pyroxenes
in
the
lunar
meteorites
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
and
DaG
262
compared
to
data
for
typical
FANs,
HMS,
and
high-alkali
suite
(HAS)
rocks
(Floss
et
al.
1998;
Papike
et
al.
1994,
1996;
Papike
1996;
Snyder
et
al.
2004).
across
a
large
fraction
of
the
lunar
surface.
These
rock
types
are
ferroan
anorthosites,
mare
basalts,
and
KREEP/HMS
norites.
Nearly
all
mare
basalts
occur
on
the
near
side
of
the
Moon,
although
a
few
mare
terrains
are
seen
on
the
far
side.
More
recent
maps
generated
from
Clementine
and
Lunar
Prospector
data
show
that
the
bulk
of
the
highlands
are
anorthositic,
although
petrologically
heterogeneous
(Spudis
et
al.
2000,
2002).
Mare
terrains
also
show
heterogeneous
characteristics
with
no
impact
basin
being
filled
with
a
single
type
of
basalt.
These
observations,
along
with
the
knowledge
that
the
far
side
has
a
substantially
thicker
crust
than
the
near
side
(86
versus
64
km)
(Taylor
1982),
provide
a
detailed
view
of
the
Moon's
crustal
geology.
The
lunar
meteorites
in
this
study
are
highly
anorthositic
breccias
with
a
small
HMS
contribution
and
lack
KREEPy
signatures.
Many
clasts
within
these
breccias
show
a
mixture
of
FAN
and
HMS
chemistries
but
do
not
exhibit
textures
typical
of
lunar
granulites.
These
characteristics
represent
a
type
of
highland
terrain
that
differs
significantly
from
the
KREEPy
impact
breccias
that
dominate
the
lunar
collection.
These
rocks
must
have
originated
from
a
largely
FAN-rich
terrain,
removed
from
appreciable
HMS
and
KREEP
influences.
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
10
0.1
0.01
100
10
0.1
0.01
100000
1000
10
10
0.1
0.01
10
1
0.1
0.01
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
Plag
ioc
lase
/Py
roxe
ne
524
J.
T.
Cahill
et
al.
108h
Plag/Augite
1
McKay
1986
,
-
.
_.:
----
1
1
108b
Plag/Augite
2
McKay
1986
108h
PlaglOpx
1
Weill
and
McKay
19]5
:
!
1.--.--
2
----,
.--__
1
2
E.-
---
f
!
•au...._
a
___
1
BA
Plag/Augite
1
McKay
1986
6
o!
BH
Plag/Augite
1
-
McKay
1986
!
I
I
BL
Plag/Aug
1
McKay
1986
cr-------
E
- 1
I
SI
a
/
i-----
_
Q
Dh-081
F
Plag(Opx
1
Weill
and
McKay,
1975'
1
-__
----
La
Ce
Nd
SmEu
Gd
Yb
Lu
Fig.
17.
Comparison
of
plagioclase-pyroxene
REE
concentration
ratios
and
their
mineral-melt
distribution
coefficient
ratios
(McKay
et
al.
1986,
1991;
Phinney
and
Morrison
1990;
Weill
and
McKay
1975).
The
filled
diamonds
and
solid
lines
show
the
REE
concentration
ratios.
The
open
circles
and
gray
lines
show
experimentally
determined
distribution
coefficient
ratios.
On
average,
the
highland
regions
on
the
near
side
of
the
Moon
are
dominated
by
HMS
and
KREEP-signatured
lithologies,
making
an
origin
of
these
Dhofar
and
DaG
meteorites
from
a
terrain
on
the
near
side
less
likely.
Nevertheless,
the
near
side
is
not
monolithic,
and
an
origin
on
this
side
of
the
Moon
cannot
be
completely
ruled
out.
Norman
(1981)
made
a
detailed
study
of
a
similar
set
of
rocks
collected
from
the
rim
of
North
Ray
crater
in
the
Descartes
Mountains.
Like
the
lunar
meteorites
studied
here,
67016
is
also
characterized
by
a
small
regolith
component,
low
concentrations
of
KREEP,
and
similar
abundances
of
magnesian
and
ferroan
clast
types.
Thus,
a
near
side
origin
for
these
meteorites
is
possible.
However,
based
on
remote
sensing
data,
the
lunar
far
side
is
shown
to
be
comprised
almost
exclusively
of
highland
terrains
with
little
HMS
and
KREEPy
components.
Thus,
the
Dhofar
and
DaG
meteorites
could
also
have
come
from
the
far
side.
Studies
by
Greshake
et
al.
(1998),
Bischoff
et
al.
(1998),
and
Semenova
et
al.
(2000)
have
reached
similar
conclusions.
If
these
meteorites
are
indeed
from
the
far
side,
this
has
implications
for
our
current
view
of
the
Moon.
It
suggests
that
FAN
and
HMS
magmatism
may
be
global
events.
