Effect of cooking and processing on protein quality of Bengal gram, green gram and horse gram


Khader, V.; Rao, S.V.

Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 23(3): 57-65

1986


Steam-cooking for periods of 5-40 minutes did not affect the protein efficiency ratio (PER) of bengal gram and green gram dhals. Autoclaving at 10 lbs upto a period of 10 miutesn did not affect the PER of green gram while similar treatment for 10-30 min resulted in a slight increase in the PER of Bengal gram dhal; heat-treatment beyond these periods resulted in slight reductions in PER of the dhals. PER data also indicated that a period of cooking at 10-15 lbs pressure for 20-30 minutes is optimum for improvement of the nutritional quality of whole horse gram. The protein quality was not affected by autoclaving horse gram dhal for periods of 10-60 minutes at 10 lbs pressure. Dehusking resulted in a marked improvement in the PER of horse gram and bengal gram while there was only a slight improvement with green gram. Puffed bengal gram had a protein quality similar to that of the cooked dhal. Roasting resulted in a considerable improvement of the PER of whole horse gram while no improvement was observed with whole green gram. The apparent digestibility of the proteins of the three legumes improved on dehusking and puffing or roasting.

The
Ind.
J.
Nutt.
Dietet.,
(1986),
23,
57.
EFFECT
OF
COOKING
AND
PROCESSING
ON
PROTEIN
QUALITY
OF
BENGAL
GRAM,
GREEN
GRAM
AND
HORSE
GRAM
VIJAYA
KNAUER*
and
S.
VENKAT
RAO
(Discipline
of
Biochernistly
and
Applied
Nutrition,
Central
Food
Technological
Research
Institute
Mysore
-
570013)
(Received
27th
February
1986)
introduction
Legumes
are
prepared
for
consump-
tion
in
several
ways
such
as
whole
legume,
dhal
and
legume
flour.
The
most
common
method
for
consumption
is
cooking
the
dhal
in
water.
Steaming
or
pressure
cooking,
roasting
and
puffing
are
also
conventional
methods
of
preparation
before
consumption.
Literature
reports
on
the
effoct
of
heat-processing
and
cooking
of
bengal
gram
(Cicer
arietinurn)
on
growth
rate
of
rats
and
Protein
Efficiency
Ratio
(PER)
are
conflicting.
Hirwe
and
Magarl
report.
ed
that
bengal
gram
on
autoclaving
at
15
lbs
pressure
for
15
minutes
showed
an
improvement
in
protein
efficiency
ratio
from
1.2
to
2.4.
However,
in
another
study
they
did
not
find
any
change
in
the
growth
rate
of
rats
andPER
of
bengal
gram
autoclaved
for
10-25
minutes,
while
a
marked
reduction
in
the
growth
rate
and
PER
occurred
when
the
autoclaving
was
continued
for
a
period
of
45
minutes
at
15
lbs
pressure
2
.
Esh
and
Somt
also
reported
no
charge
in
the
PER
of
Bengal
gram
on
autoclaving
for
30
min-
utes
at
15
lbs
pressure.
Hirwe
&
Magar
5
reported
that
PER
of
green
gram
(Phase-
oius
aureus)
did
not
improve
an
autoclav-
ing
at
15
lbs
pressure
for
15
minutes,.
where
as
other
workers,
reported
a
sight
increase
in
the
PER
on
autoclaving
the
dhal
at
15
lbs
for
30
min.
Ray
observed
a
high
rate
of
mc..tality
of
80
per
cent
in
rats
fed
raw
horse
gram
(Dofichos
billortis)
at
10
per
cent
level
of
protein
for
e
period
of
three
weeks.
Autoclaving
for
10
minutes
reduced
the
mortality
to
40
per
cent
and
no
mortality
was
observed
in
the
case
of
the
material
autoclaved
for
30
minutes.
On
the
other
hand,
Hirwe
and
Magar
2
did
not
observe
any
mortality
in
rats
fed
raw
horse
gram
during
a
period
of
4
weeks
and
reported
that
the
PER
increased
from
0.7
to
1.7
on
autoclaving
at
15
lbs
pressure
for
15
minutes.
In
this
paper,
the
effects
of
steaming
and
autoclaving
for
various
periods,
puff-
ing,
roasting
and
dehusking
on
PER
and
digestibility
of
bengal
gram,
green
gram
and
horse
gram
are
reported.
