'Sovereign Tiara' grape


Reynolds, A.G.; Denby, L.G.; Bouthillier, M.; Strachan, G.E.

HortScience 24(2): 397-398

1989


'Sovereign Tiara' (Vitis spp. hybrid) is the second of two white wine grape cultivars recently released by the Agriculture Canada Research Station, Summerland, B.C. Like `Sovereign Opal', 'Sovereign Tiara' is a latemidseason grape cultivar useful for both varietally labeled and proprietary products. Consistently high yields make 'Sovereign Tiara' ideal for use as a bulk blending grape, and render it advantageous over 'Sovereign Opal' for this purpose. Compared to 'Okanagan Riesling', yield and winter hardiness of `Sovereign Tiara' are superior, while fruit composition is comparable.

Origin
`Sovereign
Tiara'
is
a
cross
of
'Golden
Muscat'
x
`Marechal
Foch'
and
a
sister
seed-
ling
of
'Sovereign
Opal'.
The
cross
was
made
in
1966
under
the
direction
of
D.V.
Fisher
and
C.
Bailey,
and
subsequently
tested
by
L.G.D.
as
Selection
123.
Characteristics
Leaves
of
'Sovereign
Tiara'
are
orbicular
in
shape,
deeply
serrated,
with
a
rugose,
slightly
pubescent
upper
surface
(Fig.
1).
Fully
developed
leaves
often
exceed
150
mm
in
length.
Growth
habit
is
procumbent.
Vigor
of
irrigated,
own-rooted
vines
growing
in
sandy
loam
soil
is
moderate
to
high;
weight
of
cane
prunings
from
mature
vines
on
a
di-
vided
canopy
frequently
exceeds
1.5
kg
per
meter
of
row.
Clusters
(Fig.
1)
are
cylindri-
cal,
shouldered,
slightly
loose,
and
medium-
sized,
averaging
98
g.
Berries
are
orbicular,
medium-sized
(1.4
g),
seeded,
and
gold
in
color
at
maturity.
Fruit
of
'Sovereign
Tiara'
ripens
late-mid-
season,
with
or
slightly
later
than
'Okanagan
Riesling'.
Average
harvest
date
(based
on
°Brix)
at
Summerland
is
11
Oct.
Soluble
sol-
ids
concentration
ranges
from
18
to
23
*Brix.
Titratable
acidity
varies
between
8
and
21
g•liter•
-1
,
less
than
half
of
which
is
malic,
and
pH
only
occasionally
exceeds
3.35
(Ta-
ble
1).
Wines
have
been
rated
consistently
high
in
quality.
The
most
common
descrip-
tors
used
by
tasters
have
been
"fruity",
Received
for
publication
2
May
1988.
Contribu-
tion
no.
703.
The
cost
of
publishing
this
paper
was
defrayed
in
part
by
the
payment
of
page
charges.
Under
postal
regulations,
this
paper
therefore
must
be
hereby
marked
advertisement
solely
to
indicate
this
fact.
'Research
Scientist.
'Research
Scientist,
retired.
'Research
Assistant.
HORTSCIBNCE
24(2):397-398.
1989.
`Sovereign
Tiara'
Grape
A.G.
Reynolds',
L.G.
Denby',
M.
Bouthillier
3
,
and
G.E.
Strachan
i
Agriculture
Canada
Research
Station,
Summerland,
B.C.
VOH
1ZO,
Canada
Additional
index
words.
Vitis,
wine
grape
breeding
`Sovereign
Tiara'
(Vitis
spp.
hybrid)
is
the
second
of
two
white
wine
grape
cultivars
re-
cently
released
by
the
Agriculture
Canada
Research
Station,
Summerland,
B.C.
Like
`Sovereign
Opal'
(1),
'Sovereign
Tiara'
is
a
late-midseason
grape
cultivar
useful
for
both
varietally
labeled
and
proprietary
products.
Consistently
high
yields
make
'Sovereign
Tiara'
ideal
for
use
as
a
bulk
blending
grape,
and
render
it
advantageous
over
'Sovereign
Opal'
for
this
purpose.
Compared
to
'Okan-
agan
Riesling',
yield
and
winter
hardiness
of
`Sovereign
