The effect of supplements of groundnut flour or groundnut protein isolate fortified with calcium salts and vitamins or of skim-milk powder on the digestibility coefficient, biological value and net utilization of the proteins of poor Indian diets given to undernourished children


Joseph, K.; Tasker, P.K.; Narayanarao, M.; Swaminathan, M.; Sreenivasan, A.; Subrahmanyan, V.

British Journal of Nutrition 17: 13-18

1963


The effect of supplementing a poor Indian rice diet with fortified groundnut flour or groundnut protein isolate or skim-milk powder (so as to provide 20 g extra protein daily) on the biological value and digestibility coefficients of the proteins and net protein utilization was studied in 8 girls aged 8-9 years. The true digestibility coefficients of the mixed proteins in the different diets were nearly the same. The biological value of the proteins of the rice diet supplemented with skim-milk powder was higher than of those in the diets supplemented with groundnut flour or groundnut protein isolate. The NPU(op) of the diets supplemented with skim-milk powder was greater than of the diets supplemented with groundnut flour or groundnut protein isolate. The rice diet supplied less, and the protein-supplemented diets more, net available protein than the FAO (1957) "reference" protein requirement.

Brit.
5.
Nutr.
(1963),
17,
13
13
The
effect
of
supplements
of
groundnut
flour
or
groundnut
protein
isolate
fortified
with
calcium
salts
and
vitamins
or
of
skim
-milk
powder
on
the
digestibility
coefficient,
biological
value
and
net
utilization
of
the
proteins
of
poor
Indian
diets
given
to
undernourished
children
BY
KANTHA
JOSEPH,
P.
K.
TASKER,
M.
NARAYANARAO,
M.
SWAMINATHAN,
A.
SREENIVASAN
AND
V.
SUBRAHMANYAN
Central
Food
Technological
Research
Institute,
Mysore,
India
(Received
23
October
1961—Revised
17
August
1962)
The
production
of
milk
and
other
protective
foods
in
many
tropical
and
subtropical
countries
is
inadequate
to
meet
the
needs
of
the
population
(FAO,
1959).
The
diets
consumed
in
these
countries
are
in
general
deficient
in
proteins,
certain
vitamins
and
minerals
(FAO,
1959;
Jelliffe,
1955).
The
problem
of
providing
low-cost
supple-
mentary
foods
based
on
locally
available
protein-rich
foods
of
vegetable
origin
has
recently
been
engaging
the
attention
of
research
workers
(Subrahmanyan,
Nara-
yanarao
&
Swaminathan,
196o;
Scrimshaw
&
Bressani,
1961)
and
also
of
international
agencies
(Autret
&
van
Veen,
1955).
Among
the
promising
protein
sources
are
oilseed
meals
and
legumes.
Groundnut
meal
is
available
in
large
quantities
as
a
by-product
of
the
oil
industry
in
many
countries
(Altschul,
1958).
Joseph,
Narayanarao,
Swami-
nathan
&
Subrahmanyan
(1957)
have
reported
that
the
incorporation
in
a
poor
Indian
rice
diet
of
a
processed
protein
food,
based
on
a
3:
1
blend
of
low-fat
groundnut
flour
and
chick-pea
(Cicer
arietinum)
flour
and
fortified
with
calcium
salts
and
vitamins,
caused
a
significant
increase
in
the
retention
of
nitrogen,
calcium
and
phosphorus
by
children.
The
proteins
of
groundnut
contain
less
lysine,
methionine,
threonine
and
tryptophan
than
milk
proteins
(Block
&
Weiss,
1956).
No
information
is
available
on
the
com-
parative
retentions
of
N
on
a
poor
Indian
rice
diet
supplemented
with
equal
amounts
of
proteins
from
groundnut
or
milk.
Therefore
the
metabolism
of
N,
Ca
and
P
and
the
digestibility
coefficients
and
biological
value
of
the
proteins
and
net
protein
utilization
were
studied
in
children
receiving
a
poor
rice
diet
supplemented
with
the
same
amounts
of
proteins,
Ca
and
P
either
from
groundnut
flour
(GF)
or
groundnut
protein
isolate
(GPI)
fortified
with
Ca
salts
and
vitamins
or
from
skim-milk
powder.
The
results
of
experiments
with
these
diets
relating
to
N,
Ca
and
P
metabolism
have
recently
been
published
(Joseph,
Tasker,
Narayanarao,
Sankaran,
Swaminathan,
Sreenivasan
&
Subrahmanyan,
1962).
The
present
paper
is
concerned
with
the
digestibility
coefficient
and
biological
value
of
the
proteins
and
net
protein
utilization.
