Ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and methane in swine confinement facilities


Gerber, D.B.; Mancl, K.M.; Veenhuizen, M.A.; Shurson, G.C.

Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 13(9): 1483-1488

1991


This survey covers recent research, states the concern levels characteristic of ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide and methane and gives a summary and recommendations.

Vol.
13,
No.
9,
North
American
Edition,
September
1991
1483
Continuing
Education
Article
#9
Ammonia,
Carbon
Monoxide,
Carbon
Dioxide,
Hydrogen
Sulfide,
and
Methane
in
Swine
Confinement
Facilities
FACTS
Ammonia,
carbon
monoxide,
carbon
dioxide,
and
hydrogen
sulfide
are
among
the
toxic
gases
found
in
swine
facilities.
Methane
is
a
nontoxic
but
noxious
gas
that
creates
an
asphyxiating
atmosphere
and
replaces
oxygen.
Ammonia,
carbon
monoxide,
carbon
dioxide,
hydrogen
sulfide,
and
methane
gases
are
harmful
to
humans
and
swine.
Scientific
instrumentation
is
available
for
detecting
noxious
gas.
The
Ohio
State
University
University
of
Minnesota
David
B.
Gerber,
MS
Gerald
C.
Shurson,
PhD
Karen
M.
Mancl,
PhD
Michael
A.
Veenhuizen,
PhD
HEALTHY
ENVIRONMENT
in
a
swine
structure
is
often
considered
only
in
terms
of
its
effect
on
animal
health.
Slight
thought
is
given
to
the
health
of
the
humans
who
enter
swine
housing
facilities.
These
individuals
in-
clude
operators,
family
members,
veterinarians,
other
pro-
fessionals,
and
visitors.
Studies
indicate
that
human
health
is
adversely
affected
by
carbon
dioxide
(CO2)
released
from
the
respiratory
systems
of
swine
housed
in
these
structures.
Carbon
monoxide
(CO),
produced
by
improperly
ad-
justed
and
defective
unit
space
heaters
that
use
combustible
fuel,
affects
human
health.
Ammonia
(NH
3
),
which
comes
from
manure
and
urine
decomposition,
also
influences
hu-
man
health.
When
manure
decomposes,
hydrogen
sulfide
(H,S)
and
methane
(CH
4
)
gases
are
released;
these
gases
are
detrimental
to
humans.
Hydrogen
sulfide
is
most
prev-
alent
during
manure
agitation
and
can
be
fatal.
In
cold
temperatures,
many
pork
producers
adjust
the
ventilation
systems
to
conserve
energy
and
maintain
facili-
ties
at
warmer
temperatures.
Some
producers
improperly
adjust
air
inlets
and
fan
operation;
inadequate
air
exchange
and
distribution
result.
Inadequate
air
movement,
mea-
sured
in
cubic
feet
per
minute
(CFM)
per
animal,
coupled
with
high
levels
of
dust
and
gases
can
create
a
health
haz-
ard
for
humans
and
animals.
RESEARCH
In
the
past
15
years,
few
studies
have
been
conducted
on
the
effects
of
gas
levels
in
swine
structures
on
human
and
animal
health.
According
to
two
studies,
gases
are
often
overlooked
in
pork
production
confinement
structures.'•
2
A
study
of
Swedish
swine
confinement
systems
determined
that
ammonia
in
dusty
environments
can
have
a
detrimental
effect
on
people
who
work
in
the
structures.'
Workers
ex-
perienced
respiratory
symptoms
when
working
in
facilities
with
ammonia
levels
as
low
as
7
parts
per
million
(ppm).
One
report
indicated
that
ammonia
levels
of
35
ppm
were
slightly
irritating
to
human
eyes
and
noses.'
Ammonia
concentrations
affect
pork
production.
Swine
experience
higher
incidences
of
arthritis,
porcine
stress
1484
The
Compendium
North
American
Edition
Food
Animal
syndrome
lesions,
and
abscesses
at
levels
above
25
ppm.`
One
researcher
reported
that
a
concentration
of
ammonia
gas
of
50
ppm
can
affect
a
young
pig's
capability
to
clear
bacteria
from
the
respiratory
system.
5
Growth
depression
can
occur
at
ammonia
levels
above
75
ppm.
In
another
study,
swine
confined
in
structures
with
ammonia
levels
of
50
ppm
exhibited
a
12%
reduction
in
average
daily
gain.
