Present status of Karnal bunt of wheat in relation to its distribution and varietal susceptibility


Singh, D.V.; Srivastava, K.D.; Joshi, L.M.

Indian Phytopathology 38(3): 507-515

1985


Data collected by mobile surveys in 1976-84 revealed the gradual increase in the incidence of Neovossia [Tilletia] indica. The disease has spread to new areas of W. Bengal and Gujerat in addition to Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, low altitudes in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, northern parts of Bihar, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It was not found in Maharashtra, Orissa, Assam, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu or Kerala. During 1980-84 severity was greatest in 1982, followed by 1981 and 1983. Increase in spread seems to be affected by growing susceptible cultivars.

Indian
Phylopailt.
38
(3)
:
507-515,
(1985)
PRESENT
STATUS
OF
KARNAL
BUNT
OF
WHEAT
IN
RELATION
TO
ITS
DISTRIBUTION
AND
VARIETAL
SUSCEPTIBILITY
D.
V.
SINGH,
K.
D.
SRIVASTAVA
AND
L.
M.
JOSHI
Division
of
Mycology
and
Plant
Pathology,
Indian
Agricultural
Research
Institz
te,
New
Delhi
110
012
ABSTRACT
:
Data
collected
by
mobile
surveys
from
1976
to
1984
revealed
the
gradual
increase
in
the
incidence
and
spread
of
Karnal
bunt
(Neovossia
indica).
The
disease
was
further
spread
to
new
areas
of
West
Bengal
and
Gujarat
in
addition
to
Punjab,
Haryana,
Delhi,
Uttar
Pradesh,
low
altitudes
of
Himachal
Pradesh,
Jammu
region
of
Jammu
and
Kashmir,
northern
parts
of
Bihar,
Rajasthan
and
Madhya Pradesh.
Incidence
was
not
observed
in
the
states
of
Maharashtra,
Orissa,
Assam,
Karnataka,
Andhra
Pradesh,
Tamil
Nadu
and
Kerala.
During
the
crop
seasons
of
1980-84,
the
disease
severity
was
more
in
the
1982
followed
by
1981
and
1983
crop
seasons.
Increase
in
the
spread
of
the
disease
seems
to
be
influenced
by
cultivation
of
susceptible
cultivars
grown
in
various
states.
Key
words
:
Wheat,
Karnal
bunt,
Distribution,
Varietal
susceptiblity
Karnal
bunt
or
partial
bunt
of
wheat
[Neovossia
indica
(Mitra)
Mundkur]
a
disease
of
minor
importance
has
of
late
become
a
major
concern
to
wheat
workers
(Joshi
et
al.,
1983).
In
view
of
its
increasing
importance,
a
constant
watch
on
the
occurrence
and
spread
of
the
disease
in
the
country
is
being
maintained.
In
the
last
9
years
(1976-84),
about
20,000
post
harvest
wheat
samples
collected
from
threshing
floors
have
been
analysed.
A
part
of
information
regarding
distribution
of
Karnal
bunt
from
1974
to
1979
has
been
published
earlier
(Singh
et
al.,
1977
and
Singh
et
al.,
1980).
The
present
publication
is
in
continuation
of
the
same
study
from
1980
to
1984
crop
seasons.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
:
Wheat
samples
numbering
16,519
were
collected
during
1980-1984
crop
seasons
by
mobile
survey
teams
from
the
states
of
Punjab,
Haryana,
Uttar
Pradesh,
Jammu
&
Kashmir,
Himachal
Pradesh,
Delhi,
Rajasthan,
Madhya
Pradesh,
Bihar,
West
Bengal,.
Maharashtra,
Gujarat,
Andhra
Pradesh,
Orissa
and
Assam.
A
few
samples
were
also
received
from
cooperators
in
different
parts
of
the
country.
Field
sample
size
was
about
250
g
and
out
of
this
a
working
sample
of
approximately
2,500
to
3,000
wheat
grains
was
obtained
by
division
and
redivision.
From
the
working
sample,
2,000
grains
were
taken
and
infection
percentage
was
calculated.
