Physical growth of Swiss children from birth to 20 years of age. First Zurich longitudinal study of growth and development


Prader, A.; Largo, R.H.; Molinari, L.; Issler, C.

Helvetica Paediatrica Acta. Supplementum 52: 3-125

1989


Physical growth from birth to adulthood in healthy Swiss children born 1954-1956 fa described. The data are based on the First Zurich Longitudinal Study in which 137 individuals of each sex have been followed from birth to adulthood between 1954 and 1976. Distance standards of 20 anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and head circumference are presented as mean values and standard deviations or as median values (for weight and skinfold thickness) with smoothed empirical centiles. Velocity standards are provided for seven anthropometric parameters. The following standard growth charts for clinical use are presented: weight, length/height and head circumference in the perinatal period, in the age range of 0-48 months and in the age range of 1-18 years (including some data on puberty), as well as weight for length/height and height velocity (cross-sectional and peak height centered). Comparison of the growth standards with those of previous Swiss studies and of recent foreign studies revealed only minor differences. Various aspects relevant for the clinical use of growth standards, such as measurement error or secular trend, are discussed.

Department
of
Pediatrics,
University
of
Zurich,
Switzerland
Physical
growth
of
Swiss
children
from
birth
to
20
years
of
age
First
Zurich
Longitudinal
Study
of
Growth
and
Development*
A.
PRADER,
R.
H.
LARGO,
L.
MOLINARI,
C.
ISSLER
Contents
Abbreviations
4
Summary
Zusammenfassung
Résumé
5
Introduction
6
Methods
(1.
Subjects
2.
Timing
of
the
examinations
3.
Team
4,
Equipment
5.
Technique
of
measurement)
7
Statistical
procedures
(1.
Data
checking
2.
Calculation
3.
Smoothing
pro-
cedures)
9
Results
and
discussion
(1.
Measurement
error
2.
Accuracy
of
the
empirical
centiles
3.
Remarks
on
the
distance
and
velocity
standards
4.
Practical
aspects
of
measuring,
reliability
of
the
results
and
validity
of
the
standards
5.
Com-
parison
with
previous
publications
of
the
First
Zurich
Longitudinal
Study
6.
Comparison
with
other
Swiss
growth
studies
7.
Comparison
with
recent
foreign
growth
studies)
10
Acknowledgments
29
References
29
Appendix
I:
Tables
32
Appendix
II:
Standard
growth
charts
107
*
Dedicated
to
Professor
ANDREAS
FANCONI
and
to
the
memory
of
his
father,
Professor
GUIDO
FANCONI,
as
a
tribute
for
their
effort
and
success
in
editing
the
Helvetica
Paediatrica
Acta
from
its
foundation
in
1945
to
its
fusion
with
the
European
Journal
of
Pediatrics
in
1989.
Professor
GUIDO
FANCONI,
who
was
medical
director
of
the
Kinderspital
Zurich
from
1929
to
1962,
initiated
the
First
Zurich
Longitudinal
Study
of
Growth
and
Development.
Over
the
years
many
reports
on
the
,
results
have
appeared
in
Helvetica
Paediatrica
Acta,
and
we
are
proud
to
publish
the
present
report
with
its
last
independent
issue.
Correspondence:
Prof.
A.
Prader,
Universitats-Kinderklinik,
Steinwiesstrasse
75,
CH-8032
Zurich,
Switzerland
3
Abbreviations
Weight
Supine
Length
Standing
Height
CRL
Crown-Rump
Length
W
for
H
Weight
for
Length/Height
SH
Sitting
Height
SILL
Supine
Subischial
Leg
Length
SILH
Standing
Subischial
Leg
Height
CRL/SILL
Ratio
Crown-Rump
Length/Supine
Subischial
Leg
Length
SH/SILH
Ratio
Sitting
Height/Standing
Subischial
Leg
Height
AL
Arm
Length
HC
Head
Circumference
HBPD
Head
Biparietal
Diameter
HFOD
Head
Fronto-occipital
Diameter
HFOD/HBPD
=
Ratio
Head
Fronto-occipital/Biparietal
Diameter
CHC
Chest
Circumference
UAC
Upper
Arm
Circumference
CAC
Calf
Circumference
BHD
Bihumeral
Diameter
BID
Biiliac
Diameter
HBD
Humerus
Bicondylar
Diameter
FDB
Femur
Bicondylar
Diameter
BS
Biceps
Skinfold
Thickness
TS
Triceps
Skinfold
Thickness
SSS
Subscapular
Skinfold
Thickness
SIS
Suprailiac
Skinfold
Thickness
CSHV
Cross-sectional
Height
Velocity
PCHV
Peak-centered
Height
Velocity
M
=
Mean
SD
=
Standard
Deviation
N
=
Number
Summary
Physical
groWth
from
birth
to
adulthood
in
healthy
Swiss
children
born
1954-1956
is
described.
The
data
are
based
on
the
First
Zurich
Longitudinal
Study
in
which
137
individuals
of
each
sex
have
been
followed
from
birth
to
adulthood
between
1954
and
1976.
Distance
standards
of
20
anthropometric
measurements
such
as
weight,
height
and
head
circumference
are
presented
as
mean
values
and
standard
deviations
or
as
median
values
(for
weight
and
skinfold
thickness)
with
smoothed
empirical
centiles.
Velocity
standards
are
provided
for
seven
anthropometric
parameters.
The
following
standard
growth
charts
for
clinical
use
are
presented:
weight,
length/height
and
head
circum-
ference
in
the
perinatal
period,
in
the
age
range
of
0-48
months
and
in
the
age
range
of
1-18
years
(including
some
data
on
puberty),
as
well
as
weight
for
length/height
and
height
velocity
(cross-sectional
and
peak
height
centered).
Comparison
of
the
growth
standards
with
those
of
previous
Swiss
studies
and
of
recent
foreign
studies
revealed
only
minor
differences.
Various
aspects
relevant
for
the
clinical
use
of
growth
standards,
such
as
measurement
error
or
secular
trend,
are
discussed.
Zusammenfassung
Es
wird
das
korperliche
Wachstum
von
der
Geburt
bis
zum
Erwachsenen-
alter
von
gesunden
Schweizer
Kindern
der
Geburtsjahrgange
1954
bis
1956
beschrieben.
Es
handelt
sich
urn
Resultate
der
Ersten
Zincher
Longitudinal-
studie
von
Wachstum
und
Entwicklung,
in
der
zwischen
1954
und
1976
je
137
Knaben
und
Madchen
von
der
Geburt
his
zum
Erwachsenenalter
regelmassig
untersucht
worden
sind.
Die
Distanzwerte
von
20
Korpermassen
(Gewicht,
Grosse,
Knochenalter
usw.)
und
die
Geschwindigkeitswerte
von
7
ausgewahl-
ten
Korpermassen
werden
tabellarisch
als
Mittelwerte
und
Standardabwei-
chungen
oder
als
Medianwerte
(Gewicht
und
Hautfaltendicke)
mit
geglatteten
empirischen
Perzentilen
dargestellt.
Ferner
werden
die
folgenden
Standard-
Kurven
fur
den
klinischen
Gebrauch
vorgestellt:
Gewicht,
Lange/Hohe
und
Kopfumfang
in
der
Perinatalzeit,
im
Alter
von
0-48
Monaten
und
im
Alter
von
1-18
Jahren
(mit
Hinweisen
auf
die
Pubertatsentwicklung),
sowie
Gewicht
bezogen
auf
Lange/GrOsse
und
Geschwindigkeit
des
Grossen-Wachstums
(querschnittsmassig
und
zentriert
auf
den
Gipfel
des
Pubertatswachstums-
schubes).
Ein
Vergleich
mit
friiheren
schweizerischen
Wachstumsstudien
und
mit
neueren
auslandischen
Wachstumsstudien
zeigt
nur
geringe
Unterschiede.
Verschiedene
Fragen
fiber
den
klinischen
Gebrauch
der
Standardkurven,
wie
Messfehler
und
silkularer
Trend,
werden
besprochen.
5
Résumé
L'article
decrit
la
croissance
de
la
naissance
a
l'age
adulte
chez
des
enfants
suisses
en
bonne
sante
nes
entre
1954 et
1956.
Les
resultats
proviennent
de
la
premiere
etude
longitudinale
de
Zurich
sur
la
croissance
et
le
developpernent
des
enfants,
dans
laquelle
sont
inclus
137
individus
de
chaque
sexe,
suivis
depuis
la
naissance
jusqu'a
Page
adulte
entre
1954
et
1976.
Des
standards
de
distance
pour
20
mesures
anthropometriques
tels
que
le
poids,
la
taille
et
le
perimetre
cranien
sont
presentes
soit
en
valeur
moyenne
et
deviation
standard,
soit
en
valeur
mediane
(poids
et
epaisseur
du
pli
cutane)
avec
les
percentiles
empiriques
lissees.
Des
standards
selectionnes
de
la
vitesse
de
croissance
sont
donnes
pour
7
parametres
anthropometriques.
Dans
le
but
d'une
application
clinique
sont
presentees
les
courbes
de
croissance
standards
suivantes:
poids,
taille
et
perimetre
cranien
pour
la
periode
perinatale,
la
periode
de
0
a
48
mois
et
la
periode
de
1
a
18
ans
(avec
reperes
de
puberte),
ainsi
que
les
standards
de
poids
pour
la
taille
et
la
vitesse
de
croissance
de
la
taille
(etude
transversale
et
etude
centree
sur
le
pic
de
Pacceleration
pubertaire).
Une
comparaison
avec
les
resultats
provenant
d'etudes
suisses
anterieures
et
d'etudes
recentes
etrangeres
n'a
revele
que
de
minimes
differences.
Quelques
aspects
importants
pour
1'usage
clinique
de
croissance
standards,
tels
que
des
erreurs
de
mesure
et
l'acroissement
seculaire,
sont
egalement
discutes.
Introduction
The
First
Zurich
Longitudinal
Study
of
Growth
and
Development
was
carried
out
between
1954
and
1976.
The
aim
of
this
study
was
to
describe
growth
and
development
from
birth
to
adulthood
as
completely
as
possible
and
to
obtain
growth
standards
for
Swiss
children.
In
1960
and
1977
a
description
of
the
children's
recruitment,
of
the
anthropometric
methods
and
of
the
results
of
physical
growth
from
birth
to
4
and
to
12
years
of
age
were
published
in
German
[22,
47].
In
the
present
paper
we
summarize
the
methodology
and
present
the
complete
distance
data and
selected
velocity
data
(Appendix
I)
as
well
as
a
series
of
standard
growth
charts
for
clinical
use
(Appendix
II).
Other
aspects
of
our
data
on
physical
growth
have
been
discussed
else-
where:
Statistical
evaluation
of
our
strictly
longitudinal
data
[16-19,
36,
44,
54,
55],
perinatal
growth
[38],
parent
child
correlation
[6],
target
height
and
secular
trend
[45],
skeletal
maturation
[13,
28],
diameter
and
cortical
thickness
of
the
metacarpal
bones
[4],
pubertal
development
[14,
15,
39,
40,
41,
62].
In
addition
to
physical
growth
we
have
analysed
so
far
the
following
aspects
of
child
devel-
opment:
maturation
of
bowel
and
bladder
control
[34,
35,
37],
development
of
sleep
behavior
[1,
7]
and
of
vision
[33].
6
Our
study
was
part
of
an
international
multicenter
study
on
growth
and
development
of
healthy
children,
coordinated
by
the
Centre
International
de
l'Enfance
in
Paris.
Five
European
Centers
(Brussels,
London,
Paris,
Stockholm
and
Zurich)
and
2
African
Centers
(Dakar
and
Kampala)
participated.
Reports
on
the
baseline
methodology
and
the
organization
were
published
in
1960
and
1962
[10,
43].
A
final
report
on
25
years
of
international
coordinated
activity
with
selected
papers
from
the
participating
centers
was
presented
in
1981
[11].
The
fact
that
we
were
able
to
collect
complete
data
of
20
anthropometric
measurements,
bone
age
and
pubertal
development
from
birth
to
adulthood
in
137
individuals
of
each
sex
makes
our
study
the
largest
and
most
complete
birth-to-maturity
cohort
ever
studied
[58].
The
collection
of
this
data
was
facilitated
by
the
high
socio-economic
standard
of
our
country
and
its
small
size
with
short
travelling
distances.
These
favourable
circumstances
allow
us
also
to
follow
regularly
the
offsprings
of
our
probands
in
the
Zurich
Second
Generation
Study
(so
far
more
than
200
subjects).
Methods
1.
Subjects
207
girls
and
206
boys
were
recruited
at
random
during
the
first
two
weeks
after
birth
[22].
They
were
all
healthy
infants
having
a
birthweight
of
2500
grams
or
more.
Their
exact
gestational
age
at
birth
was
not
recorded.
They
were
all
of
Swiss
origin
and
their
parents
lived
in
the
city
of
Zurich
or
in
its
immediate
vicinity.
They
formed
a
representative
sample
of
a
Swiss
urban
population
according
to
the
occupational
status
and
income
of
the
father
and
the
residential
area
of
the
family
[22].
Between
1954
and
1976
70
girls
and
69
boys
were
lost
because
of
lack
of
interest
by
the
parents
or
the
child,
moving
of
the
family,
unfavourable
social
conditions
or
death
of
the
child.
