Effect of level of dietary calcium-phosphorus during growth and gestation on calcium-phosphorus balance and reproductive performance of first-litter sows


Nimmo, R.D.; Peo, E.R.; Crenshaw, J.D.; Moser, B.D.; Lewis, A.J.

Journal of Animal Science 52(6): 1343-1349

1981


24 mated gilts were used in a calcium-phosphorus metabolism trial. 12 gilts were fed gestation treatment A (13 g calcium and 10 g phosphorus per day), while the other 12 were fed gestation treatment B (19.5 and 15 g per day resp.). Half of the gilts in each treatment group were fed 0.65% calcium and 0.50% phosphorus from 7 to 94 kg bodyweight, and half were fed 0.975% calcium and 0.75% phosphorus for the same period. Treatment-B gilts excreted more (P<0.005) faecal and urinary phosphorus than gilts on treatment A. 24 first-litter sows fed the same treatment diets during growth and gestation and given 0.75% calcium and 0.50% phosphorus during lactation were used in a calcium and phosphorus balance trial conducted from days 38 to 42 of lactation. No differences in faecal, urinary or milk calcium or phosphorus were noted between sows fed the different diets during growth or gestation. A higher (P<0.05) value for calcium balance during lactation was observed for sows fed treatment diet B during gestation than for those fed gestation diet A. There were growth treatment X gestation treatment interactions (P<0.05) for both calcium and phosphorus balance. No differences were noted in the total number of piglets farrowed, total number of liveborn piglets, av. weaning weight or number of piglets weaned. Birth weights were higher (P<0.05) for piglets from sows fed diet B during gestation than for those from sows fed diet A. Pre- and postfarrowing weights, weaned sow weight and lactation gain were similar regardless of feeding regime during growth or gestation.

EFFECT
OF
LEVEL
OF
DIETARY
CALCIUM
-PHOSPHORUS
DURING
GROWTH
AND
GESTATION
ON
CALCIUM
-PHOSPHORUS
BALANCE
AND
REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE
OF
FIRST
-
LITTER
SOWS'
R.
D.
Nimmo
2
,
E.
R.
Peo,
Jr.,
J.
D.
Crenshaw,
B.
D.
Moser
and
A.
J.
Lewis
University
of
Nebraska
3
,
Lincoln
68583
Summary
Twenty
-
four
bred
gilts
were
used
in
a
Ca
-P
metabolism
trial.
Twelve
gilts
were
fed
gestation
treatment
A
(13
g
Ca,
10
g/day),
while
the
other
12
were
fed
gestation
treat-
ment
B
(19.5
g
Ca,
15
g
P/day).
One
-
half
of
the
gilts
in
each
treatment
group
were
fed
.65%
Ca,
.50%
P
from
7
to
94
kg,
and
half
were
fed
.975%
Ca,
.75%
P
for
the
same
period.
Treatment
B
gilts
excreted
more
(P<.005)
fecal
and
urinary
P.
Twenty
-
four
first
litter
sows
fed
the
same
treatment
diets
during
growth
and
gestation
and
given
.75%
Ca, .50%
P
during
lactation
were
used
in
a
Ca
and
P
balance
trial
conducted
from
day
38
to
42
of
lactation.
No
differences
in
fecal,
urinary
or
milk
Ca
or
P
were
noted
between
sows
fed
the
different
diets
during
growth
or
gestation.
A
higher
(P<.05)
value
for
Ca
balance
during
lactation
was
observed
for
sows
fed
treatment
diet
B
during
gestation
than
for
those
fed
gestation
diet
A.
There
were
growth
treatment
x
gestation
treatment
interactions
(P<.05)
for
both
Ca
and
P
balance.
No
differences
were
noted
in
total
pigs
far-
rowed,
total
pigs
farrowed
alive,
average
wean-
ing
weight
or
number
of
pigs
weaned.
Birth
weights
were
higher
(P<.05)
for
pigs
from
sows
fed
diet
B
during
gestation
than
for
pigs
from
sows
fed
diet
A.
Pre-
and
postfarrowing
weights,
weaned
sow
weight
and
lactation
gain
were
similar
regardless
of
treatment
fed
during
growth
or
gestation.