6
Ammonia
levels
of
100
to
200
ppm
can
cause
sneezing,
salivation,
and
loss
of
appetite
in
swine.'
One
study
reported
that
coughing
in
pigs
was
slightly
greater
at
50
ppm
of
ammonia
than
in
the
controls
(at
10
ppm)
but
not
as
great
as
at
the
100
and
150
ppm
levels.'
Levels
of
100
and
150
ppm
caused
more
pronounced
nasal,
lacrimal,
and
oral
secretions
than
at
50
ppm.
One
re-
searcher
reported
that
the
ammonia
level
at
0.25
meters
was
11
ppm;
in
the
Swedish
study,
the
level
was
25
ppm
at
1.52
meters.'''
Carbon
dioxide
also
has
been
determined
to
be
injurious
to
human
and
animal
health.
In
humans,
exposure
to
levels
of
carbon
dioxide
above
1540
ppm
is
associated
with
a
high
incidence
of
respiratory
disease.
4
People
who
work
continuously
for
30
minutes
in
structures
with
carbon
diox-
ide
concentrations
of
60,000
ppm
often
complain
of
head-
aches,
heavy
breathing,
and
drowsiness.'
Carbon
dioxide
concentrations
of
40,000
ppm
can
cause
respiratory
prob-
lems
in
pigs.
One
study
reported
a
higher
incidence
of
swine
disease
and
lower
production
parameters
at
1500
ppm
of
carbon
dioxide.'
IGHT
HOURS
of
exposure
to
carbon
monoxide
at
a
level
of
50
ppm
has
been
determined
to
be
dangerous
to
humans.
Swine
workers
exposed
to
carbon
monoxide
at
this
level
experienced
fatigue
and
headaches;
workers
ex-
posed
to
a
concentration
of
500
ppm
for
three
hours
expe-
rienced
impaired
judgment,
chronic
headaches,
and
nau-
sea.'
Carbon
monoxide
at
15
ppm
for
10
hours
affects
the
central
nervous
system.'
One
researcher
reported
that
con-
tinuous
exposure
to
carbon
monoxide
levels
of
7
to
10
ppm
causes
impaired
judgment
and
visual
perception
in
hu-
mans;
100
ppm
causes
headache,
dizziness,
and
weariness;
250
ppm
causes
loss
of
consciousness;
750
ppm
causes
death
after
several
hours;
and
1000
ppm
causes
rapid
death
.`
Carbon
monoxide
concentrations
of
150
ppm
can
induce
porcine
abortion,
increase
the
incidence
of
stillborn
pigs,
and
reduce
growth
rate
among
young
pigs.'
A
similar
study
demonstrated
that
a
250-ppm
concentration
of
carbon
monoxide
impairs
the
nursing
ability
of
pigs.
m
Levels
ranging
from
200
to
300
ppm
adversely
affect
rate
of
gain
and
feed
efficiency."
The
National
Institute
for
Occupational
Safety
and
aDonham
KS:
Personal
communication,
Institute
of
Agricultural
Medicine
and
Environmental
Health,
University
of
Iowa,
1991.
Health
reports
that
exposure
to
hydrogen
sulfide
(charac-
terized
by
its
rotten-egg
odor)
is
extremely
dangerous.'
2
Levels
ranging
from
10
to
20
ppm
can
cause
eye,
nose,
and
throat
irritation.'
Vomiting,
nausea,
and
diarrhea
oc-
cur
at
levels
of
50
to
100
ppm.'
According
to
the
institute,
concentrations
of
300
ppm
or
more
indicate
danger
to
life
and
health
as
well
as
a
risk
of
death
from
30
minutes
of
exposure.'"
Hydrogen
sulfide
concentrations
of
500
ppm
for
30
minutes
reportedly
cause
headache,
dizziness,
nau-
sea,
unconsciousness,
and
death.'
Unconsciousness
results
in
death
unless
(1)
the
victim
is
moved
from
the
structure
to
an
area
with
plenty
of
fresh
air
and
(2)
artificial
respira-
tion
is
administered
immediately.'
The
human
olfactory
system
is
desensitized
in
structures
with
concentrations
of
hydrogen
sulfide
greater
than
100
ppm.'
3
High
concentrations
of
hydrogen
sulfide
do
not
emit
a
proportionately
high
odor
intensity.