One
third
of
these
children
left
the
study
during
the
first
year
of
life.
The
initial
number
of
subjects
decreased
to
137
of
each
sex
at
age
20.
The
exact
number
of
subjects
examined
at
the
various
ages
is
given
in
the
tables
of
Appendix
I.
2.
Timing
of
the
examinations
The
children
were
seen
at
the
ages
of
1,
3,
6,
9,
12,
18
and
24
months
and
thereafter
annually.
Beginning
at
age
9
in
girls
and
at
age
10
in
boys,
they
were
examined
six-monthly
until
the
annual
increment
in
height
was
less
than
0.5
cm
per
year.
Thereafter,
the
children
were
seen
annually
and
finally
discharged
when
the
increment
in
height
had
become
less
than
0.5
cm
in
two
years.
The
examinations
were
carried
out
within
the
following
time
limits:
for
the
age
of
1
month
±
2
days,
for
3-18
months
±
1
week,
for
2
years
and
above
±
2
weeks.
3.
Team
The
measurements
were
taken
by
two
anthropometrists,
one
working
from
1954
to
1962
and
the
other
from
1962
to
1976.
Thus,
only
two
persons
were
involved
in
taking
all
the
measurements
over
a
period
of
22
years.
4.
Equipment
An
infant
scale
of
the
balance-beam
type
with
an
accuracy
of
0.01
kg
was
used
up
to
the
age
of
1
1
/
2
years.
Beginning
at
age
2,
the
children
were
weighed
on
a
standing-beam
scale
with
an
accuracy
of
0.1
kg.
The
accuracy
of
the
scales
was
checked
annually.
Supine
length
and
crown-rump
length
were
measured
on
a
supine
measuring
table
(Harpen-
den).
This
table
consisted
of
a
firm
horizontal
board
with
a
fixed
vertical
head-board
and
a
sliding
7
vertical
foot-board.
The
measurements
were
made
from
a
sliding
scale
attached
to
he
foot-board
and
were
read
to
the
nearest
millimeter.
Standing
height
and
sitting
height
were
measured
with
a
stadiometer
(Harpenden).
This
sta-
diometer
consisted
of
a
firm
wall
board
with
a
sliding
horizontal
head-board
(balanced
by
a
counter
weight).
The
measurements
were
made
from
a
sliding
scale
fixed
to
the
head-board
and
were
read
to
the
nearest
millimeter.
Both
the
measuring
table
and
the
stadiometer
were
checked
every
three
months
for
accuracy.
A
narrow
(6
mm)
plastic
tape
calibrated
in
millimeters
was
used
to
measure
arm
length,
head-,
chest-,
upper-arm-
and
calf-circumference.
All
measurements
were
read
to
the
nearest
millimeter
except
arm
length
which
was
read
to
the
nearest
centimeter.
The
accuracy
of
the
measuring
tape
was
checked
monthly.
Fronto-occipital
and
biparietal
diameter
were
measured
using
calipers
with
an
accuracy
of
1
mm.
The
bihumeral,
bicondylar
and
biiliac
diameter
were
also
measured
with
calipers.
The
readings
were
made
to
the
nearest
millimeter.
The
Harpenden
Skinfold
Caliper
graded
in
0.2
mm
was
used
to
measure
subcutaneous
tissue
over
the
biceps
and
triceps
and
in
the
subscapular
and
supra-
iliac
area.
The
measurements
were
estimated
to
the
nearest
0.1
millimeter.
5.
Technique
of
measurement
Infants
were
measured
in
the
nude
and
children
barefooted
with
light
undercloths.
Measure-
ments
were
taken
at
least
twice
or
more
times
and
the
average
value
was
recorded.
In
rare
instances
measurements
could
not
be
taken
because
of
lack
of
cooperation
by
the
child.
In
the
following
a
description
of
the
techniques
used
is
given.
The
reader
is
also
referred
to
the
photographs
showing
techniques
and
instruments
in
our
previous
paper
[471.
Weight.•
Infants
were
placed
on
a
dry
diaper
(for
which
weight
correction
was
made)
in
the
pan
of
the
balance.
Children
stood
on
the
balance
scale.
Occasionally,
with
difficult
children
the
weight
was
ascertained
as
the
difference
between
the
weights
of
the
mother
holding
the
child
and
then
standing
alone.
Supine
length.'
The
infant
was
laid
supine
on
the
measuring
table.
One
observer
(usually
the
mother)
firmly
held
the
crown
of
the
head
against
the
head-board,
with
the
head
positioned
so
that
the
upper
margin
of
the
external
auditory
meatus
and
the
lower
margin
of
the
orbit
of
the
eye
were
perpendicular.
The
second
observer
stretched
the
body
and
the
legs
of
the
child
and
brought
the
sliding
foot-board
into
firm
contact,with
the
soles
of
the
feet.
Standing
height:
The
child
was
asked
to
stand
as
tall
and
straight
as
possible
with
the
heels,
buttocks
and
shoulders
tangentially
against
the
wall-board
of
the
stadiometer.
The
heels
had
to
maintain
contact
with
the
ground.
Either
the
ankles
or
the
knees
were
brought
in
contact
with
each
other.
The
position
of
the
head
was
such
that
the
upper
margin
of
the
external
auditory
meatus
and
the
lower
margin
of
the
orbit
of
the
eye
were
horizontal.
The
child
was
then
stretched
gently
by
upward
pressure
under
the
mastoid
process
and
instructed
to
relax
the
shoulders.
The
sliding
head-board
was
lowered
to
rest
firmly
on
the
head
of
the
child.
Crown-rump
length:
Head
and
body
position
were
the
same
as
for
measuring
supine
length.
The
legs
were
flexed
at
right
angles
to
the
body
while
the
sacrum
was
pressed
against
the
table.
The
foot-board
was
brought
up
firmly
against
the
buttocks
and
ischial
tuberosities.
Sitting
height:
A
rigid
horizontal
seat
(60
cm
high)
was
placed
in
front
of
the
wall-board
of
the
stadiometer.
The
child
was
asked
to
sit
as
straight
as
possible
on
this
seat
with
his
back
and
shoulders
against
the
wall-board.
The
hands
were
placed
on
the
thighs.
If
the
buttocks
were
not
in
firm
contact
with
the
seat
the
child's
feet
were
placed
upon
a
suitable
rest
in
order
to
flex
the
hip
joints
and
to
bring
the
ischial
tuberosities
more
exactly
onto
the
seat.
The
position
of
the
head
was
the
same
as
for
the
standing
height
measurement.
Subischial
leg
length
and
leg
height
were
calculated
by
subtraction
of
crown-rump
length
from
supine
length
and
of
sitting
height
from
standing
height,
respectively.
Arm
length:
The
child's
left
arm
was
kept
in
moderate
flexion.
The
distance
between
the
acromion,
epicondylus
humeri
lateralis
and
tip
of
the
third
finger
was
measured.
8
Head
circumference:
The
measuring
tape
was
placed
around
the
child's
head
at
the
same
level
on
each
side.
It
crossed
the
forehead
superior
to
the
supraorbital
ridges
and
passed
the
prominence
of
the
occiput
posteriorly.
The
tension
of
the
tape
was
such
that
the
hairs
were
firmly
pressed
against
the
skull.
The
largest
circumference
was
recorded.
Biparietal
diameter:
The
tips
of
the
calipers
were
placed
on
the
parietal
area
of
the
child
head
and
the
largest
diameter
measured
by
gently
moving
the
two
tips
in
the
same
frontal
and
horizontal
planes.
Head
.fronto-occipi
tal
diameter:
The
calipers
were
applied
in
the
sagittal
plane
with
one
tip
of
the
calipers
on
the
forehead
and
the
other
one
on
the
prominence
of
the
occiput.
The
largest
diameter
was
measured
by
gently
moving
the
tips
of
the
calipers
up
and
down.
Chest
circumference.•
The
measuring
tape
was
put
around
the
chest
at
a
right
angle
to
the
vertebral
column
at
the
level
of
the
mamilla.
The
measurement
recorded
was
the
mean
value
during
the
normal
respiration.
Upper-arm
circumference:
The
measuring
tape
was
passed
around
the
left
upper
arm
in
a
place
at
right
angles
to
the
humerus
midway
between
the
acromion
process
and
the
ulnar
olecranon.
The
tape
was
brought
in
firm
contact
with
the
skin
without
compressing
the
tissues
and
the
largest
circumference
recorded.
Calf
circumference:
The
tape
was
placed
around
the
left
leg
in
a
place
at
right
angles
to
the
tibia
over
the
calf
muscles.
The
tape
was
in
firm
contact
with
the
skin
but
did
not
compress
the
underlying
tissues.
The
maximum
circumference
was
noted.
Bihumeral
diameter
(shoulder
width):
The
child
was
asked
to
sit
upright.
The
greater
tuberosity
of
the
humerus
was
located
on
both
sides
with
the
free
fingers
of
the
examiner
and
the
calipers
then
applied
gently
but
firmly
to
these
two
points.
Biiliac
(pelvic)
diameter:
The
calipers
were
applied
firmly
to
the
lateral
most
surfaces
of
the
crest
of
the
ilium,
and
the
maximum
diameter
recorded.
Humerus
bicondylar
diameter:•
The
child's
left
arm
was
flexed
to
90°
and
supinated.
The
calipers
were
then
applied
firmly
to
the
bony
prominences
of
the
distal
epicondyles
of
the
humerus.
Femur
bicondylar
diameter:
The
left
knee
was
flexed
at
90'
and
the
calipers
applied
firmly
to
the
bony
prominences
of
the
distal
epicondyles
of
the
femur.
Skin
fold
measurements:
A
fold
of
skin
and
subcutaneous
tissue
was
lifted
up
from
the
underly-
ing
muscle
and
held
firmly
between
thumb
and
index
finger
during
the
whole
measuring
procedure.
This
fold
was
grasped
with
the
caliper
and
the
measurement
was
read
within
3
to
5
seconds
after
the
full
pressure
of
the
caliper
was
applied.
Biceps
skinfold:
This
was
measured
over
the
anterior
surface
of
the
biceps
muscle
at
the
same
level
as
that
for
the
biceps
skinfold.
Half
distance
between
the
acromion
and
the
lateral
epicondylar
of
the
humerus
of
the
left
arm.
Triceps
skinfold:
This
was
measured
over
the
posterior
surface
of
the
triceps
muscle
at
the
same
level
as
that
for
the
biceps
skinfold.
Subscapular
slcinfold:
The
fold
was
measured
immediately
below
and
just
lateral
to
the
inferior
angle
of
the
left
scapula.
The
fold
was
held
in
a
line
at
approximately
45°
to
the
vertebral
column.
Supra
iliac
skinfold:
The
fold
was
measured
at
the
mid-point
between
the
left
anterior
spina
iliaca
and
the
umbilicus,
the
line
of
the
fold
being
approximately
45'
to
the
median
line.
Statistical
procedures
1.
Data
checking
All
data
were
checked
for
measurement,
writing
or
punching
errors
by
drawing
a
smooth
curve
(by
spline
functions)
through
each
individual
distance
curve.
All
data
points
whose
deviation
from
this
curve
was
more
than
7.5
standard
deviations
(as
defined
in
Results
1.
and
Table
1)
were
listed
and
further
checked.
A
deviation
of
7.5
standard
deviations
was
chosen
because
by
using
5
standard
deviations
too
many
points
were
listed
for
which
no
error
could
be
ascertained,
while
by
using
10
standard
deviations
several
evident
errors
were
missed.
Suppl.
52
9
For
body
parameters
not
supposed
to
decrease
with
time
all
occurrences
of
a
decreasing
value
together
with
the
preceeding
value
were
listed.
These
values
were
checked
against
the
values
on
the
original
sheet
for
the
same,
the
preceeding
and
the
succeeding
occasion.
Errors
were
only
corrected
when
the
error
could
be
clearly
recognized
as
punching
error
(e.g.
370
instead
of
37),
writing
or
reading
error
(e.g.
83
instead
of
38),
exchange
of
two
values
(e.g.
FBD
5.7
and
HBD
8.3),
otherwise
they
were
deleted.
Weight
and
skinfold
measurements
were
corrected
or
deleted
only
in
extreme
cases,
because
of
their
large
variability.
It
is
nevertheless
unlikely
that
all
incorrect
values
were
removed.
This
is
particularly
true
for
the
first
years
of
age
and
for
series
with
missing
values.
2.
Calculation
After
data
checking,
data
of
all
children
were
used
for
further
computations,
except
those
of
children
who
left
the
study
within
18
months
of
age
(25
boys,
28
girls)
and
of
14
children
with
chronic
diseases
(e.g.
neurofibromatosis,
a
list
of
these
children
can
be
obtained
from
the
authors).
Individual
measurements
outside
the
scheduled
time
limits
were
omitted.
If
a
child
was
dismissed
from
the
study
before
the
age
of
20
years,
because
his
growth
in
stature
was
less
than
5
mm
in
two
years,
his
last
measurement
was
carried
on
until
the
age
of
20
years.
This
was
done
in
order
to
avoid
possible
bias.
All
the
data
were
evaluated
cross-sectionally.