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
:
The
survey
data
presented
in
Table
1
indicate
that
there
has
been
gradual
increase
in
the
incidence
and
spread
of
Karnal
bunt
in
the
country.
It
is
now
present
in
the
states
of
Punjab,
Haryana,
Delhi,
Uttar
Pradesh,
parts
of
Bihar
and
West
Bengal,
low
altitudes
of
Himachal
Pradesh,
Jammu
region
of
Jammu
&
Kashmir,
northern
parts
of
Madhya
Pradesh
and
Rajasthan.
A
solitary
sample
was
collected
from
Junagarh
district
of
Gujarat
(Singh,
1980).
So
far
the
disease
has
not
been
observed
in
the
states
of
Maharashtra,
Orissa,
Assam,
Meghalaya,
Manipur,
Karnataka,
Andhra
Pradesh,
Tamil
Nadu
and
Kerala
(Joshi
et
al.,
1980
and
Singh
et
al.,
1983).
The
districtwise
distribution
of
Karnal
bunt
in
different
states
in
the
country
is
as
under
:
Received
for
publication
January
2,
1985.
507
TABLE
1
:
Percentage
os
Karnal
bunt
infected
samples
since
1975-76
to
1983-84
crop
seasons
in
different
states
of
India
State
1978-79
Total
samples/infected
samples
1983-84
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
Jammu
&
Kashmir
-
19/6
29/25
2
3
/
1
5
15/12
238/186
38/13
(13.5)*
(86.2)
(65.2)
(80.00)
(78.1)
(34.2)
Himachal
Pradesh
20/5
54/40
22,5
47
28
85/45
35/5
24/1
(25.0)
(74.0)
(22.7)
(59.5)
(52.9)
(14.2)
(4.1)
Punjab
81/32*
185/6
123/63
167/130
214/75
612/570
741/631
804/525
(39.5)
(3.2)
(51.2)
(77.8)
(35.0)
(93.1)
(85.1)
(65.2)
Haryana
82/7
31/0
117/40
184/31
322/23
513/193
993/600
1004/220
1385/17
(8.5)
(0)
(34.1)
(16.8)
(7.1)
(37.6)
(60.4)
(22.8)
(1.2)
Uttar
Pradesh
127/0
93/1
252/56
673/287
444/15
934/184
693/221
654/68
825/24
(0)
(1.0)
(22.2)
(42.6)
(3.3)
(19.7) (31.8)
(10.3)
(2.9)
Delhi
29/0
17/0
23/4
18/3
109/0
129/32
74/22
54/3
170/1
(0)
(0)
(17.3)
(16.0)
(0)
(24.8) (29.7)
(5.5)
(0.5)
Rajasthan
-
170/1
282/13
242/0
203/8
75/4
191/4
233/0
(0.5)
(4.6)
(0)
(3.9)
(5.3)
(2.0)
(0)
Madhya
Pradesh
-
31/0
99/10
165/1
377/1
293/15
314/9
236/11
(0)
(10.1)
(0.6)
(0.2)
(5.1)
(2.8)
(4.6)
Bihar
-
140/0
106/4
183/0
88/1
26/0
208/0
120/1
(0)
(3.7)
(0)
(
1
.1)
(0)
(0)
(0.8)
West
Bengal
-
- -
88/0
93/1
150/3
123/0
-
(0)
(1.0)
(2.0)
(0)
Gujarat
-
-
405/0
206/0
129/0
207/0
112/0
(0) (0) (0) (0)
(0)
Maharash
tra
-
-
53/0
112/0
41/0
57/0
322/0
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Andhra
Pradesh
16/0
-
-
41/0
20/0
-
(0)
(0)
(0)
Karnataka
14/0
10/0
3/0
25/0
-
47/0
17/0
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Orissa
-
-
13,0
-
5/0
2/0
(0)
(0)
(0)
Assam
-
-
49/0
-
44/0
-
(0)
(0)
0
=
No
infection;
-
=
Samples
not
collected.
*
=
Figures
in
parenthesis
areaverap:percentage
of
infected
samples.
(.11
00
A
DO1
OH
IVc
IO
IA
Hd
N
V
ICIN
I
0
Kapurthala,
Ludhiana,
Patiala,
Pathankot,
Ropar
and
Sangrur.