Tiara'
are
superior•,
while
fruit
composition
is
comparable.
"herbaceous",
"vegetative",
and
"candy-
like".
No
muscat
flavor
has
been
noted
de-
spite
`Golden
Muscat'
being
the
seed
parent.
`Sovereign
Tiara'
possesses
the
capacity
for
sustaining
high
yields
over
a
prolonged
period
(Table
1).
To
accomodate
their
antic-
ipated
high
vigor,
vines
should
be
cordon-
trained
on
a
divided
canopy
with
a
1.5-
to
2.0-m-high
renewal
zone
and
pruned
to
enough
three-node
downward-oriented
bear-
ing
units
to
allow
for
a
density
of
15
to
20
shoots
per
meter
of
row
within
each
subcan-
opy.
A
limited
amount
of
data
is
available
to
support
this
recommendation
(Table
2).
Shoot
positioning
is
necessary
to
establish
subcanopies.
Where
low
vine
size
is
antici-
pated,
a
1.5-
to
2.0-m-high
bilateral
cordon
(Hudson
River
Umbrella)
or
the
Umbrella
Kniffin
system
are
appropriate.
Training
systems
with
low
(
<
0.8
m)
renewal
zones
have
proven
unsatisfactory
due
to
excessive
renewal
zone
shading.
A
row
x
vine
spac-
ing
of
3.0
x
2.4
m
is
recommended.
Vig-
orous
vines
have
responded
favorably
to
moderate
midsummer
hedging
in
terms
of
vigor
reduction
and
concomitant
advances
in
fruit
maturity.
Flower
cluster
thinning has
also
advanced
maturity.
Tolerance
to
cold
winter
temperatures
is
greater
than
'Okana-
gan
Riesling',
but
less
than
`Marechal
Foch'
(Table
3).
Vines
are
relatively
resistant
to
powdery
mildew.
No
physiological
disorders
such
as
shattering
or
waterberry
have
been
noted.
Susceptibility
to
phylloxera,
and
hence
Table
1.
Harvest
date,
yield,
and
fruit
composition
of
'Sovereign
Tiara'
grape,
1972-84.
Titratable
acidity
°Brix
(g.liter
-1
)
pH
1972
12
Oct.
18.2
13.2
3.30
1973
5
Oct.
13.6
18.1
14.1
3.10
1974
17
Oct.
36.8
22.8
7.9
3.07
1975
14
Oct.
51.8
20.6
12.5
3.04
1976
18
Oct.
31.3
17.8
18.5
2.84
1977
4
Oct.
33.5
21.1
10.7
3.36
1978
25
Oct.
60.8
20.9
11.6
3.33
1979
10
Oct.
73.9
23.2
8.4
1980
8
Oct.
2.4
20.5
11.3
1981
25
Sept.
1.7
21.3
11.0
1982
13
Oct.
15.8
20.0
13.5
3.49
1983
12
Oct.
18.0
21.1
13.5
3.23
1984
10
Oct.
17.8
19.2
20.7
3.03
Kelowna
,
'
1975-83
2
Oct.
8.4
19.7
11.0
3.20
1984-86
23
Sept.
12.4
17.1
9.0
3.20
Kelowna"
1981-84
1
Oct.
8.8
17.7
10.1
3.39
Oliver'
1981-84
9
Sept.
7.6
19.0
10.2
3.31
Data
for
1972
through
1979
based
on
vines
planted
in
1970;
data
for
1980
through
1984
on
vines
planted
in
1978.
Row
x
vine
spacing
3.0
x
2.4
m
(1972-79)
and
3.0
x
1.8
m
(1980-84);
divided
canopy.
'British
Columbia
Ministry
of
Agriculture
and
Fisheries
test
plots,
planted
1975.
Row
x
vine
spacing
2.7
x
2.0
m;
four-arm
Kniffin
training.
Data
are
averages
over
all
years
indicated.
'Grower
test
plots,
planted
1978.
Row
x
vine
spacing
2.4
x
1.4
m;
pendelbogen
training
(long
arched
canes
originating
from
a
0.6-m-high
renewal
zone).
Data
arc
averages
over
all
years
indicated.
Table
2.
Comparison
between
cane
and
spur
pruning
of
'Sovereign
Tiara'
grape,
Summerland,
B.C.,
1982
and
1983.
Year
and
type
of
pruning
Yield
(t•ha
-1
)
*Brix
Titratable
acidity
(wilier
-
1
)
pH
1982
Cane'
19.6
.....
Spur
,
'
29.6
1983
Cane'
18.0
21.1
13.5
3.23
Spur'
.
21.3
20.0
14.9
3.18
'Four,
15-node
canes
per
vine,
row
x
vine
spacing
3.0
x
1.8
m;
divided