Means,
standard
deviations
and
empirical
cen-
tiles
were
computed
for
distance
and
yearly
or
twice
half
yearly
increments
for
all
ages.
Each
centile
curve
was
then
separately
smoothed
(independently
from
the
other
centiles)
by
spline
functions
[36],
the
smoothing
parameter
being
determined
by
cross
validation.
Age
of
peak-height
centered
centiles
were
obtained
by
first
fitting
individual
velocity
curves
by
spline
functions
and
then
aligning
the
curves
on
mean
age
of
peak-height
velocity
[36,
54].
3.
Smoothing
procedure
for
centiles
The
smoothing
procedure
by
spline
functions
was
chosen
because
it
is
reproducible.
The
results
were,
with
the
exception
of
a
few
cases,
satisfactory.
Extreme
centiles
were
sometimes
over-
or
undersmoothed.
This
happened
for
the
distance
curve
of
arm
length
in
boys
and
subscapular
skinfold
thickness
in
girls
and
for
the
velocity
curves
of
weight,
height,
subischial
leg
length
and
head
circumference
in
both
sexes.
For
all
measurements
half-yearly
smoothed
values
were
interpolated
between
16
and
20
years
for
boys
and
between
15
and
20
years
for
girls
because
at
these
half-yearly
occasions
the
samples
were
not
complete.
Results
and
Discussion
In
Appendix
I
means
and
standard
deviations,
or
medians
in
the
case
of
weight
and
skinfold
thickness,
and
smoothed
empirical
centiles
of
all
distance
data
and
of
selected
velocity
data
are
given.
In
Appendix
II
standard
growth
charts
for
clinical
use
are
presented*.
Some
of
them
have
been
in
use
for
several
years.
They
are
in
German
(with
explana-
tions
in
English)
because
they
are
widely
used
in
the
German
speaking
coun-
tries.
The
distance
growth
charts
include
weight,
length/height
and
head
cir-
cumference
in
the
perinatal
period
[38],
in
the
age
range
of
0-48
months
and
in
the
age
range
of
1-18
years
(including
some
data
on
puberty)
as
well
as
weight
for
length/height
and
height
velocity
(cross-sectional
and
peak-height
centered).
In
the
following,
some
remarks
will
be
made
on
measurement
errors
and
accuracy
of
empirical
centiles.
Then
a
number
of
methodological
aspects
of
the
*
Distributed
exclusively
by
the
Societe
Nestle
SA,
CH-1880
Vevey,
Switzerland.
10
Table
1.
Standard
Deviation
of
the
Error
of
Measurement.
Calculated
by
Regression
(Regr.)
and
Cross
Validation
(C.V.)
Girls
Boys
Regr.
C.V.
Regr.
C.V.
Weight
(g)
440
470
430
420
Supine
Length
(mm)
4,0
5,2
5,2
6,8
Standing
Height
(mm)
5,0
6,1
4,7
6,0
Crown-Rump
Length
(mm)
5,5
5,6
4,5
5,1
Sitting
Height
(mm)
8,5
8,8
8,1
8,4
Arm
Length
(mm)
7,0
7,2
6,7
7,6
Head
Circumference
(mm)
2,4
2,5
2,3
2,5
Biparietal
Diameter
(mm)
0,9
0,9
1,1
1,1
Fronto-occipital
Diameter
(mm)
1,5
1,2
1,9
1,4
Chest
Circumference
(mm)
11,0
11,0
13,0
12,0
Upper-Arm
Circumference
(mm)
3,7
4,1
4,5
4,1
Calf
Circumference
(mm)
3,9
4,4
4,0
3,7
Bihumeral
Diameter
(mm)
6,7
7,3
7,3
7,7
Biiliac
Diameter
(mm)
2,0
2,3
2,4
2,3
Humerus
Bicondylar
Diameter
(mm)
0,9
1,0
1,0
0,9
Femur
Bicondylar
Diameter
(mm)
1,0
1,1
1,0
1,0
Biceps
Skinfold
Thickness
(mm)
1,4
1,2
1,1
1,1
Triceps
Skinfold
Thickness
(mm)
1,3
1,2
1,1
1,0
Subscapular
Skinfold
Thickness
(mm)
0,6
0,7
0,6 0,6
Suprailiac
Skinfold
Thickness
(mm)
1,2
1,3
0,9
0,9
distance
and
velocity
standards
will
be
addressed
and
our
growth
standards
will
be
compared
with
those
of
other
Swiss
and
foreign
cross-sectional
and
longitu-
dinal
studies.
Finally,
some
aspects
such
as
the
secular
trend
which
may
affect
the
clinical
relevance
of
our
growth
standards,
will
be
discussed.
1.
Measurement
error
The
standard
deviation
of
the
error
of
measurement
was
estimated
for
all
measuring
procedures
(Table
1).
We
considered
the
error
of
measurement
to
have
a
normal
distribution
and
therefore
expected
the
true
magnitude
of
a
parameter
to
be
within
two
standard
deviations
from
the
measurement
in
about
95%
of
the
cases.
These
standard
deviations
not
only
reflect
the
various
sources
of
error
of
the
measuring
procedures,
but
also
the
individual
variability
like
diurnal
and
seasonal
oscillations
and
spontaneous
short-term
changes
of
velocity
[27].
Both
components
were
assumed
to
be
constant
over
the
whole
age
span
investigated,
though
we
know
that
both
tend
to
be
larger
for
the
younger
child.
The
standard
deviation
was
estimated
essentially
by
drawing
a
smooth
curve
through
the
individual
distance
measurements
for
every
child
between
2
and
8
years
of
age,
11
Table
2.
95%
Percentage
Range
for
Empirical
Centiles
Nominal
Percentage
of
Empirical
Centile
95%
Percentage
Range
(Number
of
Measurements)
100
150
200
3
0,9—
8,2
1,1—
6,9
1,3—
6,3
10
5,3-17,2
6,0-15,7
6,4-14,8
25
17,3-34,2
18,6-32,4
19,4-31,4
50
40,3-59,7
42,1-57,9 43,1-56,9
75
65,8-82,7
67,6-81,4
68,6-80,6
90
82,8-94,7
84,3-94,0
85,2-93,6
97
91,8-99,1
93,1-98,9
93,7-98,7
cm/yr
15
3
Months
10
6
Months
12
Months
p97
50
3
, ,
I
,
i i
i
1
Age
5
10
15
years
Fig.
1.
95%
confidence
intervals
for
true
height
velocity
(cm/year)
in
a
boy
with
an
observed
yearly
increment
of
6
cm,
calculated
from
height
increments
in
observation
periods
of
3,
6
and
12
months
and
based
on
a
standard
deviation
of
the
error
of
measurement
of
5
mm
(Table
1).
For
observation
periods
of
3
and
6
months
the
95%
confidence
intervals
are
too
large
to
allow
reliable
velocity
results.
and
averaging
the
squared
deviations
from
these
curves.
This
age
span
was
chosen,
because
of
the
relatively
steady
growth
pattern
of
most
children
in
this
period.
The
smooth
curve
was
computed
in
two
different
ways,
first
by
poly-
nomial
regression
and
secondly
by
spline
functions.
The
results
were
consistent
in
both
methods
and
in
both
sexes.
12
Table
3.
Comparison
with
Previous
Swiss
Growth
Studies:
Weight
(kg)
Age
(years)
Zurich
Median
Basel
[24,
25]
Median
Geneva
[31]
Median
Zurich
[2]
Median
Girls
0
'/2
1
'3,3
7,0
9,5
3,4
7,1
9,6
-
-
-
-
-
5
18,2
18,3
18,7
20,1
10
30,8
31,5
31,8
32,0
15
51,7
53,2
53,2
53,1
18
54,5
58,0
52,9
-
20
54,4
-
Boys
0
3,4
3,5
-
'/2
7,5
7,7
-
1
10,1
9,9
5
18,7
18,3
19,2
20,4
10
31,3
30,9
31,8
32,4
15
54,3
53,3
54,2
55,4
18
63,4
61,8
63,7
-
20
66,2
-
-
-
Year
of
Birth
1954-56
1938-62?
1953-68?
1950-61?
Year
of
Examination
1954-76
(L)
1956-62
(C)
1972
(C)
1956-62
(C+L)
L
=
Longitudinal
Study
C
=
Cross-Sectional
Study
The
calculation
of
velocity
is
based
on
two
distance
measurements
taken
with
a
certain
time
interval.
Under
the
assumption
that
the
errors
of
the
two
measurements
are
statistically
independent,
the
standard
deviation
of
the
error
of
increment
can
be
obtained
by
multiplying
the
standard
deviation
of
the
error
of
measurement
(Table
1)
by
the
square
root
of
2
(=
1.41)
and
dividing
the
result
by
the
time
interval
(years)
between
the
two
measurements
(see
also
Fig.
1).
2.
Accuracy
of
the
empirical
centiles
The
accuracy
of
empirical
centiles
depends
on
the
number
of
measure-
ments:
the
larger
the
number
of
measurements,
the
more
precise
are
the
calcu-
lated
centiles.
The
accuracy
of
the
centiles
presented
in
this
paper
is
illustrated
in
Table
2.
The
second
column
of
this
table
gives
asymptotic
(based
on
the
normal
distribution)
95%
percentage
ranges
for
the
true
percentage
corres-
ponding
to
the
calculated
nominal
empirical
centiles,
when
using
150
measure-
ments
which
is
about
the
number
of
measurements
available
in
this
study
in
each
sex
and
at
each
age.
The
table
clearly
demonstrates
the
considerable
13
Table
4.
Comparison
with
Previous
Swiss
Growth
Studies:
Length
(0-1
year),
Height
(5-20
years)
(cm)
Age
(years)
Zurich
Basel
[24,
25]
Geneva
[31]
Zurich
[2]
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Girls
0
49,9
1,9
50,0
2,0
- - -
1
/
2
66,1
2,0
66,0
2,0
- - -
1
74,5
2,5
73,5
2,0
- - - -
5
109,6
4,0
108,0
4,5
109,2
4,9
113,0
-
10
138,4
5,6
138,5
5,5
137,6
6,9
140,6
-
15
162,7
5,8
161,0
6,5
161,7
5,9
162,1
18
164,4
5,8
165,0
5,5
163,4
6,0
- -
20
164,6
5,9
- - - - -
Boys
0
50,7
2,3
50,0
1,5
- - - -
1
/
2
67,8
2,2
67,5
1,5
- - - -
1
76,2
2,4
75,5
2,0
- - -
5
111,3
4,6
110,0
4,5
110,4
4,3
113,6
-
10
140,2
6,2
138,5
5,0
138,4
5,7
140,4
-
15
169,7
7,9
167,5
8,0
166,3
7,6
168,5
18
177,1
6,7
176,0
6,5
175,0
6,2
- -
20
178,0
6,9
- - - - - -
variation
of
the
centiles,
e.g.
the
range
of
the
nominal
centile
3
goes
from
centile
1.1
to
centile
6.9,
that
of
the
centile
50
from
centile
42
to
centile
58.
The
limited
degree
of
accuracy
of
the
Gentiles
has
to
be
taken
into
account
when
centile
curves
are
used
clinically.
Because
of
the
smoothing
procedure
the
precision
can
be
expected
to
be
higher.
However,
it
is
difficult
to
assess
the
precise
amount.
3.
Remarks
on
the
distance
and
velocity
standards
(Tables
1-70
of
Appendix
I)
Some
remarks
are
necessary
for
the
understanding
and
the
appropriate
use
of
the
tables
of
Appendix
I.
-
Weight:
Mean
and
standard
deviation
were
omitted
during
the
pubertal
period
because
the
data
were
not
normally
distributed.
-
Length,
height:
Although
not
all
subjects
reached
adult
height
by
age
20
according
to
our
definition
(see
Methods),
standing
height
at
age
20
can
be
regarded
as
the
final
adult
height.
It
increased
between
20
and
25
years
by
2
mm
in
boys
and
0.2
mm
in
girls,
which
is
irrelevant
for
all
practical
purposes.
-
Weight
for
height:
Mean
and
standard
deviation
were
omitted
because
the
data
were
not
normally
distributed.
The
centiles
are
not
empirical.
They
were
calculated
assuming
a
normal
distribution
of
weight
after
a
logarithmic
14
Table
5.
Comparison
with
Previous
Swiss
Growth
Studies:
Weight
for
Height
(kg)
Length/Height
(cm)
Zurich
Geneva
[31]
Median Median
Girls
50
3,4
60
5,8
80
10,7
100
15,3
120
21,9
22,2
140
32,4
32,8
160
47,5
50,5
170
54,3
56,7
Boys
50
3,4
60
5,7
80
11,1
100
15,6
120
22,0
22,5
140
31,9
32,4
160
46,2
48,6
180
63,2
Table
6.
Comparison
with
Previous
Swiss
Growth
Studies:
Head
Circumference
(cm)
Age
(years)
Zurich
Basel
[24,
25]
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Girls
V2
42,7
1,1
42,5
1,0
1
45,8
1,2
45,0
1,0
5
50,8
1,3
50,0
1,5
10
52,1
1,4
52,0
1,3
15
53,9
1,4
53,0
1,5
Boys
V2
43,8
1,2
44,0
1,5
1
47,1
1,3
46,5
1,5
5
52,0
1,4
51,5
1,0
10
53,2
1,4
53,0
1,4
15
55,3
1,6
54,0
1,5
15
Table
7.