'
Published
as
Paper
No.
6081,
Journal
Ser.,
Nebraska
Agr.
Exp.
Sta.
2
Present
address:
Allied
Mills,
Libertyville,
IL
60048.
'Dept.
of
Anim.
Sci.
Acknowledgment
is
made
to
Alice
Teter
for
assistance
with
the
preparation
of
this
manuscript
and
to
Mary
Barnes,
Cecilia
Stodd
and
Tom
Crenshaw
for
laboratory
and
statistical
counsel.
(Key
Words:
Sow,
Gilt,
Calcium,
Phosphorus,
Gestation,
Lactation.)
Introduction
The
Ca
and
P
requirements
of
gestating
gilts
are
based
on
limited
research.
The
NRC
(1968,
1973)
suggested
requirements
for
gestating
gilts
were
15
g
Ca
and
10
g
P/day,
but
redefined
the
requirements
in
1979
(NRC,
1979)
to
13.5
g
Ca
and
10.8
g
P/day.
Harmon
et
al.
(1974)
reported
that
gilts
fed
diets
containing
.31%
P
(5.58
g/day)
during
gestation
farrowed
normally
and
showed
no
consistent
effects
during
lactation
that
could
be
attributed
to
P
feeding
level
during
gestation.
Still,
the
authors
noted
a
high
incidence
of
posterior
paralysis
among
sows
fed
.31%
P
and
suckled
for
8
weeks.
Harmon
et
al.
(1975)
also
re-
ported
that
sows
fed
a
gestation
P
level
of
.33%
with
various
P
levels
during
lactation
produced
litters
of
similar
size
and
weight
to
those
produced
by
sows
fed
.68%
P
during
gestation.
Nimmo
et
al.
(1981)
reported
lower
bone
peak
force
values
and
less
bone
strength
per
unit
area
for
gilts
that
had
been
fed
.65%
Ca
and
.50%
P.
They
also
found
that
30%
of
the
gilts
on
the
lower
Ca
-
P
treatments
had
to
be
removed
from
the
trial
because
they
were
unable
to
stand,
whereas
the
removal
rate
for
the
gilts
given
.975%
Ca,
.75%
P
was
negligible.
Kornegay
et
al.
(1973)
reported
similar
farrowing
and
weaning
performance
and
tissue
parameters
for
sows
fed
either
10.3
g
Ca
and
11.0
g
P
or
15.5
g
Ca
and
15.0
g
P
daily
for
five
reproductive
cycles.
The
data
presently
available
are
inconsistent
and
in-
conclusive
for
a
wide
variety
of
response
criteria
that
must
be
considered
in
the
estima-
tion
of
Ca
-
P
requirements
of
gilts
during
gestation.
This
study
was
conducted
to
determine
the
effects
of
various
levels
of
dietary
Ca
and
P
fed
to
gilts
during
growth
and
gestation
on
1343
JOURNAL
OF
ANIMAL
SCIENCE,
Vol.
52,
No.
6,1981
1344
NIMMO
ET
AL.
Ca
-
P
balance
in
the
dam
during
gestation
and
lactation.
Experimental
Procedure
Phase
1.
Twenty-four
gilts,
all
bred
within
a
5-day
period,
were
used
in
a
Ca
-P
metabo-
lism
trial
conducted
during
gestation.
Twelve
of
the
gilts
were
fed
.65%
Ca
and
.50%
P
(growth
treatment
A)
from
7.25
to
92.8
kg,
while
the
other
12
were
fed
.975%
Ca
and
.75%
P
(growth
treatment
B).
At
92.8
kg,
one-half
of
the
gilts
on
growth
treatment
A
were
assigned
to
gestation
treatment
A
(13.0
g
Ca
and
10.0
g
P/day)
and
half
were
assigned
to
gestation
treatment
B
(19.5
g
Ca
and
15.0
g
P/day).
The
same
assignment
of
gestation
treatments
was
carried
out
for
the
12
gilts
on
growth
treatment
B,
creating
four
outcome
growth-gestation
treatment
groups
(six
gilts/
group):
growth
A
-gestation
A,
growth
A-
gestation
B,
growth
B
-
gestation
A
and
growth
B
-gestation
B.