Humans
in
con-
ditions
of
high
atmospheric
hydrogen
sulfide
often
fail
to
detect
the
rotten-egg
smell.
There
is
inadequate
warning
because
the
workers'
sense
of
smell
fatigues
rapidly.'
Agitation
of
stored
manure
results
in
hydrogen
sulfide
concentrations
of
200
to
300
ppm
within
a
few
minutes
after
starting
the
pump.
With
vigorous
agitation,
concen-
trations
as
high
as
800
ppm
have
been
reported.'
The
ef-
fects
of
hydrogen
sulfide
on
swine
continually
exposed
at
20
ppm
include
fear
of
light,
loss
of
appetite,
and
nervous-
ness.'
At
the
level
of
200
ppm,
pulmonary
edema,
breath-
ing
difficulties,
loss
of
consciousness,
and
death
may
oc-
cur.
Methane
is
a
toxic
asphyxiant
that
replaces
oxygen
in
the
atmosphere.'
A
level
of
500,000
ppm
is
asphyxiating
to
humans.
In
a
5%
to
15%
mixture
of
methane
and
existing
air,
levels
of
50,000
to
150,000
ppm
are
potentially
explo-
sive.'
The
general
characteristics
of
ammonia,
carbon
dioxide,
hydrogen
sulfide,
carbon
monoxide,
and
methane
are
out-
lined
in
Table
I.
The
effects
of
these
gases
on
swine
and
human
health
are
described
in
the
summary.
An
Ohio
study
keyed
the
levels
of
ammonia,
carbon
monoxide,
and
carbon
dioxide
in
72
swine
farrowing,
nursery,
and
combination
farrowing-nursery
structures."
Gas
levels
were
measured
via
Draeger
gas-diffusion
tubes
for
an
eight-hour
period.
Gas-level
data
were
collected
throughout
the
day
at
the
first,
second,
fourth,
and
eighth
hour
after
installation.
Gas-diffusion
tubes
were
placed
at
1.52
meters
above
the
floor
to
measure
human
exposure
and
at
0.07
meters
above
the
floor
to
measure
swine
expo-
sure.
HE
RESULTS
of
the
gas
measurements
at
1.52
meters
are
summarized
in
Tables
II
through
IV.
Adjusted
ammo-
nia
levels
for
all
facilities
reported
in
Table
II
were
com-
pared
with
an
ammonia
level
of
less
than
7
ppm
(consid-
1,540
60,000
(for
30
minutes)
>100,000
Higher
incidence
of
swine
disease
or
lower
production
parameters
Increased
rate
of
breathing
discomfort
1,500
40,000
10
>20
50
to
100
300
Fear
of
light,
loss
of
20
appetite,
nervousness
Possible
pulmonary
200
edema
with
breathing
difficulties;
possible
loss
of
consciousness
and
death
The
Compendium
North
American
Edition
Food
Animal
1485
TABLE
I
Concern
Levels
Characteristic
of
Ammonia,
Carbon
Dioxide,
Hydrogen
Sulfide,
Carbon
Monoxide,
and
Methane
for
Humans
and
Swine
Human
Swine
Human
Concern
Levels
Swine
Concern
Levels
Gas
Odor
Density
Effects
(ppm)
Effects
(ppm)
Ammonia
Pungent
Lighter
Respiratory
symptoms
than
air
Irritation
to
eyes
and
nose;
asphyxiating
at
high
levels
7
(particularly
in
dusty
conditions)
35
Arthritis,
abscesses,
>25
lesions
of
porcine
stress
syndrome
Depressed
growth
50
Impaired
lung
health
50
Nasal,
lacrimal,
and
100
to
150
oral
secretions
Sneezing
and
100
to
200
salivation
High
incidence
of
work-related
disease
Drowsiness
and
headache
Dizziness
or
unconsciousness
Eye
irritation
Eye,
nose,
and
throat
irritation
Vomiting,
nausea,
and
diarrhea
Death
risk
Rapid
death
Impairment
of
judgment
and
visual
perception
Headache,
dizziness,
and
weariness
Loss
of
consciousness
Death
after
several
hours
Rapid
death
Asphyxiating
Explosive
>600
7
to
10
Abortions
in
late-term
150
sows
and
increased
incidence
of
stillbirths
100
Baby
pigs
less
250
vigorous;
impaired
250
nursing
ability
750
Rate
of
gain
and
feed
efficiency
affected
in
weaning
pigs
1,000
500,000
Explosive
50,000
to
150,000
(5%
to
15%
mixture
with
air)
Carbon
dioxide
None
Heavier
than
air
Hydrogen
Rotten-egg
Heavier
sulfide
than
air
Carbon
None
Heavier
monoxide
than
air
Methane
None
Lighter
than
air
200
to
300
50,000
to
150,000
(5%
to
15%
mixture
with
air)
ered
to
be
a
safe
human
exposure
level
in
dusty
conditions)
to
determine
the
percentage
of
buildings
with
safe
working
environments.