Comparison
with
Previous
Swiss
Growth
Studies:
Triceps
Skinfold
Thickness
(mm)
Age
(years)
Zurich
Median
Geneva
[32]
Median
Lausanne
[20]
Median
Girls
1
/ 2
1
10,0
10,4
-
-
-
-
5
10,0
8,8
-
10
11,1
10,7
8,3
15
10,8
16,1
11,0
18
12,2
15,6
-
Boys
1
/ 2
10,2
-
1
11,0
- -
5
9,0
7,7
-
10
8,3
8,4
7,8
15
6,6
10,3
7,3
18
6,4
9,0
-
Table
8.
Comparison
with
Foreign
Growth
Studies:
Weight
(kg)
Age
(years)
Zurich
Median
Belgium
[60]
Median
England
[56]
Median
Holland
[50]
Median
Norway
[61]
Median
Sweden
[30]
Median
USA
[21]
Median
Girls
0
3,3
-
3,4
-
-
3,2
/2
7,0
-
7,4
7,4
7,4
7,2
1
9,5
-
9,7
9,5
-
9,8
9,5
5
18,2
19,2
18,3
19,3
18,7
18,0
17,7
10
30,8 32,8
31,1
33,2
31,3
32,0
32,6
15
51,7
53,1
54,4
55,6
53,1
54,7
53,7
18
54,5
55,7
56,6
59,4
-
56,6
20
54,4
54,4
-
- -
Boys
0
3,4
-
3,5
- - -
3,3
'/2
7,5
-
7,9
7,6
-
7,7
7,9
1
10,1
-
10,2
10,1
--
10,2
10,2
5
18,7
19,8
18,5
19,6
19,5
18,6
18,7
10
31,3
32,0
30,3
33,0
32,1
31,5
31,4
15
54,3
56,2
54,7
57,1
55,5
52,7
56,7
18
63,4
64,0
63,0
69,0
-
-
68,9
20
66,2
65,4
- -
- -
16
transformation
[26].
Weight
for
height
standards
depend
on
chronological
age
and
presence
or
absence
of
puberty
[3].
The
influence
of
these
factors
is
clearly
demonstrated
by
the
Dutch
standards
(Fig.
4).
In
clinical
practice
the
maturational
state
of
the
child
has
to
be
taken
into
account.
Head
circumference
and
diameters:
Data
collection
was
discontinued
at
age
15
because
of
'stylish
hair
abundance
in
many
children.
Additional
data
from
the
Zurich
cross-sectional
head
growth
study
[29]
are
given
to
provide
stan-
dards
between
15
and
19
years.
Chest
circumference:
Data
of
the
girls
are
presented
only
up
to
age
10.5.
At
this
age
the
measurements
were
discontinued
because
of
the
initiation
of
breast
development.
Skinfolds:
Mean
and
standard
deviation
were
omitted
because
of
not
normal
distribution.
Weight
velocity:
Negative
values
at
older
ages
indicate
a
real
weight
loss.
Length/height
velocity:
At
higher
ages
the
measurement
errors
were
in
the
range
of
the
yearly
increments
resulting
in
negative
values
in
the
lower
percentiles.
These
negative
values
were
omitted.
4.
Practical
aspects
of
measuring,
reliability
of
the
results
and
validity
of
the
standards
A
full
discussion
of
the
use
of
the
standard
growth
charts
for
the
clinical
assessment
of
physical
growth
is
outside
of
the
scope
of
this
paper.
There
exist
several
recent
books
on
this
issue
[8, 42,
52]
and
the
reader
is
also
referrred
to
the
standard
textbook
on
human
growth
by
FALKNER
and
TANNER
[12].
Nev-
ertheless,
it
seems
appropriate
to
give
some
warnings
concerning
the
method-
ology
and
the
reliability
of
the
measurements.
The
instruments
used
to
measure
the
child
should
be
checked
regularly.
The
measurements
have
to
be
taken
repeatedly
and
averaged
to
obtain
reliable
values.
The
correct
techniques
described
in
Methods
5.
are
highly
important.
When
serial
height
measurements
are
taken
the
measurement
should
be
taken
always
at
the
same
time
of
the
day
to
avoid
the
influence
of
diurnal
variation.
Even
with
the
best
techniques
the
error
of
measurement
is
considerable
(see
Results
1.)
and
has
therefore
to
be
taken
into
account.
For
the
calculation
of
velocity
this
error
becomes
even
larger.
Fig.
1
illustrates
clearly
that
the
calcu-
lation
of
height
velocity
from
measuring
intervals
of
less
than
1
year
is
very
unreliable.
This
fact
has
great
clinical
importance
and
is
frequently
not
suf-
ficiently
taken
into
account.
The
question
may
be
raised
whether
our
data
are
still
representative
or
outdated
because
of
an
ongoing
secular
trend.
The
Dutch
children,
who
are
the
tallest
in
Europe,
increased
in
height
from
1965
to
1980
by
1
cm
at
the
age
of
6
years,
by
2.4
cm
at
the
age
of
10
years
and
by
4
cm
(males)
and
2
cm
(females)
at
the
age
of
20
[49].
Between
1967
and
1977
the
height
of
young
Swiss
men
at
military
recruitment
increased
by
2
cm
[53].
Between
1977
and
1987
it
was
still
17
Table
9.
Comparison
with
Foreign
Growth
Studies:
Length
(0-1
year),
Height
(5-20
years)
(cm)
Age
(years)
Zurich
Belgium
[60]
England
[56]
France
[51]
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Girls
0
49,9
1,9
-
49,4
1,8
'/2
66,1
2,0
65,5
2,3
64,8
2,2
1
74,5
2,5
-
74,2
2,7
72,6
2,5
5
109,6
4,0
110,2
5,2
107,2
4,7
106,3
4,0
10
138,4
5,6
137,7
6,8
136,4
6,3
134,7
5,3
15
162,7
5,8
160,2
5,8
161,7
6,1
161,1
5,7
18
164,4
5,8
161,4
5,5
-
163,2
5,6
20
164,6
5,9
160,8
5,6
-
163,3
5,6
Boys
0
50,7
2,3
-
50,0
2,0
Vi
67,8
2,2
-
68,2
2,3
66,4
2,3
1
76,2
2,4
-
76,3
2,7
74,3
2,4
5
111,3
4,6
111,0
5,1
108,3
4,7
107,7
4,2
10
140,2
6,2
138,7
6,5
136,8
6,2
135,6
5,3
15
169,7
7,9
167,8
7,5
167,3
8,0
166,7
7,7
18
177,1
6,7
173,5
6,1
174,7
6,7
174,5
6,0
20
178,0
6,9
173,8
6,4
-
175,2
6,0
YB*
1954-56
1935-57
1944-59?
1953-54
YE*
1954-76
(L)
1960-61
(L)
1954-62?
(C+L)
1953-73
(L)
L
=
Longitudinal
Study
*
YB
=
Year
of
Birth
C
=
Cross-Sectional
Study
*
YE
=
Year
of
Examination
1.3
cm
[53].
Swiss
children
of
the
city
of
Basle,
aged
15,
born
about
10
years
later
than
the
children
of
our
study,
had
the
same
height
[46].
Preliminary
results
of
the
Second
Zurich
Longitudinal
Study
of
Growth
and
Development
(children
born
in
1974-1978)
show
no
increase
of
length
in
the
age
range
of
0-4
years
in
the
20
years
since
the
start
of
the
first
study
[9].
However,
there
may
still
be
an
increase
of
adult
height
of
1-2
cm
per
decade.
We
feel
that
even
if
a
secular
trend
of
this
small
magnitude
exists
the
results
presented
here
are
still
representative
and
valid
for
clinical
use.
5.
Comparison
with
previous
publications
of
the
First
Zurich
Longitudinal
Study
There
are
minor
differences
between
the
number
of
subjects
studied
in
this
paper
and
in
our
earlier
reports
[22,
36,
47].
Children
lost
during
the
first
18
months
of
life,
chronically
ill
children
and
children
not
measured
within
the
time
limits
given
in
Methods
2.
were
excluded
in
this
study,
but
not
in
that
of
PRADER
and
BUDLIGER
[47].
In
contrast
to
LARGO
et
al.
[36]
6
boys
and
2
girls
treated
for
tall
stature
with
high
doses
of
sex
18
Holland
[50]
Norway
[61]
Sweden
[30]
USA [21]
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
-
-
-
49,9
66,4
2,4
-
66,4
2,3
65,7
74,8
2,6
-
75,2
2,4
74,4
-
111,9
4,6
110,6
4,7
109,1
4,3
107,9
4,9
141,4
6,2
139,9
6,3
138,2
6,3
138,5
6,7
166,4
6,2
164,5
5,8
163,2
6,1
161,5
7,2
168,2
6,1
-
163,9
5,6
168,3
6,2
-
163,6
7,0
-
-
49,9
68,1
2,4
-
68,0
2,2
67,6
-
76,4
2,6
-
76,4
2,3
76,2
-
112,4
4,6
112,4
4,8
110,1
4,2
108,9
5,0
142,2
6,1
139,7
5,8
139,1
5,9
138,8
6,3
173,2
8,3
169,9
7,8
170,1
8,2
167,8
8,4
180,9
6,7
-
-
177,0
5,5
182,0
6,7
-
-
176,5
7,0
1961-79
1956-68
1955-58
1929-75?
1978-80
(C)
1971-74
(C)
1955-74
(L)
1929-75+
1963-74
(C+L)
steroids
were
included
in
the
analysis.
Consequently,
the
means
of
standing
height
are
slightly
higher,
but
are
still
somewhat
underestimated.
The
mean
of
standing
height
at
age
20
is
approximately
2
mm
too
low
in
boys
and
0.5
mm
too
low
in
girls.
6.
Comparison
with
other
Swiss
growth
studies
(Tables
3-7)
This
study
supplements
previous
Swiss
studies,
particularly
as
far
as
growth
data
of
the
first
years
of
life
and
adolescence
are
concerned.
There
are
no
major
differences
between
the
means
and
standard
deviations
(or
median
values)
presented
here
and
those
reported
by
previous
Swiss
growth
studies.
The
older
boys
and
girls
are
on
the
average
slightly
heavier
and
taller
in
our
study
than
in
those
reported
from
Geneva
and
Basel
(Tables
3-5).
Our
children
tend
to
have
a
slightly
lower
weight
at
the
younger
ages
than
those
of
a
previous
study
from
Zurich
(Table
3).
The
mean
values
of
head
circumference
are
slightly
larger
in
our
study
than
in
that
from
Basel
(Table
6).
Since
our
study
as
well
as
all
previous
Swiss
studies
are
based
on
a
Swiss
urban
population,
our
19
Table
10.
Comparison
with
Foreign
Growth
Studies:
Weight
for
Length/Height
(kg/cm)
Length/Height
(cm)
Zurich
Median
Holland
[50]
Median
Norway
[61]
Median
USA
[21]
Median
Girls
50
3,4
-
3,3
60
5,8
5,5
5,6
80
10,7
10,7
-
10,2
100
15,3
15,6 15,6
15,2
120
21,9
21,8
21,9
21,6
140
32,4
31,3
31,8
160
47,5
45,2
48,5
-
170
54,3
56,1
55,7
-
Boys
50
3,4
- -
3,3
60
5,7
5,5
5,7
80
11,1
11,1
10,9
100
15,6
15,8
16,1
15,5
120
22,0
22,0
21,8
21,3
140
31,9
31,3
32,4
33,0
160
46,2
45,3
46,4
-
180
63,2
62,3
63,7
Table
11.
Comparison
with
Foreign
Growth
Studies:
Head
Circumference
(cm)
Age
(years)
Zurich
France
[51]
Germany
[5]
Sweden
[30]
USA
[21]
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Girls
0
- -
34,4
1,1
34,6
1,0
- -
33,9
1,4
V2
42,7
1,1
42,0
1,1
43,0
1,2
42,1
1,0
42,2
1,2
1
45,8
1,2
45,3
1,1
45,9
1,2
45,2
1,0
45,5
1,3
5
50,8
1,3
50,3
1,1
50,6
1,2
50,0
1,1
50,7
1,3
10
52,1
1,4
52,5
1,3
-
51,9
1,3
52,7
1,4
15
53,9
1,4
54,8
1,4
-
53,9
1,3
54,3
1,4
Boys
0
- -
35,2
1,1
35,4
1,0
-
34,6
1,6
V2
43,8
1,2
43,3
1,2
44,3
1,3
43,3
1,1
43,5
1,3
1
47,1
1,3
46,7
1,2
47,3
1,3
46,4
1,1
46,9
1,3
5
52,0
1,4
51,5
1,2
51,9
1,3
51,2
1,3
51,8
1,5
10
53,2
1,4
53,4
1,4
- -
53,0
1,4
53,6
1,5
15
55,3
1,6
55,9
1,6
-
54,9
1,5
55,5
1,6
20
Table
12.