Haryana
:
Ambala,
Bhiwani,
Faridabad,
Gurgaon,
Hissar,
Jind,
Karnal,
Kurukshetra,
Mohindergarh,
Rohtak,
Sirsa
and
Sonepat.
Jammu
&
Kashmir
:
Jammu,
Kathua
and
Udhampur.
Himachal
Pradesh
:
Kangra,
Sirmur
and
Una.
Uttar
Pradesh
:
Agra,
Aligarh,
Almora,
Azaingarh,
Bahraich,
Banda,
Barabanki,
Bareilly,
Basti,
Bulandshahr,
Deoria,
Etah,
Etawah,
Fatehpur,
Faizabad,
Farrukhabad,
Ghaziabad,
Ghazipur,
Gonda,
Gorakhpur,
Jhansi,
Kanpur,
Kheri,
Lalitpur,
Lucknow,
Mathura,
Mainpuri,
Meerut,
Morada-
bad,
Muzaffarnagar,
Nainital (Tarai
region),
Pilibhit,
Pithoragarh,
Pratapgarh,
Rampur,
Raebareli,
Saharanpur,
Sitapur,
Shahjahanpur,
Sultanpur,
Unnao,
Varanasi.
Rajasthan
:
Alwar,
Bharatpur,
Chittorgarh,
Jaipur,
Kota,
Sikar,
Sriganga-
nagar.
Madhya
Pradesh
:
Chhattarpur,
Dewas,
Hoshangabad,
Jabalpur,
Morena,
Narsinghapur,
Raigarh,
Sehore,
Shivpuri,
Tikamgarh.
Bihar
:
Gopalganj,
Muzffarpur,
Smastipur,
Saran.
West
Bengal
:
Malda.
24
Parganas.
Delhi
:
Alipur,
Najafgarh
and
Mehrauli
blocks.
It
can
be
seen
from
Fig.
1
that
the
prevalence
of
Karnal
bunt
was
much
higher
in
Punjab
than
in
other
states
of
North-western
region.
In
1980-81
crop
season
93
per
cent
samples
from
Punjab
were
infected
though
the
intensities
varied
significantly.
In
subsequent
years
there
was
some
decline
in
disease
incidence
and
in
1982
only
85
per
cent
samples
were
infected
and
next
year
it
was
only
65
per
cent.
In
Haryana,
the
percentage
of
infected
samples
also
showed
a
gradual
increase
having
60
per
cent
samples
infected
with
Karnal
bunt
during
1982
crop
season.
On
the
other
hand,
the
infection
level
decreased
considerably
in
1983
and
declined
to
23
per
cent.
In
Uttar
Pradesh
and
Delhi
almost
similar
trend
was
observed
but
the
level
of
infected
samples
was
extremely
low
as
compared
to
Punjab
and
Haryana.
Wheat
samples
collected
from
Jammu
and
Kashmir
were
restricted
to
foot
hills
of
Jammu
region
only,
hence
a
definite
conclusion
regarding
the
Karnal
bunt
situation
in
this
state
cannot
be
drawn.
However,
the
percentage
of
infection
was
higher
than
that
of
adjacent
states.
In
the
parts
of
Madhya
Pradesh
and
Rajasthan,
the
disease
occurred
regularly
but
the
incidence
was
low.
In
Bihar,
the
appearance
of
disease
has
been
more
or
less
sporadic
and
mostly
it
was
in
traces.
In
West
Bengal,
only
one
sample
was
found
infected
during
1981
crop
season
in
24
Parganas
district
while
3
samples
in
the
year
1982
from
Malda
district.
Analysis
of
the
data
presented
in
Table
2
show
that
in
Punjab,
the
average
infection
as
recorded
in
WL
711
was
0.8,
5.3,
3.7
and
0.7
in
the
yeais
1980,
1981,
1982
a
nd
1983
respectively.
While
the
average
infection
in
Sonalika
in
the
state
during
the
same
period
was
only
0.2,
1.9,
2.2
and
0.4
per
cent
respectively.