In
1986,
the
percentage
of
buildings
with
high
ammonia
gas
levels
was
97.3
after
one
hour
and
83.3
after
eight
hours.
Similar
results
were
reported
in
1987:
91.7%
after
one
hour
and
70.8%
after
eight
hours
(ammo-
nia
levels
of
7
ppm
or
greater).
Based
on
a
safe
human-exposure
limit
of
6.9
ppm
for
carbon
monoxide,
76.6%
of
the
buildings
were
at
safe
car-
bon
monoxide
levels
after
one
hour
and
93.3%
were
safe
after
eight
hours
(Table
III).
A
carbon
dioxide
level
of
1540
ppm
was
used
for
comparison
in
Table
IV.
Based
on
1987
data,
the
percentage
of
buildings
at
this
level
or
higher
was
55.2
after
one
hour
and
58.2
after
eight
hours.
1486
The
Compendium
North
American
Edition
Food
Animal
TABLE
II
Percentages
of
72
Ohio
Swine
Facilities
with
Varying
Ammonia
Concentrations
(1986
and
1987)
Sampling
Height
1.52
meters
1986
1987
First
Hour
Eighth
Hour
First
flour
Eighth
Flour
Concentration
(ppm)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
to
6.9
2.8
16.7
8.3
29.2
Human
Concern
Level
7.0
to
9.9
26.4
22.2
26.4
19.4
10.0
to
14.9
34.7
31.9
29.2
26.4
15.0
to
19.9
11.1
26.4
13.9
13.9
20.0
to
49.9
25.0
2.8
11.1
>50.0
0
0
0
0
In
1987,
the
percentage
of
farrowing
and
nursery
facili-
ties
with
a
safe
human-exposure
level
for
ammonia
and
carbon
monoxide
increased
between
the
first
and
eighth
hour.
The
facilities
were
measured
during
a
typical
work
day
from
morning
to
evening.
The
reduced
levels
of
am-
monia
and
carbon
monoxide
during
the
measurement
pe-
riod
may
be
partly
attributable
to
more
frequent
visits
by
the
operator,
introducing
more
fresh
air
during
the
day.
The
carbon
dioxide
levels
reported
in
Table
IV
demon-
strate
slight
change
in
the
percentage
of
facilities
with
a
safe
human-exposure
level,
however.
The
study
demonstrated
the
necessity
of
conducting
all
gas-level
tests
for
an
eight-hour
period.
This
is
particularly
important
for
carbon
monoxide
levels
in
structures
in
which
combustible-fuel
heaters
may
not
function
continu-
ously.
In
1987,
several
facilities
registered
zero
levels
of
carbon
dioxide
and
carbon
monoxide
in
the
first
hour
of
monitoring;
however,
recordable
levels
were
detected
after
eight
hours
of
monitoring.
A
comparison
of
carbon
dioxide
and
ammonia
gas
levels
measured
at
1.52
meters
demonstrates
a
weak
positive
re-
lationship
between
the
two
gases.
The
variables
of
carbon
dioxide
and
ammonia
exhibited
a
strong
positive
relation-
ship
only
in
the
first
hour.
The
results
of
the
ammonia
gas
measurements
taken
at
0.07
meters
(for
swine
exposure)
are
outlined
in
Table
V.
Adjusted
ammonia
levels
for
all
facilities
were
compared
with
ammonia
levels
of
less
than
25
ppm
(considered
to
be
a
safe
swine-exposure
level)
to
determine
the
percentage
of
buildings
with
satisfactory
production
environments.
A
satisfactory
pig
health
environment
was
recorded
in
93%
of
the
facilities
surveyed
after
the
first
hour.
After
eight
hours
of
monitoring,
the
percentage
of
facilities
with
a
sat-
isfactory
environment
was
essentially
the
same
(92.9%).