'4
KANTHA
JOSEPH
AND
OTHERS
1963
EXPERIMENTAL
Materials.
The
composition
of
the
groundnut
flour
and
groundnut
protein
isolate
fortified
with
Ca
salts
and
vitamins
and
of
skim-milk
powder
fortified
with
vitamins
used
in
this
investigation
is
given
in
an
earlier
paper
(Joseph
et
al.
1962).
The
contents
of
essential
amino
acids
in
the
mixed
proteins
in
the
different
diets
consumed
by
the
children,
determined
by
the
method
of
Krishnamurthy,
Tasker,
Ramakrishnan,
Rajagopalan
&
Swaminathan
(1960),
are
given
in
Table
1
and
compared
with
the
FAO
reference
protein
pattern
(FAO,
1957).
Table
1.
Essential
amino
acid
content*
(g/16
g
N)
of
the
mixed
proteins
of
the
different
diets
Diet
Amino
acid
FAO
(
1
957)
reference
protein
pattern
Rice
diet
Rice
diet+
groundnut
flour
Rice
diet+
groundnut
protein
isolate
Rice
diet+
skim-milk
powder
Arginine
5.61
7.83
7.65
4'83
Histidine
2'12
V/5
2'23
2
'37
-
Lysine
4'61
3'93
3'
8
4
6.12
4'2
Tryptophan
1
'
1
4.
1.10
1'12
P33
l'4
Phenylalanine
5'50
5'34
5'21
5'32
2-8
Cystine
1
'34
1
'4
1
1.38
1'12
-
Methionine
1.66
1
'39
1
'4
2
2'10
2'2
Total
sulphur
amino
acids
3.130
z•So
z'So
3.22
4'2
Threonine
3'84
3'31
3'23
4'
2
5
2.8
Leucine
8.22
7'31
7'14
9.03
4.8
Isoleucine
4'93
4'54
4'28
5.61
4'2
Valine
6.42
5'
8
4
Os
6.63
4.2
Protein
score
(FAO,
1957)
71
67
67
76
100
The
limiting
amino
acids
in
bold-faced
type.
Metabolic
study.
The
details
of
the
metabolic
study
have
been
described
by
Joseph
et
al.
(1962).
The
subjects
were
eight
girls
aged
8-9
years,
belonging
to
low-income
groups.
The
metabolic
study
was
divided
into
five
periods:
period
1,
rice
only
(rice
diet);
period
z,
rice
+
fortified
groundnut
flour
(rice—GF
diet);
period
3,
rice
+
fortified
groundnut
protein
isolate
(rice—GPI
diet);
period
4,
rice
+
skim-milk
powder
(rice—SMP
diet);
period
5,
low-protein
diet.
The
children
were
given
a
rest
for
1
week
between
metabolism
periods
during
which
they
were
fed
on
the
basal
rice
diet.
The
compositions
of
the
rice
diet,
rice—GF
diet,
rice—GPI
diet
and
rice—SMP
diet
and
the
analytical
methods
used
have
already
been
described
(Joseph
et
al.
1962).
The
different
protein
foods
added
to
the
rice
diet
provided
about
zo
g
extra
protein
daily.
The
low-N
diet
was
similar
in
composition
to
that
used
by
Tasker,
Doraiswamy,
Narayanarao,
Swaminathan,
Sreenivasan
&
Subrahmanyan
(5962),
and
the
digestibility
coefficient
and
biological
value
of
the
proteins
of
the
diets
were
calculated
by
their
methods.
The
net
protein
utilization
(operative)
NPu
(00
,
net
dietary
protein
value
Vol.
17
Metabolism
of
N
in
undernourished
children
15
(ND-pv)
and
net
dietary
protein
calories
%
(ND-p
Cals
%)
were
calculated
according
to
the
formulas
of
Platt,
Miller
&
Payne
(1961).
Definition
of
terms.
The
terms
were
introduced
by
Platt
et
al.
(1961).
NPU(
00
refers
to
the
net
protein
utilized
from
the
diet
as
consumed
without
adjustment
for
level
of
protein
and
the
amounts
of
vitamins
and
minerals
in
the
diet.
It
is
calculated
as
true
digestibility
coefficient
x
biological
value
I00
ND-pv
refers
to
the
net
available
protein
content
of
the
diet.
It
is
calculated
as
NPU
(op)
x
protein
content
(%)
of
the
diet.
ND-p
Cals
%
refers
to
the
net
available
dietary
protein
expressed
in
terms
of
protein
calories
in
the
diet.
It
is
calculated
as
NPu
(op)
x
the
percentage
of
protein
calories
in
the
diet.