One
clast,
with
arguably
pristine
chemistry,
occupies
the
FAN
and
HMS
gap,
implying
that
FAN
and
HMS
magmatism
may
be
more
closely
related
than
previously
thought.
Based
on
low
concentrations
of
ITE,
the
role
of
KREEP
in
far
side
HMS
magmatism
may
be
less
significant
than
on
the
near
side.
This
observation
is
consistent
with
recent
claims
that
KREEP
is
restricted
to
the
western
limb
of
the
near
side.
And,
finally,
impact
gardening
of
the
lunar
crust
appears
to
have
produced
a
widespread
and
ubiquitous
group
of
mixed
impactite
rocks
that
are
similar
in
composition
to
lunar
granulites.
SUMMARY
The
lunar
meteorites
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
DaG
262,
and
DaG
400
are
feldspathic
highlands
breccias.
All
four
meteorites
consist
dominantly
of
FAN
clasts,
although
some
Dho
025,
Dho
081,
and
DaG
400
clast
compositions
plot
within
the
FAN-HMS
"gap"
on
a
plagioclase
AN
versus
mafic-
mineral
Mg#
diagram
(Semenova
et
al.
2000).
All
four
meteorites
also
plot
between
the
FAN
and
HMS
suites
in
terms
of
whole
rock
Ti-Sm
ratios.
These
"gap"
fillers
are
dominantly
mixed
rocks,
but
REE
ratios
suggest
that
pristine
lithologies
may
exist
with
FAN
+
HMS
chemistries.
SIMS
analyses
of
single
clasts
from
DaG
and
Dhofar
meteorites
show
stronger
FAN
affinities
than
seen
in
whole
rock
data
but
also
indicate
admixture
of
a
small
2%
average)
HMS
component.
Furthermore,
these
meteorites
lack
mare
lithologies
and
the
KREEPy
signatures
that
dominate
the
impact
breccias
of
previously
characterized
highland
terrains
from
the
lunar
near
side
and
probably
represent
a
type
of
highlands
terrain
not
previously
documented
in
the
lunar
collection.
Based
on
a
comparison
of
their
chemistries
with
the
remote
sensing
data
from
Clementine
and
Lunar
Prospector,
it
is
inferred
that
these
rocks
probably
originated
on
the
far
side
of
the
Moon;
albeit,
a
near
side
origin
cannot
be
conclusively
dismissed
as
an
option.
A
far
side
origin
for
these
rocks
has
several
implications
for
our
understanding
of
the
Moon:
Petrogenesis
of
lunar
highlands
meteorites
525
A
new
type
of
highlands
terrain
has
been
characterized
that
differs
significantly
from
the
KREEPy
impact
breccias
that
dominate
the
lunar
database.
Impact
gardening
of
the
lunar
crust
produces
mixed
rocks
similar
in
composition
to
lunar
granulites,
and
these
rocks
are
geographically
widespread.
FAN
and
HMS
magmatism
are
global
events.
The
relationship
between
FAN
and
HMS
magmatism
may
be
closer
than
previously
recognized.
The
role
of
KREEP
assimilation
in
the
petrogenesis
of
HMS
rocks
on
the
far
side
may
be
less
significant
than
on
the
near
side.
Acknowledgments-We
would
like
to
express
our
appreciation
to
Allan
Patchen,
for
his
help
with
the
electron
microprobe
analyses.
Our
sincere
thanks
to
Dr.
Robert
Clayton
and
Dr.
Tosh
Mayeda
for
their
unselfish
sharing
of
oxygen
isotope
data.
We
are
also
grateful
to
the
Vernadsky
Institute,
the
Max-
Planck-Institute
for
Chemistry,
Mainz,
and
the
Institute
for
Planetology,
Munster
for
their
willingness
to
supply
the
samples
necessary
for
this
study.
The
graduate
assistantship
to
J.
T.
Cahill
from
the
Department
of
Earth
and
Planetary
Sciences,
The
University
of
Tennessee
is
gratefully
acknowledged.
A
special
thanks
to
the
Joint
United
States/
Russia
Research
in
Space
Sciences
(JURRISS)
Program
(NAG
5-8726
to
L.
A.
Taylor)
sponsored
by
NASA.
Portions
of
this
research
have
also
been
supported
by
NASA
grants
to
L.
A.
Taylor
(NAGS-11158)
and
C.
Floss
(NAGS-13467)
and
a
Russian
Academy
of
Science
Award
to
M.
A.
Nazarov
(02-05-64981
to
R.F.B.R).
Excellent
reviews
by
Dr.
Marc
Norman,
Dr.
Ross
Taylor,
Dr.
Hap
McSween,
Dr.
Dan
Britt,
and
an
anonymous
reviewer
helped
improve
this
manuscript
and
are
greatly
appreciated.
Editorial
Handling-Dr.
Ross
Taylor
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