Pork
producers
that
recorded
ammonia
levels
of
10
ppm
and
above
(using
diffusion
tubes)
were
asked
if
they
de-
tected
ammonia
odor
when
first
entering
the
structure.
At
these
levels,
47.5%
of
the
producers
reported
detecting
ammonia
in
1986;
33.3%
detected
ammonia
in
1987.
At
ammonia
levels
of
20
ppm
and
above,
58.8%
of
the
pro-
ducers
detected
ammonia
in
1986;
47.1%
reported
detect-
ing
ammonia
in
1987.
Buildings
with
four
floor
types
were
used
in
the
survey:
total
slats,
partial
slats,
narrow
trench,
and
solid
concrete.
When
the
ammonia
results
were
considered
by
floor
type
using
analysis
of
variance,
no
significant
differences
were
recorded.
The
average
ammonia
concentrations
after
the
first
hour
for
the
different
floor
types
are
presented
in
Ta-
ble
VI.
Also
presented
are
the
percentages
of
facilities
at
varying
ammonia
concentrations.
SUMMARY
AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
The
presence
of
ammonia,
carbon
monoxide,
hydrogen
TABLE
III
Percentages
of
60
Ohio
Swine
Facilities
with
Varying
Carbon
Monoxide
Concentrations
(1987)
Sampling
Height
1.52
meters
First
Hour
Eighth
Hour
Concentration
(ppm)
(%)
(%)
73.3
3.3
Human
Concern
Level
7.0
to
9.9
0
0
10.0
to
24.9
1.7
3.3
25.0
to
49.9
16.7
3.3
50.0
to
59.9
3.3
0
>60.0
1.7
0
0.1
to
6.9
48.3
45.0
The
Compendium
North
American
Edition
Food
Animal
1487
TABLE
IV
Percentages
of
67
Ohio
Swine
Facilities
with
Varying
Carbon
Dioxide
Concentrations
(1987)
TABLE
V
Percentages
of
71
Ohio
Swine
Facilities
with
Varying
Ammonia
Concentrations
(1987)
Sampling
Height
1.52
meters
Sampling
Height
0.07
meters
Concentration
(ppm)
First
Hour
Eighth
Hour
(%)
(%)
Concentration
(ppm)
First
Horn•
Eighth
Hour
(%)
(%)
0
0.1
to
1,539
1,540
to
4,999
5,000
to
9,999
10,000
to
299,999
>300,000
0
0.1
to
6.9
7.0
to
9.9
10.0
to
14.9
15.0
to
19.9
20.0
to
24.9
>25.0
0
8.5
23.9
33.8
14.1
12.7
Swine
Concern
Level
7.0
40.3
3.0
4.5
38.8
Human
Concern
Level
35.8
50.7
14.9
3.0
3.0
4.5
1.5
0
0
35.2
15.5
23.9
15.5
2.8
7.0
TABLE
VI
Percentages
of
Swine
Facilities
(with
Different
Floor
Types)
with
Varying
Ammonia
Concentrations
During
the
First
Hour
(1987)
Factor
Total
Slats
Partial
Slats
Narrow
Trench
Solid
Concrete
Sampling
height
(meters)
1.52
0.07
1.52
0.07
1.52
0.07
1.52
0.07
Number
of
facilities
19
18
13
13
13
13
10
10
Mean
(ppm)
16
12
12
13
13
13
13
14
Standard
deviation
(ppm)
7.5
6.0
5.8
6.3
5.4
5.7
8.4
8.3
Concentration
(ppm)
Percentages
0
0.1
to
6.9
7.0
to
9.9
10.0
to
14.9
15.0
to
19.9
20.0
to
49.9
>50.0
0
0
5.3
11.1
0
0
0
0
15.4
15.4
Human
Concern
Level
0
0
0
0
0
7.7
50.0
30.0
30.0
40.0
0
10.0
20.0
20.0
0
0
0
0
26.3
33.3
21.1
33.3
10.5
11.1
36.8
11.1
15.4
23.1
38.5
15.4
38.5
38.5
23.1
38.5
15.4
7.7
23.1
23.1
15.4
15.4 15.4
15.4
0
0
0
0
sulfide,
and
methane
can
be
detected
by
gas-diffusion
tube
instrumentation.
Draeger
gas-diffusion
tubes
are
recom-
mended
(rather
than
the
more
expensive
diaphragm
pump
and
vacuum
sampling
syringe)
because
of
their
conven-
ience,
availability,
time-efficiency,
and
economy.