Similarly
in
other
'Pun
jab
:
Amritsar,
Bhatinda,
Faridkot,
Ferozpur,
Gurdaspur,
Hoshiarpur,
SINGH
ET
AL.:
KARNAL
BUNT
OF
WHEAT
509
TABLE
2
:
Varietal
susceptibility
to
Karnal
bunt
of
wheat
during
1980-84
0
State/
variety
1979-80
-------
Total
Maximum
samples/
infection
infected
(%)
samples
1980-81
1981-82
----------
------
Total
Maximum
Total
Maximum
samples/
infection
samples/
infection
infected
(%)
infected
(%)
samples
samples
1982-83
-
--
-
Total
Maximum
samples/
infection
infected
(%)
samples
1983-84
-----
-
Total
Maximum
samples/
infection
infected
(%)
samples
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Pupjab
WL
711
88/40
5.6
(0.8)*
328/319
45.0
(5.3)
326/296
48.5
(3.7)
415/316
5.8
(0.7)
Sonalika
42/15
1.1
(0.2)
108/101
10.7
(1.9)
187/169
40.0
(2.2)
86/49
1.9
(0.4)
Arjun
25/6
0.2
(0.1)
80/72
12.5
(2.0)
54/44
23.4
(1.3)
18/11
1.3
(0.2)
WG
357
6/3
5.7
(2.0)
18/16
13.3
(2.7)
18/9
18.0
(9.3)
35/12
0.3
(0.1)
Kalyansona
22/4
0.5
(0.2)
8/8
5.0
(2.5
-
-
-
-
WL
1562
-
-
-
-
6/6
2.8
(0.9)
139/88
4.0
(0.4)
WH
147
-
-
16/12
14.1
(3.8)
8/5
0.7
(0.1)
DWL
5023
-
-
-
-
-
68/20
0.8
(0.3)
Imp.
wheat**
31/7
1.7
(0.9)
70/54
8.3
(1.7)
134/95
31.0
(2.4)
35/24
2.4
(0.5)
Haryana
Sonalika
97/2
0.1
(Tr.)*
121/32
4.5
(0.1)
182/90
2.4
(0.2)
247/49
0.3
(Tr.)
240/4
0.6(Tr.)
Arjun
69/7
0.5
(0.2)
117/69
1.9
(0.3)
259/233
9.6
(0.7)
403/124
1.9
(Tr.)
348/5
0.3(Tr.)
WH
147
34/1
0.1
(Tr.)
95/26
2.4
(0.1)
382/175
3.8
(0.2)
188/16
0.9
(Tr.)
275/5
0.2(Tr.)
Kalyansona
15/5
0.1
(Tr.)
16/5
2.4
(0.4)
10/2
0.5
(0.1)
12/2
0.1
(Tr.)
34/0
0
(0.0)
WL
711
28/3
0.5
(0.1)
29/18
12.7
(1.2)
48/34
6.0
(0.9)
4/2
1.2
(0.3)
4/1
0.5(0.1)
C
306
11/0
0
(0
)
28/3
0.5
(Tr.)
28/10
1.3
(0.8)
40/1
0.1
(Tr.)
208/0
0
(0.0)
HD
2204
4/2
0.9
(0.3)
34/27
4.1
(0.6)
26/14
0.9
(Tr.)
24/0
0
(0.0)
Imp.
wheat
68/5
0.2
(0.1)
103/38
3.2
(0.2)
50/29
4.6
(0.4)
84/21
0.7
(Tr.)
252/2
0.2(Tr.)
Uttar
Pradesh
Sonalika
271/8
1.4
(0.5)
486/114
4.8
(0.2)
390/118
24.3
(0.3)
340/38
3.2
(Tr.)
434/12
0.5(Tr.)
Arjun
30/2
0.4
(0.1)
20/4
1.8
(0.9)
24/8
20.3
(3.0)
33/5
1.1
(Tr.)
45/2
0.1(Tr.)
A
DO
1O
HIVdO
IA
Hd
N
VI
CIN
I
Janak
15/1
0.4
(0.1)
29/4
1.4
(0.1)
12/0
0
(0.0)
30/5
3.7
(Tr.)