canopy.
'Twenty,
three-node
spurs
per
vine.
Year
Harvest
date
Yield
(t•ha
-
')
Summerland'
HORTSCIENCE,
VOL.
24(2),
APRIL
1989
397
„4.
I
Table
1.
Characteristics
of
four
dark-fruited
muscadine
cultivars
at
Griffin,
Ga.,
1985
to
1987.
Soluble
Flower
Fruit
size
solids
Dry
stem
Vine
Flavor
Cultivar
type2
(g/berry)
content
(%)
scar
(%)Y
vigor"
rating"
Cowart
SF
6.9
bey
17.4
b
53
c
4.6
a
8.4
c
Loomis
P
7.3
b
18.8
a
72b
4.7a
9.1
a
Nesbitt
SF
9.3
a
16.9
b
57
c
4.5
a
8.8
b
Southland
SF
6.6
c
18.3
a
83
a
3.9
b
8.6
be
'Flower
type:
SF
=
self-fertile;
P
=
pistillate.
YPercentage
of
berries
not
torn
at
point
of
detachment
from
pedicel.
"Vine
vigor:
1
=
poor,
2
=
fair,
3
=
medium,
4
=
good,
S
excellent.
"Flavor
ratings:
1
=
poor,
3
=
fair,
5
=
good,
8
=
very
good,
10
=
excellent.
'Mean
separation
by
Duncan's
multiple
range
test,
P
=
5%.
the
need
for
resistant
rootstocks,
is
not
known.
Bearing
commercial
plantings
of
this
new
cultivar
have
existed
in
British
Columbia
for
more
than
10
years.
Availability
Virus-free
cuttings
May
be
obtained
from
A.G.R.
or
from
the
Assn.
of
British
Colum-
bia
Grape
Growers,
5-1864
Spall
Road,
Ke.
lowna,
B.C.
V1Y
4R2,
Canada.
Literature
Cited
1.
Reynolds,
A.G.,
L.G.
Denby,
M.
Bouthil-
lier,
and
G.E.
Strachan.
1988.
'Sovereign
Opal'
grape.
HortScience
23:642-643.
Fig.
1. 1.
Typical
leaf
and
clusters
of
'Sovereign
Tiara'.
Table
3.
Bud
injury
of
hybrid
grape
cultivars,
Summerland,
B.C.
1986.
2
Buds
alive
(%)
Cultivar
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Sovereign
Tiara
76
93
97
Okanagan
Riesling
26
32
56
Marichal
Foch
78
84
96
De
Chaunac
81
91
92
Rougeon
67
79
98
Chelois
45
86
98
Verdelet
21
60
94
Baco
noir
9
40
73
Cayuga
white
43
61
94
Tata
are
presented
on
ten,
10-node
cane
samples
per
five-vine
plot;
sampled
10
Feb.
1986.
HORTSCIENCE
24(2):398-399.
1989.
`Lo
filiS
9
Muscadine
Grape
R.P.
Lane
1
and
M.A.
Owen
2
University
of
Georgia,
Georgia
Station,
Griffin,
GA
30223
Additional
index
words.
Vitis
rotundifolia,
fruit
breeding
`Loomis'
(Fig.
1)
is
a
pistillate-flowered
muscadine
grape
(Vitis
rotunclifolia
Michx)
released
by
the
Univ.
of
Georgia
Agricul-
tural
Experiment
Stations.
'Loomis'
is
named
in
recognition
of
N.H.
Loomis,
who
was
the
grape
breeder
at
the
United
States
Horticul-
Received
for
publication
4
Aug.
1988.
The
cost
of
publishing
this
paper
was
defrayed
in
part
by
the
payment
of
page
charges.
Under
postal
regu-
lations,
this
paper
therefore
must
be
hereby
marked
advertisement
solely
to
indicate
this
fact.
'Associate
Professor,
Dept.
of
Horticulture.
2
Cooperator
with
the
United
States
Horticultural
Field
Station,
Meridian,
Miss.
and
the
Univ.
of
Georgia.
Origin
`Loomis'
originated
from
a
cross
of
'Creek'
x
USDA
Selection
15
made
by
Loomis
in
1960
(Fig.
2).
Along
with
numerous
other
USDA
seedlings,
it
was
planted
at
Owen's
Vineyard,
Gay,
Ga.
before
the
closing
of
the
Meridian
Station.
Having
been
designated
USDA
18-7B
by
the
originator,
it
was
se-
lected
by
us
in
1979
following
several
years
of
observation.
Replicated
plots
were
estab-
lished
at
Gay
and
Griffin,
Ga.
tural
Field
Station,
Meridian,
Miss.,
where
it
originated.
398
HORTSCIENCE,
VOL.
24(2),
APRIL
1989