RESULTS
The
results
of
measurements
of
endogenous
urinary
and
faecal
N
excretion
are
given
in
Table
2
and
of
the
digestibility
coefficient,
biological
value,
and
net
protein
utilization
in
Tables
3-5.
Table
2.
Daily
urinary
and
faecal
excretion
(g)
of
nitrogen
by
the
children
on
the
low-protein
diet
Girl
no.
Age
(years)
Urinary
Faecal
Total
1
8
po3
0.69
P72
2
9
1
'39
o.58
1.
97
3
8
t.oz
0.71
1.72
4
9
1
'39
o.62
2'01
5
9
1
'47
0.4.6
1
'93
6
8
i
•o4
0.92
1.96
7
9
1
'4
1
0.79
2.20
8
8
1.o8
o.81
I.89
Mean
value
with
p23±0.13
o•70±
0
.
05
I
'93
±
0.09
its
standard
error
(7
df)
Table
3.
Digestibility
coefficient
and
biological
value
of
proteins
of
the
different
diets
eaten
by
the
children
Diet
Calorie
value
Description
(kcal/day)
Rice
1
394
Rice
-I-
fortified
1382
groundnut
flour
Rice+fortified
1388
groundnut
protein
isolate
Rice+skim-milk
1372
powder
Standard
error
of
- -
-
±1.92
+2'42
the
mean
(21
df)
Nitrogen
excretion
Nitrogen
(g/day)
True
intake
,_______-..._.,
digestibility
Biological
(g/clay)
Urinary
Faecal
(%)
value
4.08 2.19
r
1
4
89.2
73-6
7'3
0
3-86
1
'99
82.2
56.0
7.2o
3'
8
5
1.68
86.3
57'
8
7'35
3'37
P76
85.5
65.7
16
KANTHA
JOSEPH
AND
OTHERS
1963
Protein
scores
(Table
i).
The
protein
scores
of
the
mixed
proteins
of
the
diets
containing
groundnut
flour
or
groundnut
protein
isolate
(67),
calculated
by
the
method
of
FAO
(1957),
were
lower
than
that
of
the
rice
diet
(7i)
or
the
rice-SMP
diet
(76).
Endogenous
urinary
and
faecal
N
(Table
2).
The
mean
daily
urinary
N
was
1.23
g
and
the
mean
daily
faecal
N
was
0.70
g
for
the
children
on
the
low-protein
diet.
Digestibility
coefficient
and
biological
value
of
the
protein
(Table
3).
The
true
digestibility
coefficients
of
the
proteins
in
the
different
diets
were
nearly
the
same
and
ranged
from
82.2
to
89-2.
The
biological
value
of
the
protein
in
the
rice-SMP
diet
(65.7)
was
higher
than
that
in
diets
supplemented
with
groundnut
protein
or
groundnut
flour
(56.0
and
57.8,
respectively).
NPU
(op
)
and
ND-p
Cals
%
(Table
4).
The
NPu
(op)
value
for
the
rice-SMP
diet
(56.4)
was
higher
than
for
the
diets
supplemented
with
groundnut
flour
or
groundnut
protein
isolate
(46.1
and
49.8,
respectively).
The
ND-p
Cals
%
for
the
rice
diet
(4.80)
was
lower
than
for
diets
supplemented
with
different
protein
foods
(6.08-7.55).
Mean
intake
and
absorption
of
essential
amino
acids
(Table
5).
The
amount
of
essential
amino
acids
absorbed
was
calculated
as
amino
acid
intake
x
digestibility
coefficient
of
the
protein
±
ioo,
on
the
assumption
that
all
amino
acids
were
digested
and
absorbed
to
the
same
extent.
The
results
show
that
the
amounts
of
sulphur
amino
acids
absorbed
from
the
rice
diet
were
lower
than
those
required
according
to
the
reference
protein
pattern
suggested
by
FAO
(1957).
-7.55).
Mean
intake
and
absorption
of
essential
amino
acids
(Table
5).
The
amount
of
essential
amino
acids
absorbed
was
calculated
as
amino
acid
intake
x
digestibility
coefficient
of
the
protein
±
ioo,
on
the
assumption
that
all
amino
acids
were
digested
and
absorbed
to
the
same
extent.
The
results
show
that
the
amounts
of
sulphur
amino
acids
absorbed
from
the
rice
diet
were
lower
than
those
required
according
to
the
reference
protein
pattern
suggested
by
FAO
(1957).