A
detailed
description
of
diets,
feeding
procedures,
housing
and
breeding
procedures
has
been
given
by
Nimmo
et
al.
(1981).
Gilts
were
placed
in
metabolism
crates
at
an
average
of
38
days
of
gestation
and
continued
on
their
respective
gestation
diets
for
3
days
before
the
initiation
of
the
collec-
tion
period.
All
urine
and
feces
were
collected
for
96
hours.
Gilts
had
been
catheterized
with
either
18-
or
20
-gauge
5
-cc
foley
catheters
for
urine
collection.
Urine
was
collected
in
22-liter
plastic
containers,
with
volume
de-
termined
daily,
and
diluted
to
the
nearest
500
ml
volume
with
redeionized
distilled
water.
After
dilution,
5%
of
the
sample
was
kept
for
analysis.
Feces
were
collected
at
least
three
times
daily,
frozen
and
pooled
over
the
4-
day
period.
Analysis
of
urine
and
feces
for
Ca
and
P
was
performed
by
an
automated
procedure
adapted
from
Kessler
and
Wolfman
(1964).
Phase
2
Twenty-four
lactating
first-litter
sows
were
used
in
a
Ca-P
balance
trial.
All
sows
were
offered
4.53
kg
of
a
lactation
diet
containing
.75%
Ca
and
.50%
P
daily
(for
complete
description,
see
Nimmo
et
al.,
1981).
Sows
and
their
litters
were
placed
in
metabo-
lism
crates
at
an
average
of
35
days
postpartum
and
allowed
to
adjust
for
3
days
before
collec-
tions
were
begun.
During
the
adjustment
and
collection
periods,
litters
were
separated
from
their
dams
because
the
dams
were
cathe-
terized,
but
the
piglets
were
allowed
to
suckle
three
times
at
4-hr
intervals
and
twice
at
6-hr
intervals
each
day.
Collection
and
analysis
of
feces
and
urine
were
carried
out
as
in
phase
1.
Milk
production,
measured
as
litter
weight
gain
over
a
24-period,
was
determined
on
the
fourth
day
of
collection;
the
litters
were
weighed
before
and
immediately
after
each
suckling
and
the
gains
summed.
Milk
samples
were
collected
1
day
thereafter
for
subsequent
Ca-P
analysis
by
the
procedure
of
Kessler
and
Wolfman
(1964).
Since
endogenous
losses
of
Ca
and
P
were
not
determined,
all
retention
and
balance
data
are
"apparent"
values.
All
gilts
were
weighed
at
109
days
of
gesta-
tion,
immediately
after
farrowing,
and
at
weaning.
Data
were
collected
on
67
litters
from
the
four
outcome
growth-gestation
treatment
groups
(A
-
A,
A
-
B,
B
-
A,
B
-B).
Analysis
of
treatments
was
carried
out
to
evaluate
responses
during
the
growth
and
gestation
periods
on
gestation
and
lactation
Ca-P
balance.
Groups
growth
A-gestation-A
and
growth
A-gestation
-
B
(A
-A,
A
-B)
were
pooled
to
create
pooled
growth
group
A
(p-grow
A)
while
groups
B
-A
and
B-B
were
pooled
to
create
growth
group
B.
Similar
procedures
were
followed
to
create
p-gest
A
and
p-gest
B
(A-A,
B
-
A
=
p-gest
A;
A
-
B,
B-B
=
p-gest
B).
Comparisons
of
p-grow
A
versus
p-grow
B
and
p-gest
A
versus
p-gest
B
were
made
in
both
phrases.
The
growth
x
gestation
interaction
was
also
tested.
Statistical
analysis
was
conducted
by
least-squares
pro-
cedures
designed
and
implemented
by
Barr
et
al.
(1976)
and
Steel
and
Torrie
(1960).
Results
and
Discussion
In
phase
1,
no
differences
(P>.05)
between
pooled
growth
groups
were
found
in
Ca
or
P
losses
from
the
feces
or
urine
or
in
the
amount
of
Ca
or
P
retained
(table
1).