*
Present
address
:
College
of
Home
Science,
A.P.
Agricultural
University,
Bapatla,
Andhra
Pradesh.
The
Ind.
J.
Nutr.
Dietet.,
(1986),
23,
57.
EFFECT
OF
COOKING
AND
PROCESSING
ON
PROTEIN
QUALITY
OF
BENGAL
GRAM,
GREEN
GRAM
AND
HORSE
GRAM
VIJAYA
KHADER*
and
S.
VENKAT
RAO
(Discipline
of
Biochemistry
and
Applied
Nutrition,
Central
Food
Technological
Research
Institute
Mysore
-
570013)
(Received
27th
February
1986)
introduction
Legumes
are
prepared for
consump-
tion
in
several
ways
such
as
whole
legume,
dhal
and
legume
flour.
The
most
common
method
for
consumption
is
cooking
the
dhal
in
water.
Steaming
or
pressure
cooking,
roasting
and
puffing
are
also
conventional
methods
of
preparation
before
consumption.
Literature
reports
on
the
effect
of
heat-processing
and
cooking
of
bengal
gram
(Cicer
arietinum)
on
growth
rate
of
rats
and
Protein
Efficiency
Ratio
(PER)
are
conflicting.
Hirwe
and
Magart
report-
ed
that
bengal
gram
on
autoclaving
at
15
lbs
pressure
for
15
minutes
showed
an
improvement
in
protein
efficiency
ratio
from
1.2
to
2.4.
However,
in
another
study
they
did
not
find
any
change
in
the
growth
rate
of
rats
andPER
of
bengal
gram
autoclaved
for
10-25
minutes,
while
a
marked
reduction
in
the
growth
rate
and
PER
occurred
when
the
autoclaving
was
continued
for
a
period
of
45
minutes
at
15
lbs
pressure.
Esh
and
Soma
also
reported
no
charge
in
the
PER
of
Bengal
gram
on
autoclaving
for
30
min-
utes
at
15
lbs
pressure.
Hirwe
&
Magar
2
reported
that
PER
of
green
gram
(Phase-
()his
aureus)
did
not
improve
an
autoclav-
ing
at
15
lbs
pressure
for
15
minutes,
where
as
other
workers
3
,
1
reported
a
slight
increase
in
the
PER
on
autoclaving
the
dhal
at
15
lbs
for
30
min.
Ray
observed
a
high
rate
of
mortality
of
80
per
cent
in
rats
fed
raw
horse
gram
(Dolichos
biflorus)
at
10
per
cent
level
of
protein
for
a
period
of
three
weeks.
Autoclaving
for
10
minutes
reduced
the
mortality
to
40
per
cent
and
no
mortality
was
observed
in
the
case
of
the
material
autoclaved
for
30
minutes.
Orr
the
other
hand,
Hirwe
and
Magar
2
did
npt
observe
any
mortality
in
rats
fed
raw
horse
gram
during
a
period
of
4
weeks
and
reported
that
the
PER
increased
from
0.7
to
1.7
on
autoclaving
at
15
lbs
pressure
for
15
minutes.
In
this
paper,
the
effects
of
steaming
and
autoclaving
for
various
periods,
puff-
ing,
roasting
and
dehusking
on
PER
and
digestibility
of
bengal
gram,
green
grant
and
horse
gram
are
reported.
*
Present
address
:
College
of
Home
Science,
A.P.
Agricultural
University,
Bapatla,
Andhra
Pradesh.
58
VIJAYA
KHADER
AND
S.
VENKAT
RAO
Materials
and
Methods
Whole
bengal
gram,
whole
green
gram,
whole
horse
gram,
Bengal
gram
and
green
gram
dhal
(split
legumes),
casein
and
skim
milk
powder
used
in
the
experiments
were
obtained
from
the
local
market.
Bengal
gram,
green
gram
and
horse
gram
dhal
were
also
prepared
from
portions
of
whole
grams
by
a
process
developed
at
the
institute
involving
conditioning
the
gram
to
loosen
the
husk
and
its
subse-
quent
removal
in
specially
designed
machines
6
.
Steam-cooked
dhals
Bengal
gram
dhal
was
subjected
to
various
periods
of
cooking
by
taking
one
part
of
the
dhal
along
with
two
parts
of
water
and
steam-cooking
in
an
autoclave
for
10,
20,
30
and
40
minutes.