The
tubes
should
be
attached
with
tape
to
wire
or
wood
at
a
location
near
the
center
of
the
structure
at
the
appropriate
sampling
height.
Because
of
possible
temperature
varia-
tions,
it
is
important
to
avoid
attachment
to
water
lines,
electrical
cords,
or
outside
walls.
Sampling
heights
are
1.52
meters
for
humans
and
0.07
meters
for
pigs
(nose
height).
Gas
tests
should
be
conducted
for
an
eight-hour
period.
This
is
especially
important
for
carbon
monoxide
levels
in
structures
in
which
combustible-fuel
heaters
do
not
func-
tion
continuously.
The
olfactory
senses
of
humans
are
not
sensitive
enough
to
detect
with
accuracy
ammonia
and
hydrogen
sulfide
above
the
safe
human
concern
levels.
Carbon
monoxide,
carbon
dioxide,
and
methane
are
odorless
and
undetect-
able.
Gas
measurement
techniques
(e.g.,
gas-diffusion
tubes)
thus
must
be
used
to
measure
accurately
ammonia
and
hydrogen
sulfide
concentrations
above
safe
human-
exposure
levels
as
well
as
carbon
monoxide,
carbon
di-
oxide,
and
methane
levels.
When
gas
concentrations
above
concern
levels
for
hu-
1488
The
Compendium
North
American
Edition
Food
Animal
mans
or
swine
are
detected
in
structures,
corrective
action
should
be
taken
immediately.
Sources
of
high
levels
in
the
industry
include
malfunctioning
heaters;
improperly
sized
or
adjusted
air-inlet
openings;
dirty,
malfunctioning,
or
improperly
adjusted
fans;
incomplete
or
irregular
manure
removal
or
disposal;
and
errors
in
building
design.
When
building
adjustments
are
complete,
gas
levels
arc
measured
again
to
determine
exposure
levels.
Such
surveying
should
continue.
Combustible-fuel
(e.g.,
wood,
gas,
coal,
kerosene,
oil,
or
diesel)
heaters
can
pro-
duce
incomplete
combustion
and
carbon
monoxide.
Toxic
and
noxious
gases
from
other
confined
enterprises
(e.g.,
dairy,
lamb,
poultry,
and
horse
facilities)
may
affect
ani-
mal
health
and
the
health
of
humans
who
work
in
these
structures.
The
following
are
sources
to
consider
in
building,
venti-
lation,
and
waste
management
design:
the
Midwest
Plan
Service's
Swine
Housing
and
Equipment
Handbook,
Me-
chanical
Ventilating
Systems
for
Livestock
Housing,
Natu-
ral
Ventilating
Systems
for
Livestock
Housing,
Livestock
Waste
Facilities
Handbook,
and
the
Pork
Industry
Hand-
book.
15-19
Proper
design
and
management,
in
conjunction
with
gas-level
monitoring,
can
ensure
a
healthy
environ-
ment
for
humans
and
swine
in
confinement
structures.
About
the
Authors
Mr.
Gerber
is
affiliated
with
the
Ohio
Cooperative
Extension
Ser-
vice
and
Dr,
Mancl
and
Dr.
Veenhuizen
are
with
the
Department
of
Agricultural
Engineering,
The
Ohio
State
University,
Columbus,
Ohio.
Dr.
Shurson
is
affiliated
with
the
Department
of
Animal
Sci-
ence,
University
of
Minnesota,
St,
Paul,
Minnesota,
REFERENCES
1.
White
RK,
Young
CW:
Safety
and
liquid
manure
handling.
Exten-
sion
Fact
Sheet
No.
AEX703.
Columbus,
OH,
The
Ohio
State
Uni-
versity,
1980,
pp
1-3.
2.
Barker
J,
Curtis
SE,
Hogsett
0,
Humenik
T:
Safety
in
swine
produc-
tion
systems.
Pork
Industry
Handbook.
PIH-104,
1986,
pp
1-4.
3.
Donham
KS,
Haglind
P,
Peterson
Y,
et
al:
Environmental
and
health
studies
of
farm
workers
in
Swedish
swine
confinement
buildings.
Br
J
Ind
Med
46:31,
1989.
4.
Donham
KS:
Relationships
of
air
quality
and
productivity
in
inten-
sive
swine
housing.
Agric
Pract
10(6):15,
1989.
5.