Comparison
with
Foreign
Growth
Studies:
Triceps
Skinfold
Thickness
(mm)
Age
(years)
Zurich
Median
England
[57]
Median
Sweden
[30]
Median
Girls
1
/
2
10,0
11,0
10,4
1
10,4
11,6
9,8
5
10,0
10,2
10,2
10
11,1
11,2
10,8
15
10,8
14,3
14,4
18
12,2
16,0
-
Boys
V2
10,2
11,5
9,7
1
11,0
11,9
9,8
5
9,0
8,6
9,4
10
8,3
8,5
9,0
15
6,6
7,8
7,8
18
6,4
9,0
results
can
be
regarded
as
representative
for
the
Swiss
urban
population.
The
validity
of
our
data
for
the
Swiss
country
population
remains
to
be
checked.
7.
Comparison
with
recent
foreign
growth
studies
(Tables
8-12
and
Figs.
2-7)
There
are
some
differences
between
the
growth
standards
established
in
our
study
and
those
of
recent
European
and
American
studies.
After
the
age
of
five
years
the
median
weight
in
both
sexes
was
slightly
to
moderately
higher
in
the
American
and
European
cohorts
than
in
our
study,
this
was
particularly
true
for
the
Belgian
and
Dutch population
(Table
8).
Fig.
2
demonstrates
that
this
difference
in
weight
is
most
impressive
in
the
upper
normal
range
during
puberty.
With
respect
to
length
and
height,
mean,
standard
deviation
and
centiles
in
the
various
foreign
studies
are
comparable
to
our
values
(Table
9,
Fig.
3),
one
exception
being
the
Dutch
study:
Dutch
girls
and
boys
are
the
tallest
of
all
children.
Our
weight
for
height
standards
are
in
good
agreement
with
those
of
the European
studies
(Table
10,
Fig.
4),
while
the
American
children
tend
to
be
overweight
in
comparison
with
our
cohort.
With
respect
to
head
circumference
there
are
only
minor
differences
be-
tween
our
data
and
those
of
the
foreign
studies
(Table
11,
Fig.
5).
One
major
difference
concerns
the
shape
of
the
American
centiles
being
straight
at
puberty
while
the
British
and
Swiss
centiles
demonstrate
a
pubertal
growth
spurt.
Median
values
of
skinfold
thickness
in
Swiss
children
were
lower
than
those
of
British
and
Swedish
children
during
puberty
(Table
12).
This
finding
is
21
Table
13.
Comparison
with
Foreign
Growth
Studies:
Cross-Sectional
Length
(0-2
years)/Height
(>2
years)
Velocity
(cm/year)
Age
(years)
Zurich
England
[56]
Sweden
[30]
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Girls
0,62
19,0
3,9
19,0
2,4
18,7
4,2
1,75
12,3
4,3
10,1
1,7
11,2
2,4
3,5
7,5
1,0
7,5
1,2
7,6
1,1
6,5
6,1
0,9
5,9
0,9
6,0
0,8
10,5
5,5
1,7
5,9
6,1
1,6
13,5
4,3
2,3
4,6
4,1
2,1
16,5
0,6
0,5
-
-
Boys
0,62
18,7
4,7
18,0
2,4
17,9
4,2
1,75
10,1
2,2
9,6
1,7
11,1
2,5
3,5
7,6
1,3
7,4
1,3
7,2
1,0
6,5
6,2
0,8
5,9
0,9
6,1
0,7
10,5
4,9
1,3
5,0
5,1
0,8
13,5
7,2
2,3
6,7
7,6
2,0
16,5
2,2
1,7
2,8
-
-
in
good
agreement
with
the
differences
in
weight
and
weight
for
height
stan-
dards
mentioned
before.
It
is
of
interest
to
note
that
these
minor
differences
are
observed
in
children
older
than
5
years
of
age.
Up
to
about
5
years
of
age
the
children
of
the
various
studies
have
about
the
same
weight,
height
and
skinfold
thickness.
As
far
as
height
velocity
is
concerned
our
cross-sectional
standards
are
in
good
agreement
with
those
of
the
American
and
European
cohorts
(Table
13).
Minor
differences
concern
presence
or
absence
of
a
midgrowth-spurt
and
the
size
of
the
pubertal
growth
spurt
being
somewhat
lower
in
the
Swiss
girls
than
in
the
foreign
studies
(Fig.
6).
With
respect
to
peak-centered
height
velocity
two
major
differences
can
be
seen
in
Fig.
7:
Age
of
peak-height
velocity
is
considerably
earlier
in
the
Amer-
ican
than
in
the
Swiss
standards
and
the
peak
of
the
pubertal
growth
spurt
of
girls
but
not
of
boys
is
higher
in
the
American
and
British
population
than
in
the
Swiss
cohort.
22
kg
90:
B
Girls
80=
70:
60:
50
-
3
40:
30=
20:
10
11111 ',III'',
Age
5
10
15
years
p97
50
kg
:
90:
80=
_
70:
60:
50:
_
40:
30.:
20:
-
10
A
Girls
p95
p97
50
50
5
3
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII
Age
5
10
15
years
kg
:
A
p95
90
=
Boys
p97
80
=
70
=
50
50
60
=
5
40
30
=
20
=
10
,
Age
5
o
10
15
years
kg
B
90
=
Boys
p97
p97
80
=
70
50
60
=
3
50
40
=
30
=
20
=
10
,
I
I
Age
5
10
15
years
Fig.
2.
Swiss
weight
standards
(thin
lines)
in
comparison
with
American
(A,
21)
and
British
standards
(B,
56).
23
cm
_
200_,
A
Girls
p
97
50
3
150_,
100_
III
II
5
10
II III,
15
years
Age
cm
A
Boys
200_
p
97
50
3
150_
100
_
Age
5
10
15
years
cm
_
B
Girls
200_
p
97
50
150_
100_
Age
5
10
15
years
cm
B
Boys
200
p
97
50
3
150
_
100_
1
Age
5
10
15
years
Fig.
3.
Swiss
height
standards
(thin
lines)
in
comparison
with
American
(A,
21)
and
British
standards
(B,
56).
24
kg
A
Girls
70
90
60_
50
50_
10
p90
50
10
20_
10_
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
Height
40_
30_
CM
10
kg
B
Girls
70_
90
60_
90
50
50_
50
10
0
40_
30_
20_
10_
1
I
I
I I I I
CM
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
Height
80_
kg
A
Boys
P
90
70_
50
60
_
10
50
_
p90
40_
50
30_
10
20
1
I
I
I
I
I
1
cm
110
120
130 140
150
160 170
180
Height
80.,
kg
B
Boys
P
90
70_
p90
0
60
_
50
0
10
50
_
40-
30_
20
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
CM
110
120
130
140
150
160 170
180
Height
Fig.
4.
Swiss
weight
for
length/height
standards
(thin
lines)
in
comparison
with
American
(A,
21)
and
Dutch
standards
(B,
50)
for
height
73-163
cm
(most
children
not
yet
in
puberty)
and
height
149-187
cm
(most
children
in
puberty).
25
60
_
A
p95
cm
_
Boys
97
50
5
0
55
_
5
50
_
45
I I
Age
5
10
15
years
60
_
B
cm
_
Boys
97
p97
50
5
50
3
50
45
Age
5
10
15
years
60
A
Girls
cm
p95
p97
50
55
_
50
50
_
45_
I I
I
Age
5
10
15
years
eo
_
cm
B
Girls
p97
p97
55
_
50
50
3
50
_
45
Age
5
10
15
years
Fig.
5.
Swiss
head
circumference
standards
(thin
1
nes)
in
comparison
with
American
(A,
48)
and
British
standards
(B,
56).
26
cm/yr.
A
5
Girls
10
5
p90
50
P
97
10
50
,
Age
5
10
15
years
cm/yr
A
15
Boys
10
p90
5
50
p97
10
50
3
1111
,
Age
5
10
15
years
cm/yr
15
B
Girls
10
5
97
P
97
3 3
5
50
'
,
1
,
1
'
'
Age
5
10
15
years
cm/yr.
5
B
Boys
10
5_
97
p97
50
50
1
I
,
1
,
r
,
, I ,
, ,
,
1
,
,
Age
5
10
15
years
Fig.
6.
Swiss
cross-sectional
height
velocity
standards
(thin
lines)
in
comparison
with
Swedish
(A,
30)
and
British
standards
(B,
56).
27
cm/y
_
15
_
B
Boys
10
_
p97
p97
50
50
3
3
O
Age
5
10
15
years
cm/y
_
1
5
_
A
Girls
10
_
5
_
p97
50
P97
0
3
3
50
Age
5
10
15
years
cm/y
_
15
_
to
_
A
Boys
p
97
p97
50
50
0
3
3
1111
I
Age
5
10
15
years
cm/y.
_
B
5
_1
Girls
10
_
p97
p
97
3
50
50
0
3
Age
5
10
15
years
Fig.
7.
Swiss
peak-centered
height
velocity
standards
(thin
lines)
in
comparison
with
American
(A,
59)
and
British
standards
(B,
56).
28
Acknowledgments
The
authors
gratefully
acknowledge
the
important
role
of
HEIDI
SCHNEEBELI
from
1954
to
1963
and
of
MARIA
WILLISEGGER
from
1963
to
1977
as
devoted
and
reliable
anthropometricians
and
secretaries.
The
following
physicians
participated
i
the
study:
THOMAS
ACHARD,
GUY
BONNARD,
PIERRE
BOVET,
HERMANN
BUDLIGER,
HANSPETER
FONTANELLAZ,
HANS
HABICH,
HEINZ
HAFLIGER,
HEINRICH
HALDI,
EMMI
HEIERLI,
URSULA
HUNERWADEL,
CARL
KIND,
HANSPETER
KIND,
URSULA
LEUPOLD,
PAUL
MEIER,
ANDRE
MERMINOD,
URS
RUMPF,
DONAT
SCHIBLER,
OTTO
SCHMELZER,
TONET
TONDURY,
ALFONS
WEBER.
Valuable
advice
was
received
from
the
following
statisticians:
THEO
GASSER,
HARVEY
GOLDSTEIN,
CHRISTIAN
PERRET
and
WERNER
STUTZLE,
We
are
also
grateful
to
ERIKA
BOKENKROGER
for
the
help
in
preparing
the
manuscript.
The
project
and
the
statistical
analysis
were
supported
by
the
Centre
International
de
1'Enfance
in
Paris,
the
UNICEF,
the
Nestle
Company
in
Vevey,
the
Government
of
the
Kanton
Zurich
and
the
Swiss
National
Science
Foundation
(3824-0.87)
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Appendix
I:
Tables
Distance
Data
1
Weight
Girls
2
Weight
Boys
3
Supine
length
Girls
4
Supine
length
Boys
5
Standing
height
Girls
6
Standing
height
Boys
7
Weight
for
length
(50-84
cm)
/
height
(>84
cm)
Girls
8
Weight
for
length
(50-84
cm)
/
height
(>84
cm)
Boys
9
Crown-rump
length
Girls
10
Crown-rump
length
Boys
11
Sitting
height
Girls
12
Sitting
height
Boys
13
Supine
subischial
leg
length
Girls
14
Supine
subischial
leg
length
Boys
15
Standing
subischial
leg
height
Girls
16
Standing
subischial
leg
height
Boys
17
Ratio
crown-rump
length/supine
subischial
leg
length
Girls
18
Ratio
crown-rump
length/supine
subischial
leg
length
Boys
19
Ratio
sitting
height/standing
subischial
leg
height
Girls
20
Ratio
sitting
height/standing
subischial
leg
height
Boys
21
Arm
length
Girls
22
Arm
length
Boys
23
Head
circumference
Girls
24
Head
circumference
Boys
25
Head
biparietal
diameter
Girls
26
Head
biparietal
diameter
Boys
27
Head
fronto-occipital
diameter
Girls
28
Head
fronto-occipital
diameter
Boys
29
Ratio
head
fronto-occipital/biparietal
diameter
Girls
30
Ratio
head
fronto-occipital/biparietal
diameter
Boys
31
Chest
circumference
Girls
32
Chest
circumference
Boys
33
Upper
arm
circumference
Girls
34
Upper
arm
circumference
Boys
35
Calf
circumference
Girls
36
Calf
circumfernece
Boys
37
Bihumeral
diameter
Girls
38
Bihumeral
diameter
Boys
39
Biiliac
diameter
Girls
40
Biiliac
diameter
Boys
41
Humerus
bicondylar
diameter
Girls
42
Humerus
bicondylar
diameter
Boys
43
Femur
bicondylar
diameter
Girls
32
44
Femur
bicondylar
diameter
Boys
45
Biceps
skinfold
thickness
Girls
46
Biceps
skinfold
thickness
Boys
47
Triceps
skinfold
thickness
Girls
48
Triceps
skinfold
thickness
Boys
49
Subscapular
skinfold
thickness
Girls
50
Subscapular
skinfold
thickness
Boys
51
Suprailiac
skinfold
thickness
Girls
52
Suprailiac
skinfold
thickness
Boys
Velocity
Data
53
Weight
Girls
54
Weight
Boys
55
Supine
length
Girls
56
Supine
length
Boys
57
Standing
height
Girls
58
Standing
height
Boys
59
Standing
height,
peak
height
centered
Girls
60
Standing
height,
peak
height
centered
Boys
61
Crown-rump
length
Girls
62
Crown-rump
length
Boys
63
Sitting
height
Girls
64
Sitting
height
Boys
65
Supine
subischial
leg
length
Girls
66
Supine
subischial
leg
length
Boys
67
Standing
subischial
leg
height
Girls
68
Standing
subischial
leg
height
Boys
69
Head
circumference
Girls
70
Head
circumference
Boys
2
Suppl.