6/1
UP
262
6/1
0.3
(0.1)
2R/10
1.6
(0.2)
19/4
4.0
(0.2)
4/1
0.2
(Tr.)
10/0
0
(0.0)
WL
711
3/1
1.7
(0.6)
5/2
0.5
(0.2)
2/2
17.2
(8.5)
4/1
0.8
(0.1)
11/0
0
(0.0)
Kalyansona
810
0
(0.0)
8/2
1.5
(0.2)
5/0
0
(0.0)
2/0
0
(0.0)
9/0
4
(0.0)
K
68
and
other
local
13/0
0
(0.0)
10.3
1.5
(Tr.)
31/2
3.7
(0.3)
72/5
0.1
(Tr.)
51/0
0
(0.0)
Imp.
wheat
98/2
1.9
(0.5)
257/45
43.0
(0.5)
209.86
20.5
(1.0)
169/13
0.6
(Tr.)
259/9
0.1(Tr.)
Delhi
Sonalika
37/0
0
(0.0)
32/4
0.6
(Tr.)
25/6
2.1
(0.1)
21/0
0
(0.0)
29/0
0
(0.0)
0
Arjun
7/0
0
(0.0)
11/3
2.6
(0.3)
8/7
4.8
(0.7)
2/2
0.5
(0.3)
12/0
(0.0)
WH
147
10/0
0
(0.0)
12/5
1.0
(0.2)
10/2
1.2
(0.1)
2/0
0
(0.0)
13/0
0.0
(0.0)
C
306
19/0
0
(0.0)
4/1
0.2
(0.1)
6/1
0.5
(Tr.)
2/0
0
(0.0)
77/0
(0.0)
0
WL
711
8/0
0
(0.0)
14/9
4.3
(0.8)
5/2
0.4
(0.9)
4/1
1.0
(0.2)
10/0
0
(0.0)
0
Kalyansona
4/0
0
(0.0)
7/1
3.7
(0
.
5)
5/1
0.5
(0.1)
4/0
0
(0.0)
4i0
(0.0)
Imp.
wheat
24/0
0
(0.0)
39/9
6.2
(0.2)
15/3
3.4
(0.3)
21/0
0
(0.0)
25/1
0.1(Tr.)
Jammu
and
Kashmir
Sonalika
7/3
2.9
(1.3)
6/3
0.9
(0.3)
32/27
7.5
(0.2)
26/7
0.6
(Tr.)
Kalyansona
5/3
1.3
(1.0)
1/1
0.2
(0.2)
133/101
10.8
(0.2)
2/0
0
(0.0)
Arjun
1/1
0.1
(0.1)
1/1
0.4
(0.4)
5/5
3.4
(2.0)
2/1
1.0
(0.5)
WL
711
1/1
0.1
(0.1)
1/1
8.4
(8.4)
3/3
30.0
(10.4)
1/0
0
(0.0)
Local
5/3
2.5
(1.8)
1/1
1.0
(1.0)
30/20
3.8
(0.5)
2/0
0
(0.0)
Imp.
wheat
4/4
2.5
(1.4)
515
2.2
(1.0)
35/20
6.5
(3.0)
5/5
2,1
(0.7)
Himachal
Pradesh
Sonalika
10/4
1.0
(0.4)
22/16
4.7
(0.8)
52/24
2.4
(Tr.)
17/2
0.1
(Tr.)
11/0
0
(0.0)
0
Kalyansona
2/0
0
(0.0)
2/2
16.5
(8.3)
2/1
1.0
(0.5)
6/0
0
(0.0)
5/0
(0.0)
WL
711
2/1
2.0
(1.0)
2/1
11.2
(5.6)
1/1
23.8
(23.8)
2/2
1.0
(0.5)
1/1
0.4(0.4)
Local
2/0
0.0
(0.0)
12/4
10.0
(1.1)
9/5
0.8
(0.2)
1/0
0
(0.0)
3/0
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
Imp,
wheat
6.0
0
(0.0)
9
5
10.9
(3.6)
21/14
7.1
(0.2)
7/1
0.2
(0.1)
4/0
SINGH
ET
AL
.:
KAR
NA
L
BU
N
T
OF
WHE
AT
Bihar
Sonalika
130/0
0
(0.0)
45/0
0
(0.0)
16/0
0
(0.0)
84/0
0
(0.0)
64/0
0
(0.0)
Janak
4/0
0
(0.0)
8/i
0.1
(Tr.)