DISCUSSION DISCUSSION DISCUSSION
The
results
presented
in
Tables
4
and
5
show
that
the
net
available
protein
from
the
rice
diet
(16.7
g/day)
did
not
meet
the
requirement
of
19.3
g
of
reference
protein
calculated
according
to
FAO
(1957);
on
the
other
hand,
the
net
available
protein
from
The
results
presented
in
Tables
4
and
5
show
that
the
net
available
protein
from
the
rice
diet
(16.7
g/day)
did
not
meet
the
requirement
of
19.3
g
of
reference
protein
calculated
according
to
FAO
(1957);
on
the
other
hand,
the
net
available
protein
from
Table
5.
Mean
daily
intake
(g)
and
absorption*
by
the
children
of
essential
amino
acids
from
the
different
diets
Amino
acid
Intake
Rice
diet
Absorption
Rice
diet
+
fortified
groundnut
flour
Intake
Absorption
Rice
diet
+fortified
groundnut
protein
isolate
A________
Th
Intake
Absorption
Rice
diet+
skim-milk
powder
„______A______,
Intake
Absorption
FAO
(1957)
'reference'
protein
requiremer0
O
Arginine
P43
1.28
3'57
2
.
94
3'44
2'97
2'22
1.89
-
Histidine
0
'54
0.48
0.98
0-81
1.0o
0.86
1.09
0.93
-
Lysine
I'17
0.96
1
'79
1
'47
P73
P49
2.81
2'39
0.81
Tryptophan
Phenylalanine
0.29
1.40
0.26
1.25
0.50
2.44
045
2.01
0.50
2'34
0
'43
V02
o.61
2'44
0.52
2'08
(3.27
0
'54
"A•
Cystine
0'34
0.30
0.64
0.53
0.62
0
'54
0.52
0.44
-
Methionine
o•42
0.37
0.63
0.52
0'64
0'55
0.96
0.82
0.42
Total
sulphur
amino
acids
0.76
0.67
1'27
P05
P26
P09
P48
1'26
0'81
O
Threonine
0.98
0.87
P55
P25
1
'45
P25
1'95
P66
0'54
Leucine
2'10
1'87
3'33
2/4
3'2
I
2'77
4'
1
5
2'54
0.92
Isoleucine
1.26
1.12
2
.07
P70
P93
P67
2'58
2'20
0.81
Valine
P
6
4
1
.
46
2'00
2'19
2'54
P
I
9
3'
0
4
2'59
o.81
The
limiting
amino
acids
in
bold-faced
type.
*
Calculated
as
intake
x
digestibility
coefficient
of
the
protein
500
f
The
'reference'
protein
requirement
of
the
children
calculated
according
to
FAO
(1957)
amounts
to
19.3
g.
0
2
8
KANTHA
JOSEPH
AND
OTHERS
1963
the
diets
supplemented
with
groundnut
flour
(2i.o
g)
or
groundnut
protein
isolate
(22.4
g)
or
skim-milk
powder
(25.9
g)
fully
met
the
protein
requirement.
According
to
Platt
et
al.
(1961),
the
protein
requirement
of
girls
of
the
age
group
8-9
years,
recommended
by
FAO
(i957),
is
about
5.9
when
expressed
as
ND-p
Cals
%.
Judged
on
this
basis,
the
rice
diet
did
not
provide
an
adequate
amount
of
protein,
but
after
supplementation
with
groundnut
flour,
groundnut
protein
or
skim-milk
powder
it
met
protein
requirement.
SUMMARY
I.
The
effect
of
supplementing
a
poor
Indian
rice
diet
with
fortified
groundnut
flour
or
groundnut
protein
isolate
or
skim-milk
powder
(so
as
to
provide
20
g
extra
protein
daily)
on
the
biological
value
and
digestibility
coefficient
of
the
proteins
and
net
protein
utilization
was
studied
in
eight
girls
aged
8-9
years.
2.
The
true
digestibility
coefficients
of
the
mixed
proteins
in
the
different
diets
were
nearly
the
same.
The
biological
value
of
the
proteins
of
the
rice
diet
supple-
mented
with
skim-milk
powder
was
higher
than
of
those
in
the
diets
supplemented
with
groundnut
flour
or
groundnut
protein
isolate.
3.
The
Npu
(
p)
of
the
diet
supplemented
with
skim-milk
powder
was
greater
than
of
the
diets
supplemented
with
groundnut
flour
or
with
groundnut
protein
isolate.
The
rice
diet
supplied
less,
and
the
protein-supplemented
diets
more,
net
available
protein
than
the
FAO
(x957)
reference'
protein
requirement.
We
are thankful
to
Mr
A.
N.
Sankaran
and
Miss
K.
Indiramma
for
statistical
analysis
and
to
Mr
V.
A.
Daniel
for
technical
assistance.
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