Green
gram
dhal
was
also
subjected
to
similar
treatment
for
5,
10,
20
and
30
minutes.
Autoclaved
dhals
One
part
of
bengal
gram
dhal
was
added
to
two
parts
of
water
and
cooked
in
an
autoclave
at
10
lbs
pressure
for
peri-
ods
of
10,
20,
30
and
40
minutes.
Green
gram
dhal
was
autoclaved
similarly
for
5,
10,
20
and
30
minutes.
Whole
horse
gram
was
added
to
two
parts
of
water
and
cooked
in
an
autoclave
at
10
and
15
lbs
pressure
for
periods
of
10,
20,
30,
40
and
60
minutes.
Horse
gram
dhal
was
similarly
autoclaved
for
10,
20,
30,
40
and
60
minutes
at
10
lbs
pressure.
Boiled
and
cooked
dhals
One
part
of
the
bengal
gram
dhal
was
mixed
with
two
parts
of
water
and
cooked
in
a
steam-jacketed
kettle
for
a
period
of
45
minutes.
Similarly
green
gram
dhal
was
cooked
for
20
minutes.
Whole
and
dehusked
legumes
Whole
Bengal
gram
was
cooked
by
boiling
it
with
twice
the
amount
of
water
for
a
period
of
one
hour
while
the
dehusked
dhal
was
cooked
for
45
minutes.
Whole
green
gram
and
the
dhal
were
cook-
ed
for
40
and
20
minutes
respectively.
Whole
horse
gram
and
horse
gram
dhal
were
cooked
for
90
and
30
minutes
respectively.
Puffed
or
roasted
legumes
Whole
pulses
were
roasted
or
puffed
according
to
traditional
procedures
in
the
local
market
as
follows.
Whole
bengal
gram
was
roasted
in
hot
sand
for
a
few
seconds,
a
little
water
was
sprinkled
on
the
material
and
it
was
left
in
a
gunny
bag
for
about
half
an
hour.
After
this
period,
the
material
was
puffed
for
about
10
seconds
in
hot
sand.
After
sieving
off
the
sand,
the
grains
were
dehusked
between
a
roller.
Whole
green
gram
and
horse
gram
were
soaked
over-
night,
the
excess
water
drained
and
the
materials
roasted
for
about
10
minutes
in
hot
sand.
Methods
of
analysis
The
crude
protein
was
determined
in
the
raw
or
processed
pulses
according
to
AOAC
7
.
For
the
determination
of
amino
acid
composition,
the
cooked
or
process-
ed
bengal
gram,
green
gram
and
horse
gram
were
hydrolysed
with
6
N
HCI
at
110°C
in
evacuated
tubes
for
24
hrs.
The
EFFECT
OF
COOKING
AND
PROCESSING
ON
PROTEINE
QUALITY
OF
BENGAL
GRAM,
59
GREEN
GRAM
AND
HORSE
GRAM
hydrolysates
were
adjusted
to
pH
4.0
and
filtered
to
eliminate
interfering
subs-
tances.
Aliquots
were
then
adjusted
to
pH
6.8
for
the
microbiological
assay
of
lysine,
methionine,
cystine
and
threonine`.
Tryptophan
was
determined
microbiolo-
gically
in
alkaline
hydrolysates
prepared
according
to
Kuiken
et
all.
Animal
experiments
Twentyone
to
23
days
old
male
weanl-
rats,
6-8
per
group,
were
fed
diets
containing
raw
as
well
as
processed
legumes
at
10
per
cent
level
of
protein
for
a
period
of
4
weeks
for
PER
determina-
ionsr.
The
rats
were
transferred
to
metabolic
cages
between
the
third
and
fourth
week
of
the
experiment
and
faeces
were
collected
for
a
period
of
one
week,
preserved
in
2
percent
oxalic
acid
and
dried
at
100°C.
Nitrogen
contents
in
the
food
and
faecal
samples
were
determined
as
mentioned
under
protein
estimation.
The
apparent
digestibility
of
the
proteins
was
calculated
from
the
nitrogen
determina-
tions
on
the
food
and
faecal
samples
by
the
formula
nitrogen
intake,
g-faecal
nitrogen,
g
X100
nitrogen
intake,
g
The
data
on
PER
rand
digestibility
were
statistically
analysed
by
the
analy-
sis
of
variance
method
appropriate
for
randomized
block
design
and
differences
were
tested
for
significance
by
means
of
Duncan's
new
multiple
range
testli.