3/0
0
(0.0)
21/0
0
(0.0)
2/0
0
(0.0)
UP
262
-
-
3/0
0
(0.0)
2/0
0
(0.0)
18/0
0
(0.0)
8/0
0
(0.0)
Imp.
wheat
46/0
0
(0.0)
30/0
0
(0.0)
4/4
0
(0.0)
54/0
0
(0.0)
27/1
0.3(Tr.)
Local
4/0
0
(0.0)
2/0
0
(0.0)
1/0
0
(0.0)
31/0
0
(0.0)
21/0
0
(0.0)
West
Bengal
Sonalika
64/0
0
(0.0)
21/0
0
(0.0)
95/0
0
(0.0)
101/0
0
(0.0)
10/0
0
(0.0)
Janak
2/0
0
(0.0)
4/0
0
(0.0)
3/0
0
(0.0)
2/0
0
(0.0)
7/0
0
(0.0)
UP
262
5/0
0
(9.0)
2/0
0
(0.0)
6/0
0
(0.0)
17/0
0
(0.0)
4/0
0
(0.0)
Imp.
wheat
17/0
0
(0.0)
6
5
/
1
0.3
(Tr.)
46/3
0.2
(Tr.)
3/0
0
(0.0)
6/0
0
(0.0)
Tr
=
Less
than
0.1;
0=No
infection;
-
=
Samples
not
collected.
=
Figures
in
parentheses
are
average
infection.
*•
Unidentified
dwarf
wheat.
:
'1V
IS
HOM
IS
to
100
90
so
70
r
x?
60
250
Z40
2.
30
0
20
1
10
m
o.
8
0
4
0
514
INDIAN
PHYTOPATHOLOGY
[Vol.
38,
1985]
PUNJAB
J
AND
K
N.
P
0
a
114119ANA
0
2
50
404
30
20
t
0
2
os
iti:
241
3
PI
4
!ECM
4
OIL
PI
I
N.
P.
RAJ.
DINAR
sa:7:1
W.
B.
Fig.
1.
Statewise
frequency
of
Karnal
bunt
infected
samples
since
1980.
states
like
Haryana
and
Uttar
Pradesh
the
average
infection
in
Sonalika
remained
very
low.
As
reported
earlier,
in
general
Sonalika,
the
chief
commercial
variety
in
the
entire
sub-continent
at
present
and
Kalyansona
predominant
variety
till
1976
have
much
less
incidence
of
Karnal
bunt
as
compared
to
some
recently
developed
cultivars
such
as
Arjun,
WG
357,
WL
711
and
UP
262
(Singh
et
al.,
1980).
Kalyansona
and
Sonalika
varieties
in
Punjab
were
replaced
by
new
strains
such
as
WG
357
and
WL
711
which
were
relatively
more
susceptible
to
Karnal
bunt
(Table
2).
The
extensive
cultivation
of
these
susceptible
strains
in
Punjab
was
atleast
one
of
the
major
factors
for
higher
incidence
of
the
disease.
Even
Sonalika
variety
had
higher
incidence
in
Punjab
than
other
states
which
may
possibly
be
due
to
the
gradual
built
up
of
inocu-
lum
in
the
soil
and
prevalence
of
favourable
climatic
conditions.
The
teliospores
of
Karnal
bunt
are
known
to
survive
in
the
soil
for
2-4
years
or
more
(Mathur
and
Ram,
1963;
Munjal,
1970;
Dhiman,
1982).
In
Uttar
Pradesh,
Sonalika
still
occupies
maximum
area
among
the
improved
wheat
cultivars
and
possibly
this
accounts
for
low
incidence
of
the
disease
in
the
state.
Of
course
the
climatic
conditions
in
most
parts
of
Uttar
Pradesh
are
also
not
as
condusive
for
Karnal
bunt
as
in
Punjab
or
foot
hills
of
Himachal
Pradesh,
Jammu
&
Kashmir
and
Tarai
region
of
Uttar
Pradesh.