52
33
Table
1.
Distance
Standards
Weight
-
W
(kg)
Girls
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
0.00
172
3.30
0.443
2.37
2.68
3.00
3.26
3.48
3.77
3.95
0.08
154
3.75
0.389
3.01
3.33
3.65
3.92
4.19
4.49
4.73
0.25
152
5.44
0.547
4.24
4.63
4.93
5.24
5.61
5.94
6.29
0.50
161
7.20
0.704
5.79
6.24
6.59
7.04
7.52
7.92
8.43
0.75
154
8.50
0.860
6.95
7.39
7.86
8.43
9.05
9.50
10.11
1.00
160
9.50
0.973
7.80
8.24
8.81
9.47
10.23
10.71
11.34
1.50
141
10.91
1.083
9.04
9.55
10.14
10.93
11.82
12.36
12.95
2.00
151
12.02
1.184
9.79
10.62
11.21
12.05
12.93
13.61
14.28
3.00
150
14.27
1.530
11.34
12.40
13.14
14.10
15.09
16.33
17.34
4.00
137
16.21
1.797
12.95
14.02
14.84
16.20
17.25
18.50
19.50
5.00
145
18.30
2.102
14.51
15.69
16.74
18.15
19.58
20.74
22.03
6.00
143
20.27
2.362
15.88
17.29
18.65
20.40
21.92
23.13
25.15
7.00
142
22.98
2.942
17.68
19.21
20.84
23.00
24.62
26.03
28.96
8.00
140
25.44
3.411
19.48
21.09
23.15
25.60
27.53
29.56
32.44
9.00
141
28.48
4.287
21.31
23.09
25.72
28.09
30.80
33.85
37.07
9.50
133
22.33
24.24
27.01
29.39
32.64
36.25
39.50
10.00
136
23.45
25.46
28.35
30.81
34.59
38.83
42.21
10.50
135
24.66
26.73
29.81
32.29
36.65
41.58
45.35
11.00
132
26.00
28.12
31.41
34.13
38.91
44.47
48.81
11.50
134
27.43
29.69
33.15
36.37
41.41
47.42
52.36
12.00
134
28.97
31.47
35.06
39.06
44.08
50.31
55.67
12.50
132
30.64
33.44
37.15
41.80
46.76
53.05
58.62
13.00
131
32.39
35.58
39.37
44.34
49.29
55.63
61.16
13.50
125
34.16
37.83
41.62
46.91
51.58
58.00
63.40
14.00
124
35.86
40.03
43.76
49.23
53.54
60.12
65.51
14.50
126
37.42
41.96
45.66
50.84
55.16
61.91
67.63
15.00
128
38.81
43.53
47.23
51.67
56.43
63.34
69.80
15.50
115
40.01
44.74
48.46
52.28
57.38
64.42
71.92
16.00
124
41.04
45.65
49.38
52.90
58.07
65.18
73.81
17.00
121
42.66
46.67
50.43
54.13
58.84
65.93
76.34
18.00
120
43.68
46.80
50.78
54.48
59.12
65.92
77.02
19.00
112
44.01
46.47
50.79
54.64
59.17
65.69
75.89
20.00
116
44.01
46.09
50.70
54.42
59.17
65.48
73.37
34
Table
2.
Distance
Standards
Weight
-
W
(kg)
Boys
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
10
25
50
75
90
97
0.00
175
3.38
0.501
2.34
2.71
3.00
3.36
3.69
3.90
4.16
0.08
162
3.89
0.501
3.02
3.37
3.70
4.09
4.46
4.71
5.02
0.25
154
5.74
0.669
4.36
4.69
5.10
5.56
5.98
6.33
6.74
0.50
158
7.66
0.876
6.02
6.42
6.93
7.52
8.00
8.52
9.11
0.75
155
9.03
0.981
7.21
7.80
8.36
9.02
9.60
10.20
10.98
1.00
161
10.19
1.082
8.09
8.84
9.44
10.13
10.81
11.45
12.39
1.50
152
11.63
1.227
9.44
10.15
10.85
11.59
12.43
13.19
14.29
2.00
154
12.71
1.326 10.56
11.16
11.81
12.66
13.51
14.52
15.78
3.00
151
14.94
1.637
12.30
13.10
13.77
14.68
15.80
17.01
18.55
4.00
146
17.00
1.947
14.04
14.89
15.50
16.70
18.09
19.52
21.42
5.00
144
19.01
2.314
15.54
16.46
17.39
18.70
20.21
21.94
23.87
6.00
145
21.05
2.494
16.93
18.40
19.24
20.70
22.50
24.77
26.05
7.00
147
23.69
3.199
19.04
20.38
21.47
23.00
25.10
27.95
30.22
8.00
145
26.23
3.825
20.73
22.21
23.54
25.50
28.05
31.32
34.49
9.00
146
29.13
4.184
22.98
24.46
26.13
28.50
31.17
34.65
37.66
10.00
142
31.85
4.556
24.95
26.64
28.65
31.29
34.02
38.24
41.66
10.50
147
25.79
27.73
29.91
32.51
35.50
40.21
44.18
11.00
145
26.67
28.98
31.41
34.10
37.07
42.35
47.69
11.50
139
27.67
30.26
32.93
35.94
38.86
44.73
48.51
12.00
139
28.78
31.61
34.29
37.71
41.03
47.37
49.94
12.50
142
29.94
32.97
35.87
39.58
43.72
50.26
54.04
13.00
138
31.11
34.46
37.79
41.64
46.85
53.31
58.25
13.50
135
32.58
36.24
40.22
44.54
50.23
56.41
61.13
14.00
137
34.47
38.28
43.20
47.91
53.70
59.47
65.43
14.50
131
36.84
40.71
46.40
51.31
56.97
62.41
68.30
15.00
135
39.49•
43.47
49.54
54.25
59.94
65.15
72.26
15.50
131
42.19
46.42
52.32
57.08
62.52
67.61 75.36
16.00
126
44.89
49.15
54.62
59.29
64.63
69.78
76.87
17.00
131
49.25
52.69
57.20
61.75
67.57
73.36
80.37
18.00
129
51.35
54.33 58.23
63.41
69.47
76.28
87.30
19.00
125
52.35
55.22
59.42
65.24
71.00
78.82
88.85
20.00
116
52.97
55.63
61.22
66.20
72.13
81.08
88.34
35
Table
3.
Distance
Standards
Supine
Length
-
L
(cm)
Girls
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
0.00
172
49.92
1.91
46.0
48.0
49.0
50.0
51.0
52.0 53.0
0.08
154
53.02
1.74
49.8
51.0
52.1
53.2
54.3
55.3
56.4
0.25
152
59.51
2.03
55.5
56.8
57.9
59.4
60.6
61.9
62.9
0.50
161
66.07
2.04
62.1
63.6
64.7
66.2
67.4
68.3
70.0
0.75
153
70.85
2.15
66.6
68.2
69.4
70.8
72.1
73.3
74.9
1.00
156
74.46
2.50
69.7
71.6
72.8
74.4
76.0
77.8
79.0
1.50
57
80.83
2.35
75.9
77.9
79.1
81.0
82.4
84.5
85.8
2.00
35
86.63
2.48
81.7
83.5
84.9
86.7
87.9
89.4
91.4
3.00
53
96.33
3.25
89.3
91.7
94.2
96.3
98.5
99.6
101.8
4.00
92
103.56
3.87
96.0
98.7
100.8
103.6
106.1
108.7
110.6
5.00
142
110.79
4.04
102.3
105.7
107.6
110.7
113.4
115.7
119.1
6.00
142
117.14
4.29
108.1
112.1
114.0
117.2
120.2
122.3 126.3
7.00
141
123.36
4.66
113.5
118.0
120.0
123.1
126.5
128.5
132.8
8.00
139
129.04 4.73
118.5
123.4
125.9
128.8
132.3
134.5
138.6
9.00
141
134.91
5.10
123.1
128.8
131.0
134.4
138.3
141.6
144.1
9.50
131
137.06
5.64
125.2
130.9
133.5
136.8
141.0
144.4
147.0
10.00
135
139.63
5.67
127.3
133.1
135.9
139.3
143.7
147.0
149.9
10.50
135
142.15
6.10
129.6
135.3
138.4
141.9
146.5
149.8
153.2
11.00
132
145.38
5.99
132.0
137.8
141.3
144.8
149.3
152.9
156.5
11.50
133
147.94
6.61
134.2
140.2
144.2
147.9
152.4
156.4
160.0
12.00
134
151.13
6.85
136.6
142.6
147.2
151.1
155.5
159.7
163.4
12.50
132
154.25
6.78
139.2
145.3
150.1
154.2
158.5
162.6
166.4
13.00
131
156.73
6.63
141.9
148.3
153.0
157.0
161.1
164.8
168.8
13.50
124
159.24
6.25
144.5
151.2
155.6
159.4
163.2
166.6
170.3
14.00
124
161.07
5.83
146.9
153.8
157.7
161.3
164.9
168.1
171.4
14.50
125
162.84
5.77
149.0
155.6
159.3
162.8
166.3
169.5
172.5
15.00
118
163.90
5.72
151.1
156.5
160.5
164.0
167.6
171.1
173.6
36
Table
4.
Distance
Standards
Supine
Length
-
L
(cm)
Boys
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
0.00
173
50.67
2.25
46.0
48.0
49.1
50.5
52.0
53.5
54.8
0.08
161
53.65
2.17
49.6
51.4
52.5
53.8
55.3
56.7
57.8
0.25
154
60.74
1.94
56.7
58.1
59.1
60.7
62.0
63.1
63.7
0.50
158
67.83
2.19
64.0 65.0
66.4
67.7
69.4
70.6
71.5
0.75
155
72.50
2.37
68.5 69.5
70.9
72.1
74.0
75.8
77.2
1.00
158
76.15
2.41
71.2
73.0
74.6
75.7
77.7
79.5
81.2
1.50
59
82.76
2.81
75.3
78.6
80.3
82.5
84.3
86.3
88.4
2.00
42
88.03
3.86
79.6
83.3
85.0
88.4
90.1
92.5
95.1
3.00
48
97.68
3.78
90.8
92.4
94.9
97.6
100.1
101.8
106.0
4.00
97
105.38
4.29
98.0
99.7
102.2
105.2
107.9
110.9
113.9
5.00
139
112.47
4.65
104.5
106.7
109.0
112.1
115.2
119.0
121.6
6.00
144
118.68
4.91
110.3
112.3
115.1
118.4
121.9
125.8
128.2
7.00
148
124.84
5.21
115.4
117.9 120.9
124.8
128.2
132.1
134.9
8.00
146
130.93
5.74
121.1
123.7
126.2
130.6
134.9
138.7
141.6
9.00
147
136.48
5.98
126.5
129.0
131.6
136.0
140.7
144.5
148.1
10.00
140
141.42
6.18
130.3
133.5
136.8 140.8
145.8
149.6
154.0
10.50
147
143.53
6.33
132.5
135.6
139.1
143.0
148.2
152.0
157.0
11.00
145
146.01
6.58
134.7
137.9
141.3
145.3
150.5
154.6
160.0
11.50
139
148.32
6.71
136.6
140.2
143.5
147.7
152.9
157.5
163.0
12.00
139
150.91
7.12
138.6
142.5
145.7
150.2
155.4
160.7
166.2
12.50
142
153.64
7.37
140.6
144.8
148.2
153.0
158.1
164.1
169.5
13.00
137
156.92
8.06
142.7
147.2
151.0
156.1
161.2
167.8
173.0
13.50
135
160.17
8.58
144.7
149.9
154.4
159.5
164.8
171.3
176.5
14.00
137
163.86
8.36
147.4
153.0
158.1
163.1
168.5
174.6
179.9
14.50
131
167.22
8.16
150.7
156.5
161.9
166.8
172.2
177.8
183.1
15.00
133
170.78
7.89
155.2
160.1
165.8
170.7
175.7
181.2
186.2
37
Table
5.