However,
gifts
fed
p-gest
A
(13.0
g
Ca
and
10.0
g
P/day)
excreted
less
fecal
Ca
daily
than
gilts
fed
p-gest
B
(19.5
Ca
and
15.0
g
P/day);
12.2
vs
16.2
g).
Only
a
small
amount
of
urinary
Ca
was
excreted
daily
by
the
gilts
and
there
were
no
differences
due
to
treatment.
More
Ca
was
retained
daily
by
gilts
fed
p-gest
B
diets
(P<.005)
than
by
those
fed
p-
gest
A
(3.15
vs
.68
g).
Gestating
gilts
fed
13.5
g
Ca/day
excreted
91.1%
of
their
intake,
or
12.3
g,
while
gilts
fed
19.5
g
Ca/day
excreted
only
83.8%
of
their
intake,
or
16.3
grams.
The
net
increase
in
Ca
retained
for
gilts
fed
19.5
g
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Ca-
P
BALANCE
DURING
GESTATION
AND
LACTATION
1345
Ca/day
was
2.47
grams.
More
fecal
and
urinary
P
was
excreted
(P<.005)
by
gilts
fed
p-gest
B
than
by
those
fed
p-
gest
A.
More
P
was
retained
(P<.005)
by
gilts
fed
p-gest
B.
Al-
though
5
g
more
P
(10.0
vs
15.0
g)
was
fed
to
the
p-gest
B
gilts,
they
retained
only
1.94
g
more.
The
results
of
the
gestation
metabolism
trial
indicate
that
more
Ca
and
P
were
retained
when
19.5
g
Ca
and
15.0
g
P/day
were
fed
than
when
13.5
g
Ca
and
10.0
g
P/day
were
fed.
The
latter
levels
are
similar
to
the
NRC
(1979)
-
suggested
requirements
for
gestating
gilts
and
sows.
This
suggests
that
the
NRC-
suggested
levels
might
be
too
low
if
greater
retention
of
Ca
and
P
during
gestation
is
important.
Although
the
data
reflect
a
4-day
period
at
approximately
40
to
45
days
of
gestation,
an
appreciable
net
increase
in
Ca
and
P
retained
probably
existed
throughout
gestation
for
the
gilts
fed
19.5
g
Ca
and
15.0
g
P/day.
Bone
data
obtained
on
these
gilts
following
one
lactation
(Nimmo
et
al.,
1981)
suggested
that
because
the
bones
were
stronger
per
unit
area,
they
were
more
dense.
This
supports
the
hypothesis
that
more
resorption
of
Ca
and
P
from
the
skeleton
had
occurred
during
lactation
in
gilts
fed
p-gest
A
so
that
the
animals
could
meet
lactation
Ca
and
P
demands.
No
differences
(P>.05)
in
fecal,
urinary
or
milk
Ca
and
P
were
observed
between
p-
grow
and
p-
gest
groups
(table
2).
In
addi-
tion,
no
differences
were
noted
between
p-
grow
A
and
p-grow
B
or
between
p-gest
A
and
p-gest
B
in
retention,
balance
or
intake
of
Ca
or
P.
A
higher
(P<.05)
value
for
Ca
balance
during
lactation
was
observed
for
gilts
fed
p-gest
B
than
for
those,
fed
p-gest
A
(14.45
vs
11.99).
In
addition,
there
was
a
p-grow
x
p-gest
interaction
(P<.05)
for
both
Ca
and
P
balance.
Some
trends
con-
cerning
Ca
and
P
balance
may
be
more
evident
when
the
means
for
the
outcome
growth-
gestation
groups
(table
2)
are
evaluated
(A-A,
A-B,
B-A,
B-B).
Although
Ca
and
P
intake
was
the
same
for
all
lactating
sows
(.75%
Ca
and
.50%
P),
some
variation
existed
because
of
different
rates
of
feed
consumption.
There
was
also
variation
in
milk
volume
and
grams
of
Ca
and
P
excreted
in
the
milk
daily,
although
no
differences
existed
within
pooled
growth
and
pooled
gestation
treatment
groups.
Milk
volume
may
have
been
affected
by
the
periodic
TABLE
2.