Results
and
Discussion
Essential
amino
acid
content
The
data
on
some
of
the
essential
amino
acid
content
(Table
I)
of
proce-
ssed
legumes
showed
no
marked
differe-
ces
in
lysine,
methionine,
cystine,
threonine
and
tryptophan,
as
compared
with
the
unprocessed
samples.
The
results
indicated
that
dehusking,
puffing
or
roasting
do
not
affect
the
content
of
these
essential
amino
acids.
Steam
cooking
Steam-cooking
bengal
gram
dhal
(Table
II)
for
periods
of
10,
20,
30
and
40
minutes
did
not
result
in
any
appreciable
changes
in
the
growth
rate
of
rats
and
PER.
The
PER
and
growth
rate
of
rats
fed
on
raw
as
well
as
steam-cooked
samples
were
almost
similar,
indicating
that
cooking
in
steam
upto
a
period
of
40
minutes
did
not
affect
the
protein
quality.
Steam-cooking
green
gram
dhal
for
5-30
minutes
did
not
affect
statistically
the
PER.
Autoclaving
Autoclaving
bengal
gram
dhal
for
a
period
of
10
min
did
not
result
in
any
marked
changes
in
the
growth
rate
of
rats
and
PER
(Table
Ill).
The
samples
autoclaved
for
20
to
30
min
showed
slight
but
significant
increases
in
the
PER
and
growth
rates.
as
compared
with
the
values
obtained
with
the
raw
dhal,
while
autoclaving
beyond
this
period
resulted
in
a
decrease
in
the
PER
and
weight
gain.
No'
marked
differences
were
observed
in
the
PER
between
the
samples
autoclaved
for
20
to
30
minutes
and
the
dhal
cooked
in
water
by
boiling
for
about
45
min.
Hirwe
and
Magar
2
found
that
the
optimum
time
for
autoclaving
bengal
gram
was
15-25
minutes
and
also
reported
that
autoclav-
60
Table
I
VIJAYA
KHADER
AND
S.
VENKAT
RAO
Amino
Acid
Content
of
Raw.
Cooked
and
Puffed
or
Roasted
grams
Sample
Method
of
processing
Time
of
processing
Protein
(Nx
6.25)
per
cent
Amino
acids
(g/16g
N)
Lys
Met
Cys
Thr
Try
Bengal
gram.
whole
Boiling
in
water
60
min
21.2
8.8
1.3
0.8
3.6
1.4
Bengal
gram
dhal
Boiling
in
water
45
min
21.5
8.8
1.2
1.0
3.6
1.4
Bengal
gram,
whole
Puffed
10
Sec
23.1
8.8
1.1
0.8
3.6
1.4
Green
gram,
whole
Boiling
in
water
40
min
24.2
7.8
1.1
0.6
3.4
1.3
Green
gram
dhal
Boiling
in
water
20
min
24.2
7.9
1.1
0.6
3.4
1.3
Green
gram,
whole
Roasted
10
min
24.7
8.0
1.1
0.7
3.5
1.2
Horse
gram,
whole
Boiling
in
water
90
min
23.6
7.9
1.1
0.7
3.8
1.5
Horse
gram
dhal
Boiling
in
water
30
min
23.8
8.2
1.3
0.7
3.8
1.3
Horse
gram,
whole
Roasted
10
min
23.8
8.3
1.1
0.5
3.5
1.3
Table
II
Effect
of
Feeding
Steam-Cooked
Bengal
Gram
and
Green
Gram
Ohals
on
the
Growth
Rate
of
Rats
and
PER
(Randomized
block
design;
8
and
6
rats
per
group
in
series
1
and
2
respectively)
Diet
Period
of
steam-cooking
Gain
in
Weight
Protein
intake
PER•
g/4
weeks
SE
rtes
1
Bengal
gram
dhal
Uncooked
50.6
23.6
2.05"
-do--
10
min
48.6
24.1
2.00aa
-
do
-
20
min
43.3
22.6
1.
90"
-do-
30
min
48.2
24.8
1.93"
-do-
40
min
52.5
24.0
2.18"
SEM
(28
df)
Series
2
Green
gram
dhal
Uncooked
25.3
14.7
1.68"
-do-
5
min
24.7
13.8
1.77"
-do-
10
min
25.2
13.6
1.87`
-do-
20
min
17.0
11.8
1.50°.
