The vegetation of Dhofar


Radcliffe-Smith, A.

The scientific results of the Oman flora and fauna survey 1977 (Dhofar): 59-86

1980


The vegetation of Dhofar is shown to be chiefly composed of two main elements, and eight principal environments are recognised in the province. These are described in turn, and the species found in them by the Survey are enumerated. Some of these were hitherto only imperfectly known and yet others for example the Mushat, or Saghat (Anogeissus dhofarica), even though it is a dominant tree in certain areas, have been found to be new to science. The presence of the .Baobab (Adansonia digitata) in Dhofar is confirmed. Following the descriptive part, a systematic list of species collected is presented, and a list of vernacular names is included as the Appendix.

The
Vegetation
of
Dhofar
A.
Radcliffe-Smith
Royal
Botanic
Gardens,
Kew
CONTENTS
Summary
59
Introduction
59
Results
6o
The
littoral
6o
The
cultivated
belt
64
The
Salalah
plain
64
The
southward
draining
wadis
of
the
jabal
66
The
south
facing
slopes
and
limestone
cliffs
of
the
jabal
68
The
grasslands
atop
the
jabal
70
Jabal
to
the
west
of
Hasik
70
The
upper
dip-slope
above
600
m
70
The
lower
dip-slope
70
Conclusions
77
Acknowledgements
78
References
78
Systematic
List
79
Appendix
I
by
James
P.
Mandaville
Jr
85
Summary.
The
vegetation
of
Dhofar
is
shown
to
be
chiefly
composed
of
two
main
elements,
and
eight
principal
environ-
ments
are
recognised
in
the
province.
These
are
described
in
turn,
and
the
species
found
in
them
by
the
Survey
are
enumerated.
Some
of
these
were
hitherto
only
imperfectly
known
and
yet
others
for
example
the
Mushat,
or
Saghat
(Anogeissus
dhofarica),
even
though
it
is
a
dominant
tree
in
certain
areas,
have
been
found
to
be
new
to
science.
The
presence
of
the
.Baobab
(Adansonia
digitata)
in
Dhofar
is
confirmed.
Following
the
descriptive
part,
a
systematic
list
of
species
collected
is
presented,
and
a
list
of
vernacular
names
is
included
as
the
Appendix.
Introduction
The
vegetation
of
Dhofar
presents
a
curious
aspect
to
the
traveller
in
Arabia
and
along
its
shores
in
the
season
of
the
Khareef
or
annual
monsoon,
which
commonly
lasts
from
mid-June
to
mid-September.
In
contrast
to
J.
Oman
Stud.
Spec.
Rep.
No.
2,
1980:
59-86
Accepted
for
publication
June
1978
desert
wastes
or
rocky
eminences
on
which
but
a
sparse
and
embattled
scrub
of
gnarled
and
thorny
subshrubs
survives,
here
we
have
rolling
grasslands
and
dense
and
verdant
copses
and
woodlands,
reminiscent
rather
of
upland
regions
in
the
African
savannah.
Mabel
Bent,
who
visited
Dhofar
in
December
1894
January
1895
with
her
husband
Theodore,
describes
it
as
'a
real
Paradise
in
the
wilderness'.
The
area
so
favoured
is
not
by
any
means
large
(see
map,
attached).
Commencing
some
20
km
across
the
boundary
in
the
People's
Democratic
Republic
of
Yemen,
the
green
belt
extends
eastwards
to
the
western
flanks
of
Jabal
Samhan,
a
distance
of
some
240
km.
Inland
the
depth
of
penetration
depends
upon
the
nearness
of
the
hills
to
the
coast,
varying
from
a
mere
3
km
in
the
west
where
there
is
no
coastal
59
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
plain,
to
c.
30
km
behind
the
Salalah
plain.
Inland
and
to
the
east
of
these
limits,
the
aspect
becomes
rapidly
more
xerophytic
until,
well
within
the
confines
of
Dhofar
province
south
of
the
boundary
with
Saudi
Arabia,
true
desert
is
encountered.
Whether
or
not
this
green
belt
represents
the
last
phase in
the
gradual
disappearance
of
a
verdant
area
formerly
of
much
greater
extent
is
a
matter
for
speculation.
It
could
also
be
argued
that,
on
the
con-
trary,
the
heavy
moisture
brought
by
the
SW
mon-
soon
is
probably
a
relatively
recent
development,
enabling
such
vegetation
as
was
already
present
to
develop
more
luxuriantly
in
that
zone
which
came
under
its
influence.