Curtis
SE:
The
environment
in
swine
housing.
Pork
Indust!)
,
Hand-
book.
P11-1-54,
1978,
pp
1-4.
6.
Drummond
JG,
Curtis
SE,
Simon
J,
Norton
HW:
Effects
of
aerial
ammonia
on
growth
and
health
of
young
pigs.
J
Anim
Sci
50:1085,
1980.
7.
Stombaugh
DP,
Teague
HS,
Roller
WL:
Effects
of
atmospheric
am-
monia
on
the
pig.
J
Anim
Sci
28:844,
1969.
8.
Perkins
HC:
Air
Pollution.
New
York,
McGraw-Hill
Book
Co,
1974,
p
358.
9.
Manahan
SE:
Environmental
Chemistry,
ed
2.
Boston,
Williard
Grant
Press,
1975,
pp
350-353.
10.
Morris
GS,
Curtis
SE,
Simon
J:
Prenatal
piglets
under
sublethal
con-
centrations
of
atmospheric
carbon
monoxide.
J
Anim
Sci
61:1070,
1985.
11.
Morris
GS,
Curtis
SE,
Widowski
T:
Weaning
pigs
under
sublethal
concentrations
of
atmospheric
carbon
monoxide.
J
Anim
Sci
61:
1080,
1985.
12.
Pocket
Guide
to
Chemical
Hazards.
Washington,
DC,
National
Insti-
tute
for
Occupational
Safety
and
Health,
1990,
pp
128-129.
13.
Kirk
RE,
Othmer
OF,
Grayson
M,
Eckroth
D:
Encyclopedia
of
Chemical
Technology,
ed
3,
vol
22.
New
York,
John
Wiley
&
Sons,
1983.
14.
Gerber
DB,
Mancl
KM,
Shurson
GC:
Gas
levels
survey
of
Ohio
swine
confinement
facilities.
St.
Joseph,
MI,
American
Society
of
Agricultural
Engineers
(Winter
meeting),
1989,
pp
1
-9
.
15.
Swine
Housing
and
Equipment
Handbook
(MWPS-8).
Ames,
IA,
Midwest
Plan
Service,
1983.
16.
Mechanical
Ventilating
Systems
for
Livestock
Housing
(MWPS-32).
Ames,
IA,
Midwest
Plan
Service,
1990.
17.
Natural
Ventilating
Systems
for
Livestock
Housing
(MWPS-33).
Ames,
IA,
Midwest
Plan
Service,
1989.
18.
Livestock
Waste
Facilities
Handbook
(MWPS-18).
Ames,
IA,
Mid
-
west
Plan
Service,
1985.
19.
Pork
Industry
Handbook.
West
Lafayette,
IN,
Purdue
University
,
1991.
ARTICLE
1/9
REVIEW
QUESTIONS
The
article
you
have
read
qualifies
for
1
/
2
hour
of
Continuing
Education
Credit
from
the
University
of
Pennsylvania
School
of
Veterinary
Medicine.
Choo
se
only
the
one
best
answ
er
t
o
eac
h
o
f
the
following
questions;
then
mark
your
answers
on
the
registration
form
inserted
in
The
Compendium.
1.
Which
of
the
following
gases
has
an
odor
in
swine
facilities?
a.
methane
b.
carbon
monoxide
c.
carbon
dioxide
d.
ammonia
e.
hydrogen
sulfide
2.
Which
of
the
following
is
a
nontoxic
but
noxious
gas
'that
creates
an
asphyxiating
atmosphere
by
replacing
oxygen
.,
a.
methane
b.
carbon
monoxide
c.
carbon
dioxide
d.
ammonia
e.
hydrogen
sulfide
3
Which
of
the
following
is
most
likely
to
be
incriminated.
as
increasing
the
incidence
of
stillbirth
in
pigs
and
thus
a
concern
for
pregnant
humans?
a.
methane
b.
carbon
monoxide
c.
carbon
dioxide
d.
ammonia
might
be
c.
hydrogen
sulfide
4.
Gas
tests
should
be
conducted
continuously
for
at
least
how
many
hours?
a.
2
b.
4
c.
8
d.
24
5.
ti
Combustible-fuel
onprod
uc
eexcess
h
eaters
ive
a.
methane.
that
result
in
incomplete
cornbus
b.
carbon
monoxide.
c.
carbon
dioxide.
d.
ammonia.
e.
hydrogen
sulfide.