-
do-
30
min
23.7
13.3
1.75"
SEM
(20
df)
*
Values
not
sharing
common
superscript
letters
are
significantly
different,
EFFECT
OF
COOKING
AND
PROCESSING
ON
PROTEIN
QUALITY
OF
BENGAL
GRAM,
GREEN
GRAM
AND
HORSE
GRAM
Table
Ill
Effect
of
Feeding
Autoclaved
Bengal
Gram,Green
Gram
and
Horse
Gram
Dhals
on
the
Growth
Rate
of
Rats
and
PER
(Randomized
block
design;
7
rats
per
group
in
series
I
and
8
rats
per
group
in
series
2
and
3
respectively)
Diet
Method
of
cooking
Pressure
used
Time
of
cooking
Gain
in
weight
Protein
PER•
intake
g/4
weeks
Series
1
Bengal
gram
dhal
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
Uncooked
Boiling
Autoclaving
-do-
-do-
-do-
-
-
10
lbs
10
lbs
10
lbs
10
lbs
-
45
min
10
min
20
min
30
min
40
min
45.3
49.0
45.3
59.8
58.0
43.9
26.3
1.85a
22.4
2.18b
23.0
1.95a
25.7
2
31b
25.1
2.30°
23.0
1.97a
SEM
(30
df)
X0.05
Series
2
Green
gram
dhal
Uncooked
-
-
20.9
13.3
1.56'
-do-
Boiling
-
20
min
16.1
12.6
1.26ab
-do-
Autoclaving
10
lbs
5
min
17.6
13.2
1.34
-do-
-do-
10
lbs
10
min
19.1
13.4
1.41
-do-
-do-
10
lbs
20
min
12.4
12.0
1.03
-do-
-do-
10
lbs
30
min
13.4
12.5
1.06b
SEM
(35
df)
X0.12
Series
3
Whole
horse
gram
Uncooked
- -
12.0
16.4
0.73**
Horse
gram
dhal
Uncooked
- -
45.8
25.4
1.79'
-do-
Autoclaving
10
lbs
10
min
33.0
23.8
1.31
a
-do-
-do-
10
lbs
20
min
47.4
26.9
1.76"
-do-
-do-
10
lbs
30
min
34.5
23.6
1.39"
-do--
-do-
10
lbs
40
min
39.8
24.0
1.64a
-d0- -do-
10
lbs
60
min
43.9
26.2
1.65
8
SEM
(35
df)
'0.14
*
Values
not
sharing
common
superscript
letters
are
significantly
different.
Since
3
out
of
8
rats
lost
weight,
the
mean
is
based
on
only
5
observations
and
this
group
was
omitted
for
analysis
of
variance.
ing
beyond
this
period
resulted
in
marked
increase
in
the
PER.
Adolph
et
aila
decreases
in
the
growth
rate
of
rats
and
reported
a
marked
improvement
in
the
PER.
Cooking
the
dhal
for
a
period
of
PER
of
chick
pea
on
cooking
in
water
for
45
min
resulted
in
a
slight
but
significant
one
hour
after
soaking
overnight.
412
VIJAYA
KHADER
AND
S.
VENKAT
RAO
Autoclaving
green
gram
dhal
upto
10
minutes
(Table
III)
did
not
result
in
any
marked
change
in
the
PER
and
weight
gains,
while
autoclaving
beyond
this
period
resulted
in
significant
decreases
in
the
PER.
Hirwe
and
Magar
2
reported
that
autoclaving
for
a
period
of
15
minutes
did
not
affect
the
PER
of
green
gram.
Esh
and
Soma
observed
a
slight
increase
in
the
PER
of
green
gram
on
autoclaving
for
a
period
of
30
minutes
at
15
lbs
pressure,
whereas
the
results
in
the
present
study
indicated
that
autoclaving
the
dhal
beyond
10
minutes
at
10
lbs
pressure
decreased
the
protein
quality.
However,
Devadas
et
a!
4
observed
a
marked
improvement
in
the
PER
of
the
dhal
autoclaved
for
a
period
of
15
minutes
at
15
lbs
pressure.
No
significant
differences
were
observed
in
the
PER
of
samples
autoclaved
for
5
to
10
minutes
and
the
dhal
cooked
by
boiling
in
water
for
a
period
of
20
minutes.