The
composition
of
the
flora
allows
either
inter-
pretation
to
be
borne
out
with
examples.
The
endemic
species,
some
of
which
are
important
components
of
the
vegetation
in
terms
of
numbers
of
individuals,
might
be
being
maintained
by
the
favourable
climate,
the
influence
of
which
might
formerly
have
extended
over
a
wider
area,
and
consequently
they
might
have
been
more
widely
distributed
in
the
past
than
they
are
now.
The
cosmopolitan
species,
on
the
other
hand,
might
have
come
in
and
extended
their
area
of
dis-
tribution
in
Dhofar
as
conditions
became
more
favourable
-
i.e.
as
a
more
humid
climate
developed,
had
it
been
that
way
round.
It
must
not
be
overlooked
that
the
Dhofar
hills
are
limestone,
and
thus
the
substratum
is
more
water-
retentive
than
is
the
case
with
siliceous
rocks,
and
this
would
tend
to
encourage,
in
humid
conditions,
the
development
and
maintenance
of
a
good
vegetation
cover.
Thus
possibly
the
coincidence
of
the
limestone
hills
with
the
main
thrust
of
the
SW
monsoon,
which
is
across
the
Salalah
plain,
would
serve
to
account
for
the
phenomenon
of
the
green
hills
surrounded
by
an
arid
waste.
The
nature
of
grazing-
and
browsing-pressure
in
the
Dhofar
hills
may
also
be
a
factor
responsible
for
the
maintenance
of
a
more
or
less
continuous
vegetation-
cover.
Whereas
cattle
are
everywhere
in
evidence
in
the
hills,
this
does
not
apply
to
the
goat,
which
is
a
far
more
destructive
grazer/browser,
and
which,
when
in
sufficient
numbers,
has
been
in
great
measure
respon-
sible
for
the
degradation
of
marginal
environments
in
arid
zones.
The
composition
of
the
flora
is
mainly
referable
to
two
phytogeographical
divisions.
In
the
greener
areas
the
Sudano-Deccanian
element
is
most
strongly
repre-
sented,
with
affinities
westward
to
Yemen,
Ethiopia
and
the
African
savannahs
and
eastward
to
peninsular
India.
In
the
more
arid
areas
to
the
north
of
the
jabal,
however,
it
is
the
Saharo-Sindian
element
which
pre-
dominates,
with
affinities
to
the
vegetation
of
the
deserts
of
North
Africa
and
North-west
India.
Results
Eight
principal
environmental
zones
may
be
recognized
in
Dhofar,
extending
backwards
from
the
sea:
the
littoral
2
the
cultivated
belt
-
chiefly
in
the
vicinity
of
Salalah
3
Salalah
plain
4
the
southward-draining
wadis
of
the
jabal
5
the
south-facing
slopes
and
limestone
cliff's
of
the
jabal
6A
the
grassland
atop
the
jabal
6B
jabal
to
the
west
of
Hasik
7
the
upper
dip-slope
immediately
behind
the
crest
of
the
jabal
8
the
lower
dip-slope,
dipping
gradually
toward
the
Empty
Quarter.
We
shall
now
consider
these
in
turn,
enumerating
the
species
which
were
encountered
in
them.
I
THE
LITTORAL
This
was
investigated
at
five
separate
points
along
the
Dhofar
coast,
at
Wadi
Sayq,
Rakhyut,
Raysut,
Khaft-
awt
(west
of
Khawr
Salalah),
Salalah
and
Mirbat.
The
character
of
the
coastal
regions
varies
considerably,
largely
depending
on
the
presence
or
absence
of
a
coastal
plain.
At
Wadi
Sayq,
the
mountains
plummet
straight
down
to
the
sea,
except
at
one
or
two
points
such
as
the
debouchment
of
the
wadi
where
a
small
patch
of
level
ground
intervenes
(for
illustration
see
Smythe,
198o,
this
volume).
At
Rakhyut,
there
is
a
narrow
strip
of
level
ground
behind
the
beach,
where-
as
just
to
the
west
of
Raysut,
there
are
high
cliffs.
From
Raysut
eastwards
to
Taqah,
the
Salalah
plain
extends
back
to
the
hills
for
distances
of
up
to
12
km,
whilst
from
Taqah
to
Mirbat
there
are
low
cliffs
and
rock-
outcrops
at
the
coast.