EFFECT
OF
DIETARY
CALCIUM-PHOSPHORUS
LEVELS
DURING
GROWTH
AND
GESTATION
ON
CALCIUM-PHOSPHORUS
BALANCE
OF
LACTATING
FIRST-
LITTER
SOWS
Item
Treatment
means
±
SEa
Treatment
means
±
SE
pooled
by
growth
and
gestation
treatments
b
AA
AB
BA
BB
p-grow
A
p-grow
B
p-gest
A
p-gest
B
Fecal
Ca,
g
12.86
±
1.38
13.80
±
.82
13.40
±
1.41
13.45
±
.94
13.33
±
.78
13.42
±
.81
13.13
±
.95
13.62
±
.60
Urinary
Ca,
g
.31
±
.09
.45
±
.10
.29
±
.08
.52
±
.11
.38
±
.07
.41
±
.08
.30
i
.06
.48
t
.07
Milk
Ca,
g
4.51
±
1.37
3.12
±
.52
3.64
±
.70
3.34
±
.68
3.82
±
.73
3.49
±
.47
4.07
±
.75
3.23
±
.41
Ca
retention,
g
14.12
±
1.77
18.19
±
1.13
18.01
±
1.27
17.18
±
.78
16.16
±
1.17
17.59
±
.72
16.06
±
1.19
17.68
±
.67
Ca
balance,
g
ed
9.61
±
1.30
15.07
±
.69
14.37
±
1.29
13.83
±
.83
12.34
±
1.08
14.10
±
.73
11.99
±
1.13
14.45
±
.55
Ca
intake,
g
27.29
±
2.62
32.44
±
1.40
31.69
±
2.44
31.15
±
.75
29.86
±
1.62
31.42
±
1.22
29.49
±
1.83
31.79
±
.78
Fecal
P,
g
16.17
±
1.56
17.66
±
1.58
18.62
±
1.46
19.19
±
.97
17.40
±
1.12
18.42
±
.87
16.91
±
1.04
18.91
±
.89
Urinary
P,
g
.40
±
.12
.53
±
.12
.46
±
.17
.51
±
.14
.43
±
.08
.52
±
.10
.47
±
.10
.48
±
.09
Milk
P,
g
4.23
±
1.18
2.99
±
.40
2.81
±
.49
3.23
±
.45
3.52
±
.63
3.11
±
.32
3.61
±
.65
3.02
±
.29
P
retention,
g
1.25
±
.70
2.57
±
1.25
2.13
±
.54
.66
±
.83
1.69
±
.70
1.62
±
.55
1.91
±
.47
1.40
±
.75
P
balance,
gd
-2.98
±
.72
-.41
±
1.30
-.68
±
.58
-2.57
±
.66
-1.83
±
.79
-1.49
±
.53
-1.69
±
.59
-1.62
±
.75
P
intake,
g
17.83
±
1.71
20.76
±
.97
21.21
±
1.69
20.36
±
.54
19.52
±
1.07
20.56
±
.85
19.29
±
1.23
20.79
±
.54
Milk
volume,
ml
1,266
±
312
913
±
137
872
±
125
1,028
±
179
1,069
±
173
970
±
106
1,089
±
169
950
±
110
a
Treatment
means
represent
four
groups
of
six
gilts
each,
fed
AA,
BB,
BA
or
BB.
First
letter
denotes
growth
treatment
(A
=
.65%
Ca,
.50%
P;
B
=
.975%
Ca,
.75%
P),
second
letter
denotes
gestation
treatment
(A
=
13.0
g
Ca,
10.0
g
P/day;
B
=
19.5
g
Ca,
15.0
g
P/day).
b
Treatment
means
are
derived
from
data
for
pooled
growth
groups
A
and
B
and
pooled
gestation
groups
A
and
B
(12
observations/treatment).
c
p-gest
A
versus
p-gest
B
(P<.05).
d
p-grow
X
p-gest
interaction
(P<.05).
TABLE
3.