Horse
gram
dhal
was
fairly
good
in
protein
quality
(Table
III).
The
conside-
rable
improvement
in
the
nutritional
quality
of
the
dhal
as
compared
with
raw
whole
horse
gram
may
be
due
to
the
dehusking
and
heating
undergone
by
the
dhal
during
processing.
Autoclaving
upto
a
period
of
60
minutes
at
10
lbs
pressure
did
not
affect
significantly
the
PER
of
the
clha
I.
Cooking
the
whole
horse
gram
for
10
minutes
at
1-0-15
lbs
pressure
(Table
IV)
was
insufficient
to
inactivate
the
toxic
factors
as
observed
from
the
growth
rate
of
rats
and
PER.
Rays
also
reported
Aimilar
results.
Although
the
gram
auto-
claved
at
10
lbs
for
20
minutes
showed
a
significant
improvement
in
the
PER
over
that
obtained
after
a
period
of
10
minutes,
no
similar
improvement
in
the
PER
was
noticed
when
the
material
was
autoclaved
at
15
lbs
pressure.
However,
when
the
whole
gram
was
cooked
for
30-40
minutes
at
10-15
lbs
pressure,
the
growth
rates
and
PER
were
more
or
less
similar,
indi-
cating
that
a
period
of
30-40
minutes
at
10-15
lbs
pressure
would
be
optimum
for
cooking
whole
horse
gram
for
consump-
tion.
These
results
are
in
agreement
with
the
earlier
report
of
Ray'.
Autoclav-
ing
for
a
longer
period
of
about
60
minutes
at
10-15
lbs
pressure
resulted
in
decrease
in
the
weight
gains
of
rats
and
PER.
Dehusking,
puffing
and
roasting
Puffed
bengal
gram
(Table
V)
which
is
free
from
husk
gave
a
PER
almost
similar
to
that
of
cooked
dhal,
indicating
that
this
process
as
commercially
practis-
ed
does
not
affect
the
quality
of
the
protein.
The
growth
rate
of
rats
and
PER
of
whole
bengal
gram
were
marke-
dly
less
than
those
of
the
cooked
dhal.
The
apparent
digestibility
of
proteins
from
whole
bengal
gram
was
also
significan-
tly
less
as
compared
with
that
of
the
cooked
dhal,
whereas
no
significant
differences
were
observed
in
the
diges-
tibility
of
cooked
and
puffed
dhals.
These
differences
are
obviously
due
to
the
presence
of
fibre
in
whole
Bengal
gram.
Acharya
et
a/
13
reported
that
parching
did
not
affect
the
digestibility
of
Bengal
,
gram
protein.
Cooked
whole
green
gram
gave
a
slightly
lower
growth
rate
as
compared
EFFECT
OF
COOKING
AND
PROCESSING
ON
PROTEIN
QUALITY
OF
BENGAL
GRAM,
63
GREEN
GRAM
AND
HORSE
GRAM
Table
IV
Effect
of
Feeding
Autoclaved
whole
Horse
Gram
on
the
Growth
Rate
of
Rats
and
PER
(Randomized
block
design;
6
rats
per
group)
Die
Method
of
cooking
Pressure
used
Time
of
cooking
Gain
in
weight
Protein
intake
PER*
g/4
weeks
Whole
horse
gram
Autoclaving
10
lbs
10
min
17.5 15.5
1.08'
-do-
-do-
10
Ibs
20
min
32.1
18.8
1.68b°
-do-
-do-
10
lbs
30
min
25.1
17.9
1.36"
-do- -do-
10
lbs
40
min
25.8
18.7
1
.
383a
-do- -do-
10
Ibs
60
min
18.3
16.3
1.11
a
-do- -do-
15
lbs
10
min
16.0
15.7
1.01
5
*
-do-
-do-
15
lbs
20
min
19.3
15.8
1.10°
-do-
-do-
15
lbs
30
min
28.9
18.9
1.51
b0
-do-
-do-
15
lbs
40
min
31.1
19.7
1.56b
0
-do--
-do-
15
lbs
60
min
17.2
16.7
1.03
3
Skim
milk
powder
-
- -
94.8
26.1
3.64a
SEM
(63
df)
X0.11
*
Values
not
sharing
common
superscript
letter
are
significantly
different.