East
of
Mirbat
is
the
broad
but
rather
uneven
and
dissected
coastal
'plain'
known
as
the
Zalawt,
between
Jabal
Samhan
and
the
sea,
extend-
ing
as
far
as
Hasik
in
Kuria
Muria
Bay.
The
beach
at
Salalah
carries
a
fairly
extensive
6o
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4
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
PIA
FE
I.
Cadaba
barrariitii
(limy.,
a
new
record
for
the
Arabian
peninsula
11,
'
r
PLATE
2.
Commiphora
foliacea
Sprague,
a
myrrh
endemic
to
Dhofar
a
'
A
••"kk.
.
-,••••41L,
f.
:
111.
'"
4
.
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f
-
••••
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11
,
••••
•••
f
J
,
4
,
t
4
.
t"
4,
;tA
too
PLATE
3.
Flowers
of
frankincense,
Boswellia
sacra
Flueck.
PLATE
4.
1p0i/Weei
diChrOa
Choisy
4*
'
r
•t
PLATE
S.
Cerawpwris
thalictroides
(L.)
13rogn.,
s.l.
PLATE
0.
eidhl
(L.)
Gamblc
(Photograph
M.
D.
Gallagher)
61
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A.
RADCLIFFE—SMITH
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;Aftzabir
;Lits
PLATE
7.
Caesalpinia
sp.
cf
.
C.
erianthera
Chiov.
PLATE
8.
Desert
rose,
Adenium
obesum
(Forssk.)
Roem.
&
Schult.,
generally
seen
on
islets
in
wadi-beds
but
also,
as
here,
on
stony
hillsides
(Photograph
M.
D.
Gallagher)
62
-
1
1.14
4
4
7
%;
'
,
"••
,
it
sr..
11.
,
rte.•
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
vegetation
cover just
behind
the
high-water
mark,
which,
however,
was
to
a
certain
extent
poor
in
species.
Urochondra
setulosa
was
by
far
the
commonest
grass
species,
a
coarse
and
rather
fibrous
glaucous
grass
characteristic
of
maritime
situations.
Also
present
in
this
community
on
the
white
coralline
sand
were:
Cyperus
conglomeratus,
a
widespread
and
very
poly-
morphic
species,
Heliotropium
?fartakense,
Suaeda
fruticosa,
Aizoon
canariense,
Cistanche
tubulosa
and
Atripkx
farinosum.
A
small
section
of
this
community
has
been
recently
removed
to
make
way
for
a
formal
garden.
A
few
kilometers
to
the
west
of
Salalah,
be-
tween
the
Khawr
Salalah
and
Khaftawt,
are
a
couple
of
small
khawrs
or
brackish
inlets
where
populations
of
the
verbenaceous
'mangrove',
Avicennia
marina,
occur.
Just
north
of
Mirbat,
on
a
system
of
sand-dunes
near
a
small
inlet,
was
found
the
grass
Halopyrum
mucrona-
turn
which
fills
the
same
ecological
niche
occupied
by
Ammophila
arenaria
in
more
northern
latitudes.
It
is
a
coarse,
robust,
glaucous
stoloniferous
grass,
which
may
well
be
found
to
be
useful
as
a
binder
where
sand-
dunes
threaten
oases.
Cyperus
conglomeratus
also
occurs
here,
as
does
Atriplex
farinosum
and
the
small
legume
Lotus
garcinii.
In
the
stony
and
gravelly
terrain
behind
the
Mirbat
dunes
is
found
the
succulent
heliotrope,
Heliotropium
drepanophyllum,
which
vegetatively
mim-
le
PLATE
A.
The
Baobab,
Adansonia
digitata
L.
icks
memb
e
rs
o
f
th
e
Ch
e
nopodiaceac
family.
Between
Tagall
and
Mirbat,
where
a
number
of
small
wadis
reach
the
sea
through
breaches
in
the
low
cliffs
of
soft
sandstone,
the
Baobab,
Adansonia
digitata
(Pl.
A),
was
encountered.
This
grotesque
tree
is
a
familiar
sight
in
the
African
savannahs,
but
it
is
not
easy
to
ascertain
whether
it
was
anciently
introduced
into
S
Arabia,
or
whether
on
the
coast
of
Dhofar
it
is
making
its
last
stand
in
the
peninsula.
