Tick and mammal coevolution, with emphasis on Haemaphysalis
Hoogstraal, H.; Kim, K.C.
Coevolution of parasitic arthropods and mammals: 505-568
The ticks of the superfamily Ixodoidea are postulated to have evolved as obligate parasites of Reptilia in the warm, humid climate of the late Paleozoic or early Mesozoic era. During this period, their basic physiological patterns were established, as was the multihost developmental pattern of the Argasidae and the three-host developmental pattern of the Ixodidae.