**
Was
omitted
from
statistical
analysis
since
only
3
rats
out
of
8
gained
weight.
The
average
PER
is
based
only
on
3
values.
Table
V
Effect
of
Dehusking
and
PuffinglRoastins
of
B
angel
Gram,
Green
Gram
and
Horse
Gram
on
the
Growth
Rate
of
Rats
and
PER
(Randomized
block
design;
8
rats
per
group)
Diet
Method
of
processing
Time
of
cooking
Gain
in
weight
Protein
intake
PER°
Apparent
digestibility
(%)*
g/4
weeks
Whole
Bengal
gram
Unprocessed
Boiling
40.0
24.2
1.64b
75.0
b
60
mm
-do-
dehusked
Boiling
53.3
26.9
2.01
3
80.1
3
45
min
-do-
puffed
-
62.4
28.7
2.16"
79.0
3
SEM
(14
df)
D.0.06
1.3
Whole
green
gram
Unprocessed
Boiling
29.4
20.5
1.40"
72.7
3
40
min
-do-
dehusked
Boiling
37.5
23.3
1.59
3
84.5b
20
min
-do-
roasted
-
30.6
24.7
1.23b
78.5°
SEM
(14
df)
X0.08
1.8
Whole
horse
gram
Unprocessed
Boiling
24.1
.
22.9
1.04
3
65.4
3
90
min
-do-
dehusked
Boiling
48.1
25.6
1.86b
'
73.6b
30
min
-
do-
roasted
-
43.9
26.5
1.64
73.4
SEM
(14
df)
a
0.09
1.6
*
Values
not
sharing
common
superscript
letter
are
significantly
different.
64
VIJAYA
KHADER
AND
S.
VENKAT
RAO
with
cooked
dhal.
Although
the
PER
of
cooked
whole
gram
was
slightly
lower
than
the
cooked
dhal,
the
difference
was
not
significant.
However,
the
apparent
digestibility
of
the
protein
of
whole
green
gram
was
considerably
lower
as
compar-
ed
with
the
dhal.
The
results
clearly
indicated
that
the
presence
of
husk
in
green
gram
reduced
considerably
the
digestibility
of
the
proteins.
The
PER
of
whole
green
gram
slightly
decreased
as
a
result
of
roasting,
but
the
difference
was
not
significant.
The
apparent
diges-
tibility
of
roasted
gram
was
also
signifi-
cantly
less
as
compared
with
the
dhal.
The
slightly
lower
PER
obtained
for
the
roasted
sample
as
compared
with
the
whole
gram
not
subjected
to
this
treat-
ment
may
be
due
to
the
fact
that
the
material
was
subjected
to
heat
treatment
for
periods
of
5
to
10
minutes
at
high
_temperature.
Roasted
horse
gram
gave
a
growth
-
rate
and
PER
slightly
lower
than
those
of
the
dhal
due
probably
to
the
presence
of
husk
in
the
roasted
sample.
Dehusked
horse
gram
gavea
significantly
higher
PER
than
whole
horse
gram.
No
significant
difference
were
observed
in
the
apparent
digestibility
of
roasted
horse
gram
and
the
cooked
dhal
probably
due
to
the
fact
that
it
was
not
possible
to
dehusk
the
horse
gram
dhai
completely;
the
dhal
was
associated
with
a
part
of
the
husk
even
after
the
dehusking
treat-
ment.
Acharya
et
a/
13
reported
a
slight
increase
in
the
digestibility
of
horse
gram
on
parching.
The
apparent
digestibility
of
cooked
whole
horse
gram
was
signifi-
cantly
less
than
the
dhal,
obviously
due
to
the
effect
of
the
fibre
in
the
husk.
Summary
and
Conclusion
Steam-cooking
for
periods
of
5-40
minutes
did
not
affect
the
protein
effici-
ency
ratio
(PER)
of
bengal
gram
and
green
gram
dhals.
Autoclaving
at
10
lbs
upto
a
period
of
10
miutesn
did
not
affect
the
PER
of
green
gram
while
similar
treatment
for
10-30
min
resulted
in
a
slight
increase
in
the
PER
of
Bengal
gram
dhal;
heat-treat-
ment
beyond
these
periods
resulted
in
slight
reductions
in
PER
of
the
dhals.