However,
the
disease
has
been
severe
in
some
small
pockets
in
Uttar
Pradesh
wherever,
highly
susceptible
varieties
were
cultivated
(Table
2).
It
is,
therefore,
reasonable
to
assume
that
one
of
the
factors
for
the
spread
and
increase
in
the
incidence
of
the
disease
is
the
cultivation
of
highly
SINGH
ET
AL.:
KARNAL
BUNT
OF
WHEAT
515
susceptible
varieties.
Low
incidence
of
Karnal
bunt
in
Haryana
may
also
be
due
to
the
cultivation
of
Sonalika,
WH
147,
HD
2204
and
C
306
which
are
more
tolerant
to
the
disease
under
field
conditions.
Even
in
Punjab
the
incidence
of
Karnal
bunt
appears
to
be
decreasing
for
the
last
2-3
years
presumably
because
new
wheat
strains
like
WL
1562
and
DWL
5023
have
been
introduced
to
replace
the
susceptible
variety
WL
711.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
:
The
authors
wish
to
record
their
sincere
thanks
to
the
members
of
the
survey
teams
and
the
cooperators
from
Agricultural
Universities
and
State
Departments
of
Agriculture
for
their
help
in
collecting
and
sending
the
wheat
seed
samples.
The
authors
also
express
their
gratitude
to
the
Directorate
of
Plant
Protection,
Quarantine
and
Storage,
Faridabad,
particularly
Drs.
K.
D.
Paharia
and
M.
C.
Diwakar
for
providing
vehicular
facilities
for
survey.
REFERENCES
Dhiman,
J.
S.
(1982).
Epidemiology
of
Karnal
bunt
of
wheat
in
Punjab.
Ph.D.
Thesis,
Punjab
Agricultural
University,
Ludhiana.
Joshi,
L.
M..
D.
V.
Singh
and
K.
D.
Srivastava
(1980).
Wheat
disease
survey
I.
Karnal
bunt
1975-80
Wheat
Pathology
Series
No.
7.
Indian
Agric.
Res.
Inst
,
New
Delhi,
pp.
28.
Joshi,
L.
M.,
D.
V.
Singh.
K.
D.
Srivastava
and
R.
D.
Wilcoxson
(1983).
Karnal
bunt:
A
minor
disease
that
is
now
threat
to
wheat.
Bot.
Rev.
49
:
309-330.
Mathur,
S.
C.
and
S.
Ram
(1963).
Longivity
of
chlamydospores
of
Neovossia
indica
(Mitra)
Mundkur.
Sci.
&
Cult.
29
:
411-412.
Munjal,
R.
L.
(1970).
Studies
on
Karnal
bunt
of
wheat. Ph.
D.
Thesis,
Panjab
University,
Chandigarh.
Singh,
D.
V.,
K.
D.
Srivastava,
L.
B.
Goel,
L.
M.
Joshi
and
R.
S.
Gupta
(1977).
Incidence
of
Karnal
bunt
in
North
western
India
during
1974-75.
Indian
Phytopath.
30
:
431-432.
Singh,
D.
V.,
K.
D.
Srivastava
and
L.
M.
.loshi
(1980).
Occurrence
and
spread
of
Karnal
bunt
(Neovossia
indica)
in
India.
Indian
Phytopath.
33
:
249-254.
Singh,
D.
V.,
L.
M.
Joshi
and
K.
D.
Srivastava
(1983).
Karnal
bunt—A
new
threat
to
wheat
in
India.
In
:
Recent
Advances
in
Plant
Pathology
(Prof.
H.
K.
Saksena
Festschrift).
ed.
Akhtar
Husain.
Kishan
Singh,
B.
P.
Singh
and
V.
P.
Agnihotri.
Print
House
(India),
Lucknow.
pp.
121-135.
Singh,
S.
D.
(1980).
Report
on
coordinated
experiments
(Wheat
Pathology)
1978-79.
Wheat
Project
Directorate,
Indian
Agric.
Res.
Inst.,
New
Delhi.