Distance
Standards
Standing
Height
-
H
(cm)
Girls
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
3.00
148
95.61
3.23
89.5
91.8
93.4
95.6
97.5
100.0
101.8
4.00
136
102.97
3.71
95.6
98.2
100.2
103.0
105.2
107.5
110.6
5.00
145
109.61
4.00
101.6
104.7
106.9
109.7
112.2
114.5
118.6
6.00
143
115.85
4.26
107.1
110.7
112.8
115.7
118.5
121.1
125.1
7.00
142
122.02 4.58
112.5
116.6
118.7
122.0 125.0
127.5
131.3
8.00
140
127.83
4.69
117,5
122.3
124.7
127.8
131.0
133.6
137.1
9.00
141
133.64
5.00
122.0
127.5
129.9
133.2
137.2
139.8
142.5
9.50
133
135.87
5.47
124.1
129.8
132.3
135.7
139.9
142.8
145.3
10.00
136
138.42
5.64
126.2
132.1
134.8
138.2
142.5
145.8
148.7
10.50
135
141.09
6.01
128.5
134.4
137.5
140.9
145.1
148.8
152.5
11.00
132
144.29
5.95
130.9
136.7
140.3
143.7
147.9
152.0
155.3
11.50
134
146.88
6.58
133,3
139.1
143.2
146.8
151.2
155.3
159.0
12.00
134
150.11
6.81
135.8
141.7
146.1
150.0
154.5
158.4
162.6
12.50
132
153.23
6.73
138.4
144.5
149.1
153.2
157.6
161.2
165.6
13.00
131
155.74
6.60
141.1
147.4
152.0
156.0
160.1
163.6
168.3
13.50
124
158.21
6.25
143.6
150.2
154.7
158.4
162.3
165.6
169.2
14.00
124
160.07
5.84
145.8
152.6
156.8
160.4
164.0
167,2
170.1
14.50
126
161.91
5.77
147.6
154.3
158.5
161.9
165.3
168.6
171.5
15.00
128
162.74
5.75
148.9
155.2
159.5
162.8
166.4
169.7
172.3
15.50
115
163.46
5.64
149.8
155.7
160.1
163.5
167.4
170.6
172.8
16.00
125
163.99
5.74
150.5
155.9
160.4
164.0
168.2
171.3
173.3
17.00
121
164.53
5.86
151,2
156.0
160.6
164.7
168.7
172.0
174.2
18.00
120
164.40
5.84
151.5
155.9
160.6
164.9
168.4
172.1
174.4
19.00
112
164.43
5.89
151.6
155.9
160.8
165.0
168.1
171.9
175.1
20.00
116
164.62
5.92
151.6
156.0
160.8
165.1
168.2
171.9
175.1
38
Table
6.
Distance
Standards
Standing
Height
-
H
(cm)
Boys
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Gentiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
3.00
150
97.08
3.75
90.3
92.2
94.3
96.6
99.4
101.7
105.2
4.00
146
104.71
4.10
97.4
99.4
102.1
104.5
107.2
110.4
113.1
5.00
144
111.32
4.55
103.4
105.4
108.0
111.0
114.3
118.0
120.4
6.00
145
117.31
4.84
109.0
111.3
113.9
116.9
120.8
124.3
126.8
7.00
148
123.63
5.15
114.3
117.2
120.0
123.4
126.8
130.6 133.6
8.00
146
129.65
5.68
120.0
122.7
125.0
129.1
133.3
137.6
140.4
9.00
146
135.24
5.97
125.1
127.9
130.6
134.9
139.4
143.3
147.1
10.00
142
140.19
6.24
129.3
132.1
135.7
139.4
144.7
148.6
153.0
10.50
148
142.46
6.33
131.6
134.3
137.9
141.7
147.2
151.0
155.9
11.00
145
144.95
6.57
133.8
136.9
140.0
144.3
149.7
153.6
159.0
11.50
139
147.33
6.68
135.7
139.3
142.4
146.6
152.0
156.4
162.0
12.00
139
149.88
7.10
137.6
141.6
144.7
149.3
154.5
159.6
165.2
12.50
142
152.62
7.36
139.6
143.8
147.2
152.0
157.0
163.0
168.5
13.00
137
155.90
8.02
141.6
146.5
150.0
155.0
160.2
166.8
172.1
13.50
135
159.16
8.56
143.7
148.6
153.4
158.5
163.9
170.4
175.7
14.00
137
162.87
8.33
146.4
151.9
157.4
162.2
167.7
173.8
179.1
14.50
131
166.23
8.14
149.9
155.5
161.0
165.8
171.3
176.8
182.1
15.00
135
169.69
7.88
154.2
159.0
164.7
169.4
174.5
180.2
184.6
15.50
131
172.18
7.51
158.4
162.8
167.6
171.8
177.1
182.8
186.5
16.00
127
174.39
6.96
162.0
165.6
169.7
173.6
178.7
184.2
188.0
16.50
124
175.44
7.02
164.3
167.2
171.0
174.6
179.7
184.8
189.0
17.00
131
176.16
6.65
165.4
167.9
171.7
175.3
180.3
185.0
189.8
18.00
129
177.05
6.66
165.9
168.6
172.2
176.4
181.0
185.9
191.2
19.00
125
177.77
6.77
166.5
168.7
172.6
177.1
181.7
187.4
191.8
20.00
116
178.04
6.93
166.6
168.7
172.2
177.5
182.5
187.9
192.1
39
Table
7.
Distance
Standards
Weight
for
Length
(50-84
cm)
/
Height
(>84
cm)
-
W
for
H
(kg)
Girls
Length/
Height
N
Mean*
SD*
Centiles*
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
cm
50
19
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.5
3.7
3.9
52
82
3.4
3.5
3.7
3.8
4.0
4.1
4.3
54
144
3.7
3.9
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
56
164
4.1
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.1
5.3
58
166
4.6
4.8
5.0
5.2
5.5
5.7
6.0
60
165
5.1
5.3
5.5
5.8
6.0
6.3
6.5
62
165
5.5
5.8
6.0
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.1
64
165
6.0
6.3
6.5
6.8
7.2
7.5
7.8
66
164
6.5
6.8
7.0
7.4
7.7
8.1
8.4
68
166
7.0
7.3
7.6
7.9
8.3
8.7
9.0
70
163
7.4
7.7
8.1
8.5
8.9
9.3
9.8
72
159
7.8
8.2
8.6
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.4
74
157
8.2
8.6
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
10.9
76
156
8.6
9.0
9.5
10.0 10.5
11.0
11.5
78
153
9.0
9.4
9.8
10.4
10.9
11.4
11.9
80
150
9.3
9.8
10.2
10.7
11.3
11.8
12.4
82
151
9.6
10.1
10.6
11.1
11.7
12.3
12.9
84
150
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.6
12.2
12.7
13.3
86
150
10.4
10.9
11.4
12.0
12.6
13.2
13.8
88
150
10.8
11.3
11.8
12.4
13.0
13.6
14.2
90
150
11.2
11.7
12.2
12.8
13.5
14.1
14.7
92
149
11.6
12.1
12.6
13.3
14.0
14.6
15.3
94
146
12.0
12.5
13.1
13.8
14.5
15.1
15.8
96
149
12.4
13.0
13.6
14.3
15.0
15.7
16.4
98
150
12.8
13.4
14,1
14.8
15.5
16.3
17.0
100
150
13.3
13.9
14.6
15.3
16.1
16.9
17.7
102 152
13.8
13.9
14.6
15.3
16.1
16.9
17.7
104
153
14.3
15.0
15.7
16.5
17.3
18.1
19.0
106
151
14.8
15.5
16.2
17.0
17.9
18.7
19.6
108
151
15.3
16.0
16.8
17.6
18.5
19.4
20.3
110
149
15.8
16.6
17.3
18.2
19.2
20.1
21.0
112
148
16.4
17.1
17.9
18.9
19.9
20.8
21.8
114
148
17.0
17.8
18.6
19.6
20.6
21.6
22.6
116
147
17.7
18.5
19.3
20.3
21.4
22.4
23.4
118
147
18.3
19.1
20.0
21.1
22.2
23.3
24.4
120
148
18.9
19.8
20.8
21.9
23.1
24.3
25.5
40
Table
7
(continued)
Weight
for
Length
(50-84
cm)
/
Height
(>84
cm)
-
W
for
H
(kg)
Girls
Length/
Height
N
Mean*
SD*
Centiles*
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
cm
122
149
19.4
20.4
21.5
22.7
24.0
25.3
26.6
124
148
20.1
21.1
22.2
23.5
24.9
26.2
27.6
126
148
20.8
21.9
23.1
24.4
25.9
27.3
28.7
128
146
21.5
22.7
23.9
25.4
26.9
28.4
30.0
130
142
22.2
23.5
24.8
26.3
28.0
29.6
31.2
132
141
22.9
24.3
25.7
27.4
29.2
31.0
32.8
134
140
23.7
25.2
26.7
28.6
30.6
32.5 34.5
136
137
24.5
26.1
27.8
29.9
32.1
34.2
36.4
138
134
25.4
27.1
28.9
31.2
33.6
35.9
38.3
140
133
26.1
28.0
30.0
32.4
34.9
37.4
40.1
142 132
26.9 28.9
31.0
33.6
36.4
39.1
42.0
144
131
27.8
29.9
32.2
35.0 38.0
40.9
44.0
146
133
28.9
31.1
33.5
36.4
39.5
42.5
45.7
148
135
30.1
32.4
34.9
38.0
41.3
44.5
47.9
150
133
30.9
33.4
36.2
39.6
43.3
47.0
50.8
152
129
32.0
34.7
37.6
41.1
45.0
48.8
52.9
154
126
33.1
35.9
39.0
42.8
46.9
51.0
55.4
156
119
34.4
37.4
40.6
44.5
48.8
53.0
57.5
158
111
35.8
38.7
41.9
45.9
50.2
54.3
58.8
160
103
37.0
40.1
43.5
47.5
52.0
56.4
61.1
162
87
38.3
41.4
44.8
48.9
53.4
57.8
62.4
164
68
39.5
42.9
46.6
51.1
56.0
60.8
66.0
166
42
40.6
43.9
47.6
52.1
57.0
61.7
66.8
168
35
41.5
45.1
49.1
54.1
59.4
64.8
70.5
170
20
42.2
45.7
49.6
54.3
59.4
64.4
69.7
*
see
Discussion
2*
Suppl.
52
Table
8.
Distance
Standards
Weight
for
Length
(50-84
cm)
/
Height
(>84
cm)
-
W
for
H
(kg)
Boys
Length/
Height
N
Mean*
SD*
Gentiles*
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
cm
50
13
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
52
66
3.3
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
54
121
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.9
56
160
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.7
4.9
5.1
5.4
58
t66
4.4
4.7
4.9
5.2
5.5
5.8
6.1
60
166
4.9
5.1
5.4
5.7
6.1
6.4
6.7
62
167
5.3
5.6
5.9
6.3
6.6
7.0
7.3
64
169
5.8
6.1
6.4
6.8
7.2
7.6
7.9
66
171
6.3
6.6
7.0
7.4
7.8
8.2
8.6
68
170
6.8
7.2
7.5
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.3
70
167
7.3
7.7
8.1
8.6
9.1
9.6
10.1
72
166
7.8
8.2
8.7
9.1
9.7
10.2
10.7
74
164
8.3
8.7
9.2
9.7
10.2
10.7
11.3
76
160
8.8
9.2
9.6
10.2
10.7
11.3
11.8
78
158
9.2
9.6
10.1
10.7
11.3
11.8
12.4
80
157
9.6
10.0
10.5
11.1
11.7
12.3
12.9
82
153
9.9
10.4
10.9
11.5
12.2
12.8
13.4
84
155
10.3
10.8
11.3
11.9
12.6
13.2
12.9
86
149
10.7
11.2
11.7
12.3
13.0
13.6
14.3
88
151
11.1
11.6
12.1
12.8
13.4
14.1
14.7
90
147
11.4
12.0
12.5
13.2
13.8
14.5
15.1
92
147
11.9
12.4
13.0
13.6
14.3
15.0
15.6
94
149
12.3
12.8
13.4
14.1
14.8
15.5
16.2
96
149
12.7
13.3
13.9
14.6
15.3
16.0
16.8
98
150
13.1
13.7
14.4
15.1
15.9
16.6
17.4
100
150
13.6
14.2
14.8
15.6
16.4
17.2
18.0
102
153
14.0
14.7
15.4
16.2
17.0
17.8
18.6
104
154
14.5
15.2
15.9
16.7
17.6
18.4
19.3
106
152
15.0
15.7
16.4
17.3
18.2
19.1
19.9
108
151
15.5
16.3
17.0
17.9
18.8
19.7
20.6
110
150
16.1
16.8
17.6
18.5
19.4
20.3
21.3
112
150
16.6
17.4
18.2
19.2
20.1 21.1
22.0
114
151
17.2
18.0
18.9
19.8
20.9
21.8
22.8
116
149
17.8
18.7
19.5
20.5
21.6
22.6
23.7
118
151
18.5
19.3
20.2
21.3
22.4
23.4
24.5
120
150
19.2
20.0
20.9
22.0
23.1
24.2
25.3
42
Table
8
(continued)
Weight
for
Length
(50-84
cm)
/
Height
(>84
cm)
-
W
for
H
(kg)
Boys
Length/
Height
N
Mean*
SD*
Centiles*
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
cm
122
149
19.8
20.7
21.7
22.8
24.0
25.1
26.2
124
149
20.4 21.4
22.4
23.6
24.9
26.1
27.3
126
140
21.1
22.1
23.2
24.5
25.9
27.2
28.5
128
133
21.7
22.8
24.0
25.4
26.9
28.3
29.7
130
118
22.3
23.5
24.7
26.2
27.7
29.2
30.7
132
113
23.1
24.3
25.6
27.2
28.9
30.5
32.1
134
109
23.7
25.1
26.6
28.3
30.2
32.0
33.9
136
102
24.3
25.8
27.5
29.5
31.6
33.6
35.7
138
104
25.4
27.0
28.7
30.7
32.9
35.0
37.1
140
110
26.5
28.1
29.8
31.9
34.1
36.2
38.4
142
111
27.6
29.3
31.1
33.2
35.4
37.5
39.8
144 114
28.4
30.1
32.0
34.3
36.7
39.0
41.4
146
126
29.1
31.0
33.1
35.6
38.3
40.9
43.6
148
129
30.3
32.3
34.5
37.0
39.8
42.4
45.2
150
127
31.6
33.6
35.8
38.4
41.1
43.8
46.6
152
129
33.0 35.0
37.2
39.8
42.5
45.2
48.0
154
131
34.1
36.3
38.6
41.3
44.2
47.0
50.0
156
137
35.4
37.6
39.9
42.7 45.7
48.6
51.5
158
139
36.4
38.8
41.4
44.4
47.7
50.9
54.3
160
137
37.6
40.1
42.9
46.2
49.7
53.1
56.6
162
136
38.9
41.5
44.4
47.7
51.4
54.9
58.6
164
133
40.5
43.2
46.1
49.6
53.3
56.9
60.7
166
131
42.1
44.8
47.7
51.1
54.7
58.2
61.9
168
125
43.6
46.4
49.3
52.8
56.6
60.2
64.0
170
117
44.7 47.7
50.9
54.7
58.8
62.8
67.0
172
104
46.0 49.0
52.2
56.1
60.2
64.2
68.4
174
90
47.1
50.3
53.7 57.7
62.1
66.3
70.8
176
72
48.0
51.2
54.8
59.0
63.6
67.9
72.6
178
56
48.8
52.3
56.1
60.8 65.8
70.6
75.7
180
46
50.0
53.9
58.1
63.2
68.7
74.1
79.8
*
see
Discussion
43
Table
9.