PER
data
also
indicated
that
a
period
of
cooking
at
10-15
lbs
pressure
for
20-30
minutes
is
optimum
for
improvement
of
the
nutritional
quality
of
whole
horse
gram.
The
protein
quality
was
not
affected
by
autoclaving
horse
gram
dhal
for
periods
of
10-60
minutes
at
'10
lbs
pressure.
Dehusk-
ing
resulted
in
a
marked
improvement
in
the
PER
of
horse
gram
and
bengal
gram
while
there
was
only
a
slight
improvement
with
green
gram.
Puffed
bengal
gram
had
a
protein
quality
similar
to
that
of
the
cooked
dhal.
Roasting
resulted
in
a
considerable
improvement
of
the
PER
of
whole
horse
gram
while
no
improvement
was
observed
with
whole
green
gram.
The
apparent
digestibility
of
the
proteins
of
the
three
legumes
improved
on
dehusking
and
puffing
or
roasting.
Acknowledgement
The
authors
are
thankful
to
Miss
D.
Rajalakshmi
for
statistical
analysis
of
the
results.
EFFECT
OF
COOKING
AND
PROCESSING
ON
PROTEIN
QUALITY
OF
BENGAL
GRAM,
65
GREEN
GRAM
AND
HORSE
GRAM
REFERENCES
1,
Hirwe,
R.N.
and
Magar,
N.G.
(1951)
Effect
of
autoclaving
on
the
nutritive
value
of
Bengal
gram
dhal
arhar
and
lentil.
Curr.
Sci.,
20,
40.
2.
Hirwe,
R.N.
and
Magar,
N.G.
(1953)
Effect
of
autoclaving
on
the
nutritive
value
of
pulses.
Ind.
J.
Med.
Res.
41,
191.
Esh,
G.C.
Et
Som,
J.M.
(1952)
Nutritional
survey
on
available
food
materials-Part
III.
Nutritive
value
of
pulses,
Ind.
J.
Physiol.
All.
Sci.,
6,
61.
4.
Devadas,
R,P.,
Leela,
R.
and
Chandrasekharan,
K.N.
(1964)
Effect
of
cooking
on
the
digestibility
and
nutritive
value
of
the
proteins
of
black
gram
(Phaseolus
mungo)
and
green
gram
(Phaseolus
radiatus),
J.
Nutt.
Diet.,
1,
84.
5.
Ray,
P.K.
(1569)
Nutritive
value
of
horse
gram
(Do/ichos
billows)
Part
I.
Effect
of
feeding
raw
and
treated
seed
flour
on
the
growth
of
rats.
J.
Nutr.
Diet.,
6,
329.
6.
Kurien,
P.P.
and
Parpia,
H.A.B.
(19(8)
Pulse
milling
in
India
I-Processing
and
milling
of
tur,
arhar
(Cajanus
cajan
Linn).
J.
Fd.
Sci,
Tech.
5.
203.
7.
A.O.A.C.
(1970)
Official
methods
of
analysis,
Association
of
Agricultural
Chemists
Washington,
D.C.
8.
Barton-Wright,
E.C.
(1952)
Microbiological
assay
of
vitamin
B-complex
and
amino
acids,
Isaac
Pitman
and
Sons
Ltd.,
London.
9,
Kuiken,
K.A.
and
Lyman,
C.M.
(1949)
Factors
which
influence
the
stability
of
tryptophan
during
the.
hydrolysis
of
protein
in
alkaline
solutions.
J.
Biol.
Chem.,
171,
551.
10.
Chapman,
D.G.,
Castillo,
R.
and
Campbell,
J.A.
(1959)
A
method
for
the
determination
of
protein,
efficiency
ratios,
Can.
J.
Biochem.
Physiol.,
37,
679.
11.
Duncan,
D.B.
(1955)
Multiple
range
and
multiple
F.
tests.
Biometrics,
11.
1.
12.
Adolph,
W.H.,
Shammas,
E.I.
and
Halaby,
S.H.
(1955)
The
nutritive
value
of
legume
proteins
anc3
legume-wheat
mixed
proteins
in
near
east
diets.
Fd.
Res.,
20,
31.
13.
Acharya,
B.N.
Niyogi,
S.P.
and
Patwardhan,
V.N.
(1942)
The
effect
of
parching
on
the
biological.
value
of
the
proteins
of
some
cereals
and
pulses.
Ind.
J.
Med.
Res.,
30,
73.