EFFECT
OF
DIETARY
CALCIUM-
PHOSPHORUS
LEVELS
DURING
GROWTH
AND
GESTATION
ON
REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE
Treatment
means
±
SEa
Treatment
means
±
SE
pooled
by
growth
and
gestation
treatmentsb
Item
AA
AB
BA
BB
p-grow
A
p-grow
B
p-gest
A
p-gest
B
Total
farrowed
9..5
±
.75
9.4
±
.49
8.8
±
.58
8.9
±
.46
9.1
±
.46
9.1
±
.34
9.4
±
.42 8.9
±
.36
Total
farrowed
alive
9.2
±
.79
9.2
±
.51
8.4
±
.60
8.7
±
.50
8.8
±
.48
8.9
±
.35
9.2
±
.44
8.5
±
.38
Stillborn
.28
±
.29
.16
±
.09
.41
±
.15
.22
±
.10
.35
±
.15
.19
±
.07
.22
±
.13
.31
±
.09
Mummies
.14
±
.14
.16
±
.09
.17
±
.13
.27
±
.18
.16
±
.09
.22
±
.10
.16
±
.08
.23
±
.11
Birth
weight,
kg
c
1.3
±
.04
1.4
±
.03
1.4
±
.05
1.5
±
.05
1.4
±
.04
1.4
±
.03
1.3
±
.03
1.4
±
.04
Avg
weaning
weight,
kg
10.0
±
.90
10.8
±
.60
9.5
±
.63
9.1
±
.60
10.4
±
.53
9.3
±
.42
9.7
±
.51
10.0
±
.45
No.
of
pigs
weaned
7.3
±
.77
7.4
±
.58
7.1
±
.50
6.9
±
.63
7.2
±
.43
7.2
±
.43
7.4
±
.46
7.0
±
.40
Prefarrow
gilt
weight,
kg
d
165
±
2.67
164
±
1.90
157
±
2.32
165
±
2.08
161
±
1.85
164
±
1.39
164
±
1.55
161
±
1.67
Postfarrow
gilt
weight,
kg
d
153
±
2.73
152
±
1.75
145
±
2.03
153
±
2.05
148
±
1.79
152
±
1.52
148
±
1.52
148
±
1.58
Weaned
sow
weight,
kg
141
±
4.82
141
±
2.93
134
±
2.43
144
±
2.58
137
±
2.58
143
±
1.94
141
±
2.63
139
±
1.96
Lactation
gain,
kg
-11.7
±
3.32
-10.9
±
2.84
-10.4
±
2.43
-8.2
±
2.68
-11.0
±
1.97
-9.6
±
1.94
-11.2
±
2.12
-9.3
±
1.80
a
Treatment
means
represent
four
groups;
AA
=
14,
AB
=
17,
BA
=
18,
BB
=
18.
First
letter
denotes
growth
treatment
(A
=
.65%
Ca,
.50%
P;
B
=
.975%
Ca,
.75%
P),
second
letter
denotes
gestation
treatment
(A
=
13.0
g
Ca,
10.0
G
P/day
;
B
=
19.5
g
Ca,
15.0
g
P/day).
b
Treatment
means
are
derived
from
pooled
growth
groups
A
and
B
and
pooled
gestation
groups
A
and
B
(12
observations/treatment).
c
p-gest
A
versus
p-gest
B
(P<.05).
d
p-grow
X
p-gest
interaction
(P<.05).
C
a-
P
BALAN
CE
DUR
ING
GE
S
T
ATI
ON
AN
D
LACT
ATION
1348
NIMMO
ET
AL.
suckling
procedure
used
for
piglets,
although
milk
volumes
did
represent
a
total
24-hr
collection
rather
than
estimates,
as
have
been
reported
by
other
workers
(Wells
et
al.,
1940;
Lodge,
1959;
Mahan
et
al.,
1971).
Since
the
Ca
and
P
levels
(.75%
Ca
and
.50%
P)
were
the
same
for
all
sows
during
lactation,
a
wider
range
of
Ca-P
levels
during
gestation
may
have
resulted
in
detectable
treatment
differences
in
Ca
and
P
balance
during
lacta-
tion,
although
all
outcome
treatment
groups
(A-A,
A-B,
B-A,
B-B)
were
in
negative
P
balance.
These
results
are
in
contrast
with
those
reported
by
Harmon
et
al.
(1975),
who
indicated
that
all
but
one
group
of
sows
fed
5.94
or
13.24
g
of
P
during
gestation
and
13.5,
16.5
or
19.5
g
P
during
a
28-day
lacta-
tion
period
remained
in
positive
P
balance.