Distance
Standards
Crown-Rump
Length
-
CRL
(cm)
Girls
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
0.08
148
34.32
1.29
31.9
32.6
33.6
34.2
35.0 36.0
36.6
0.25
148
38.43
1.42
35.3
36.6
37.6
38.4
39.4
40.0
40.9
0.50
159
42.14
1.49
39.4
40.3
41.3
42.1
43.2
43.7
44.9
0.75
151
44.51
1.57
41.4
42.6 43.6 44.6
45.3
46.3
47.4
1.00
154
46.48
1.57
43.2
44.5 45.5
46.4
47.7
48.5
49.2
1.50
54
49.37
1.86
46.1
47.6
48.7
49.6
51.0
51.7
52.4
2.00
32
(52.20
1.61)
48.2
50.0
51.3
52.3
53.0
54.1
55.0
3.00
53
56.46
1.97
52.2
53.8
55.2
56.4
57.9
58.7
59.7
4.00
92
59.48
2.15
55.2
56.6
58.1
59.6
61.0
62.1
63.5
5.00
141
62.70
2.33
58.0
59.4
60.9
62.8
64.1
65.3
67.2
6.00
142
65.44
2.35
60.8
62.2
63.7
65.8
66.9
68.1
70.4
7.00
141
68.31
2.46
63.4
64.9
66.4
68.5
69.7
71.0
73.1
8.00
138
70.58
2.47
65.7
67.3
68.8
70.7
72.1
73.5
75.3
9.00
141
72.73
2.47
67.6
69.3
70.9
72.8
74.2
75.9
77.5
9.50
131
73.61
2.66
68.4
70.3
71.9
73.6
75.2
77.0
78.6
10.00
135
74.51
2.73
69.1
71.2
72.8
74.5
76.3
78.1
79.8
10.50
134
75.57
3.02
69.9
72.2
73.8
75.4
77.4
79.3
81.2
11.00
132
76.79
3.03
70.8
73.2
74.8
76.5
78.6
80.8 82.8
11.50
133
78.06
3.37
71.7
74.3
76.0
77.9
80.1
82.5
84.3
12.00
134
79.69
3.64
72.6
75.4
77.2
79.5
81.8
84.4
85.8
12.50
132
81.17
3.73
73.7
76.6
78.5
81.0
83.5
86.1
87.2
13.00
131
82.46
3.75
74.9
77.9
79.9
82.7
85.1
87.4
88.5
13.50
125
83.92
3.59
76.2
79.3
81.3 84.3
86.4
88.5
89.6
14.00
124
85.17
3.26
77.6
80.6
82.7
85.4
87.4
89.3
90.6
14.50
125
86.27
3.13
79.0
82.0
84.2 86.2
88.3
90.1
91.5
15.00
118
86.98
2.93
80.4
83.3
85.6
86.8
89.0
90.8
92.3
44
Table
10.
Distance
Standards
Crown-Rump
Length
-
CRL
(cm)
Boys
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
0.08
161
34.83
1.56
32.0
32.8
33.8
34.9
35.9
37.0
37.5
0.25
155
39.30
1.56
36.2
37.3
38.3
39.5
40.2
41.2
42.2
0.50
159
43.25
1.62
40.2
41.1
42.1
43.4
44.5
45.4
46.0
0.75
155
45.64
1.57
42.9
43.6
44.6
45.6
46.5
47.7
48.7
1.00
158
47.54
1.73
44.5
45.3
46.4
47.5
48.7
49.7
51.0
1.50
53
50.52
1.70
46.7
47.8
49.1
50.5
52.0
52.8
54.1
2.00
40
52.85
2.13
48.7
49.9
51.3
52.8
54.2
55.0
56.4
3.00
49
57.16
2.38
52.5
53.7
55.4
57.2
58.8
60.0
61.6
4.00
98
60.47
2.52
55.7
57.1
58.8
60.2
62.1
63.9
64.9
5.00
136
63.54
2.67
58.4
60.2
61.7
63.4
65.3
67.2
68.3
6.00
143
66.35
2.78
61.3
62.6
64.4
66.2
68.1
70.1
71.4
7.00
146
68.97
2.76
63.4
65.4
67.3
68.6
70.7
72.9
74.3
8.00
146
71.55
2.90
66.0
67.9
69.5
71.3
73.4
75.4
76.9
9.00
146
73.64
2.98
67.3
70.1
71.6
73.5
75.6
77.5
79.3
10.00
141
75.39
3.02
69.5
71.9
73.3
75.2
77.4
79.3
81.4
10.50
147
76.31
3.09
70.4
72.7
74.2
76.0
78.3
80.3
82.5
11.00
145
77.23
3.16
71.3
73.4
75.1
77.0
79.2
81.3
83.5
11.50
139
78.07
3.18
72.0
74.2
76.1
77.7
80.2
82.5
84.5
12.00
139
79.19
3.48
72.2
75.1
77.0
78.8
81.5
83.8 85.8
12.50
142
80.30
3.63
72.9
76.0
78.0
80.2
82.8
85.3
87.5
13.00
138
81.61
4.11
73.5
76.9
78.9
81.1
84.3
87.0
89.6
13.50
135
83.10
4.49
73.9
78.0
80.2
82.5
85.9
88.8
91.6
14.00
136
84.77
4.47
74.6
79.3
81.9
84.4
87.6
90.7
93.3
14.50
131
86.65
4.41
76.7
80.9
83.9
86.7
89.3
92.7
94.7
15.00
133
88.66
4.37
80.1
82.6
86.0
88.8
91.0
94.6
96.2
45
Table
H.
Distance
Standards
Sitting
Height
-
SH
(cm)
Girls
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
3.00
143
54.4
1.83
50.3
52.1
53.2
54.4
55.5
56.7
57.9
4.00
135
57.8
1.99
53.4
55.1
56.3
57.8
58.9
60.1
61.6
5.00
145
60.7
2.25
56.3
57.8
59.1
60.8
62.1
63.4
65.2
6.00
143
63.6
2.40
58.9
60.5
62.0
63.7
65.3
66.8
68.3
7.00
142
66.7
2.50
62.0
63.2
64.8
66.7
68.2
69.5
71.3
8.00
140
69.3
2.39
64.8
65.9
67.6
69.4
70.8
72.1
73.8
9.00
141
71.6
2.41
66.7
68.3
70.0
71.6
73.1
74.7
76.2
9.50
132
72.6
2.64
67.5
69.3
71.0
72.6
74.2
76.0
77.4
10.00
133
73.6
2.60
68.3
70.3
71.9
73.6
75.3
77.2
78.8
10.50
135
74.6
2.91
69.1
71.3
72.8
74.6
76.5 78.5
80.3
11.00
132
75.8
2.98
70.0
72.3
73.8 75.8
77.7
79.9
81.8
11.50
134
77.1
3.32
70.8
73.3
74.9
77.1
79.2
81.6
83.3
12.00
134
78.7
3.59
71.6
74.5
76.1
78.5
80.7
83.4
84.8
12.50
132
80.2
3.69
72.7
75.7
77.5
80.1
82.3
85.0
86.3
13.00
131
81.5
3.72
74.0
77.0
78.9
81.6
83.9
86.3
87.6
13.50
125
82.9
3.60
75.4
78.4
80.5
83.0
85.2
87.4
88.7
14.00
124
84.2
3.28
76.9
79.7
82.0
84.2
86.3
88.3
89.6
14.50
126
85.3
3.12
78.3
80.9
83.3
85.2 87.2
89.1
90.4
15.00
128
86.0
2.93
79.5
81.8
84.3
85.9 87.9
89.7
91.0
15.50
115
86.5
2.85
80.3
82.5
85.0
86.5
88.4
90.1
91.5
16.00
125
87.0
2.77
80.9
83.0
85.4
86.9
88.7
90.5
91.9
17.00
121
87.5
2.75
81.6
83.5
85.7
87.4
89.1
91.0
92.3
18.00
120
87.5
2.75
81.9
83.6
85.8
87.6
89.3
91.1
92.5
19.00
112
87.7
2.82
81.9
83.6
85.9
87.8
89.4
91.0
92.7
20.00
116
87.8
2.78
81.9
83.7
86.2
87.8
89.5
91.1
93.0
46
Table
12.
Distance
Standards
Sitting
Height
-
SH
(cm)
Boys
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
3.00
135
55.8
2.20
52.2
53.0
54.1
55.7
57.2
58.9
60.1
4.00
143
59.0
2.34
54.6
56.0
57.3
59.0
60.3
62.2 63.2
5.00
140
61.8
2.51
57.1
58.6
60.1
61.7
63.4
65.3
66.5
6.00
145
64.6
2.77
59.5
61.3
62.6
64.5
66.6
68.4
69.9
7.00
147
67.7
2.81
62.2
64.2
65.8
67.6
69.7
71.3
73.2
8.00
146
70.4
2.86
64.7
66.8
68.5
70.3
72.3
73.9
76.0
9.00
146
72.6
2.91
66.6
69.2
70.6
72.5
74.4
76.2
78.3
10.00
143
74.4
3.04
68.7
70.9
72.3
74.3
76.2
78.3
80.4
10.50
148
75.4
3.02
69.6
71.8
73.3
75.2 77.2
79.3
81.4
11.00
145
76.3
3.13
70.3
72.5
74.1
75.9
78.2
80.3
82.5
11.50
139
77.1
3.19
70.9
73.2
75.0
76.8
79.2
81.5
83.6
12.00
139
78.2
3.48
71.4
74.1
76.0
77.9
80.5
82.9
84.9
12.50
142
79.3
3.60
71.9
75.0
77.0
79.1
81.8
84.5
86.6
13.00
138
80.6
4.10
72.4
75.9
78.0
80.1
83.3
86.2
88.5
13.50
135
82.1
4.47
73.1
77.0
79.2
81.4
84.9
88.0
90.3
14.00
136
83.8
4.47
74.2
78.3
80.9
83.4
86.7
89.8
92.1
14.50
131
85.7
4.38
76.1
80.0
82.9
85.7
88.4
91.6
93.6
15.00
135
87.6
4.33
78.6
81.7
85.0
87.8
90.0
93.1
95.0
15.50
131
89.2
4.14
80.8
83.6
86.8
89.4
91.4
94.4
96.2
16.00
127
90.7
3.75
82.6
85.4
88.3
90.7
92.6
95.4
97.2
16.50
124
91.4
3.68
84.0
86.8
89.3
91.6
93.5
96.2
98.0
17.00
131
92.1
3.50
85.1
87.9 89.9
92.2
94.2
96.7
98.6
18.00
129
92.9
3.37
86.5
89.2
90.6
92.7
95.1
97.5
99.3
19.00
125
93.5
3.36
86.8
89.7
91.2
93.3
95.8
97.9
99.8
20.00
117
93.8
3.46
87.1
89.5
91.2
93.6
96.2
98.1
100.6
47
Table
13.
Distance
Standards
Supine
Subischial
Leg
Length
-
SILL
(cm)
Girls
Age
Years
N
Mean
SD
Smoothed
Empirical
Centiles
3
10
25
50
75
90
97
0.08
148
18.7
1.99
17.0
17.6
18.2
18.8
19.4
20.3
20.9
0.25
148
21.1
1.20
19.0
19.5
20.2
20.9
21.7
22.4
23.3
0.50
159
24.0
1.29
21.7
22.2
23.0
23.8
24.8
25.5
26.7
0.75
151
26.4
1.35
23.8
24.4
25.3
26.2
27.1
28.1
29.2
1.00
154
28.0
1.60
25.2
26.3
27.1
28.0
28.9
30.2
31.4
1.50
54
31.5
1.56
28.5
29.7
30.5
31.3
32.4
33.9
34.9
2.00
31
(34.8
1.59)
32.0
32.8
33.5
34.4
35.8
37.1
37.6
3.00
53
39.9
1.74
36.3
37.9
38.4
39.9
41.2
42.2
42.3
4.00
92
44.1
2.31
40.1
41.1
42.4
43.8