A
summary
of
reproductive
performance
is
presented
in
table
3.
No
differences
(P>.05)
were
noted
in
total
pigs
farrowed,
total
pigs
farrowed
alive,
stillborn
pigs,
mummies,
average
weaning
weight
or
number
of
pigs
weaned.
Harmon
et
al.
(1975)
reported
no
difference
in
litter
size
and
litter
weight
among
first-litter
sows
fed
a
corn-soybean
meal
diet
with
or
without
supplemental
P
during
gestation.
Harmon
et
al.
(1975)
reported
that
sows
fed
.65%
P
during
lactation
weaned
lighter
pigs
than
sows
fed
.45%
P,
although
the
numbers
of
pigs
weaned
were
similar.
Birth
weights
were
greater
(P<.05)
for
pigs
from
sows
given
p-
gest
B
during
gestation
than
for
those
from
sows
on
p-
gest
A
(1.4
vs
1.3
kg).
Kornegay
et
al.
(1973)
reported
no
differences
in
farrow-
ing
or
weaning
performance
traits,
except
average
weaning
weight,
between
pigs
from
sows
fed
low
Ca-P
levels
(10.3
g
Ca
and
11.0
g
P)
and
pigs
from
sows
fed
high
levels
(15.5
g
Ca
and
15.0
g
P).
In
this
trial,
weaning
weight
was
higher
for
pigs
from
sows
fed
the
lower
Ca
and
P
levels.
The
standard
errors
for
all
pig
response
criteria
were
large
because
of
the
normal
variation
found
in
litter
data.
Regardless,
any
trends
that
may
have
occurred
were
difficult
to
interpret
because
of
the
magnitude
of
the
standard
error
for
treatment
means.
Pre-
and
postfarrowing
gilt
weights,
weaned
sow
weights
and
lactation
gains
were
similar
for
the
p-
grow
and
p-gest
treatment
groups.
Also,
although
a
p-
grow
x
p-
gest
interaction
(P<.05)
was
observed
for
pre-
and
postfarrowing
gilt
weights,
the
average
lactation
weight
loss
was
1.02
kg
for
the
42-
day
lactation
period.
Kornegay
et
al.
(1973)
reported
an
11.4
kg
weight
loss
during
five
reproductive
cycles
of
42
days
each,
while
Harmon
et
al.
(1975)
noted
a
17-kg
weight
loss
over
a
28-
day
lactation.
Dietary
Ca-
P
treatment
during
gestation
and
subsequent
lactation
appears
to
have
little
if
any
effect
on
sow
weight
loss
during
lactation.
The
results
of
the
studies
of
Ca
and
P
balance
during
gestation
and
lactation,
in
conjunction
with
data
on
bone
characteristics
and
the
number
of
gilts
failing
to
complete
gestation
because
of
their
inability
to
stand
(Nimmo
et
al.,
1981),
do
not
agree
with
the
level
of
P
reported
by
Harmon
et
al.
(1975)
as
satisfactory
for
first-litter
gestating
gilts.
One
of
the
levels
of
dietary
Ca
and
P
utilized
for
gestating
gilts
in
this
study
(13.5
g
Ca
and
10.0
g
P/day)
was
similar
to
the
NRC
(1979)-
suggested
requirements
(13.5
g
Ca
and
10.8
g
P/day).
When
consideration
is
given
to
maximal
skeletal
development
and
the
ability
of
gestating
gilts
to
withstand
the
rigors
of
being
reared
in
confinement,
the
data
indicate
that
13.5
g
Ca
and
10.0
g
P/day
was
not
adequate
while
19.5
g
Ca
and
15
g
P
appeared
quite
adequate
for
gestating
gilts.
Thus,
the
results
reported
herein
do
not
support
the
1979
NRC
requirements
for
Ca
and
P
for
gestating
gilts.
Literature
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A.
J.,
J.
H.
Goodnight,
J.
P.
Sall
and
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1976.
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to
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B.
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C.
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S.
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J.
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D.
H.
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and
A.
H.
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B.
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1975.
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G.
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1964.
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1973.
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time
lengths
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Ca-
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BALANCE
DURING
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1349
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