Mr
J.
B.
Gillett,
the
noted
authority
on
the
flora
of
eastern
and
southern
Africa,
is
of
the
opinion
that
the
latter
is
the
case
(pers.
comm.).
Here
too,
in
a
rather
uncharacteristic
locale
was
found
Euphorbia
hadhramautica,
the
Zib
al
Qah
or
`Phallus
of
the
Plains'
(PI.
13),
in
crevices
on
the
sea-
cliffs.
Normally,
as
its
name
implies,
this
little
succu-
lent
spurge,
which
is
confined
to
S
Arabia,
NE
Africa
and
Socotra,
is
a
plant
of
open
flat
gravelly
and
coarse
sandy
semi-desert
plains.
Other
plants
from
this
type
of
environment
were
Sansevieria
sp.,
Cassia
holosericea
and
Psoralea
corylifolia.
To
the
east
of
Mirbat,
in
the
dissected
coastal
plain
just
back
from
the
coast
ill
the
Wadi
Anshayr
(c.
6
km
E
of
Mirbat)
and
the
Wadi
Baqlat
(c.
io
kin
E
of
Mirbat),
one
of
the
commonest
PLATE
B.
Euphorbia
hadramautica
Baker
(Photograph
A.
Dunsire)
.11116
4
:,
63
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
perennials
was
the
low-growing
Taverniera
glauca,
a
legume
with
characteristic
marcescent
petals;
Trian-
thema
triquetra
and
Tamarix
mannifera
were
also
in
evidence.
At
Taqah,
near
the
sea,
was
found
one
plant
of
the
watermelon,
Cucurbita
pepo
possibly
grown
from
a
pip
spat
out
by
a
passer-by!
Westwards
from
the
port
of
Raysut,
at
the
western
end
of
the
Salalah
plain,
the
coast
becomes
quite
pre-
cipitous,
with
steep
cliffs
rising
behind
the
coral-sand
beaches.
Near
Ras
Hamar
(7
km
W
of
Raysut),
one
of
the
most
prominent
cliff-top
plants
was
the
decumbent
Neuracanthus
robecchii,
a
member
of
the
Acanthaceae
family.
On
drifts
of
dried
saline
mud
behind
the
beach
at
Rakhyut,
the
dominant
plants
arc
Cressa
cretica,
which
ranges
widely
in
the
tropics
and
subtropics
of
both
hemispheres,
and
the
characteristic
glaucous
grass
Aeluropus
lagopoides,
which
is
found
throughout
the
Middle
East
and
also
in
N
Africa
and
India.
Just
west
of
Rakhyut,
at
the
debouchmcnt
of
the
Wadi
Sayq
near
Kharfait,
towards
the
South
Yemen
border,
the
coastal
vegetation
after
the
monsoon
in
September
is
green
and
luxuriant.
Apart
from
the
lagoon
area,
where
saltmarsh
abounds,
there
are
either
limestone
cliffs
rising
behind
the
beach
or
else,
be-
tween
the
small
coastal
plain
and
the
sand,
narrow
strips
of
shingle
intermixed
with
gravel
and
sand
where
plants
tolerant
of
sea-spray
occur.
The
sea-
spray
was
often
seen
to
be
very
dense,
forming
a
zone
of
white
mist
when
seen
edge-on,
hanging
above
the
shingle
and
passing
a
little
inland
with
an
onshore
breeze.
The
humidity
in
this
area
was
quite
high,
and
drying-papers
took
twice
as
long
to
dry
here
even
in
mid-day
sun
than
they
did
further
inland.
In
the
sand
and
shingle
was
found,
predictably
enough,
the
'Beach
Morning
Glory',
Ipomoea
pes-
caprae
which,
following
St
John
(1970),
occurs
on
the
shores
of
the
Old
World
Tropics
from
the
Yemen
east-
wards
to
Krakatau
in
Indonesia.
Here
too
was
en-
countered
Glossonema
varians,
Blepharis
linariifolia
and
a
Scrophulariacea
which
has
as
yet
not
been
satisfactorily
determined
as
to
genus.
It
may
be
a
new
species
of
Campylanthus,
a
genus
from
Macaronesia,
Socotra,
Arabia
and
Pakistan.
The
most
characteristic
plants
of
the
limestone
cliffs
down
near
the
sea
were
Senra
incana,
Aerna
javanica
(not
always,
however,
a
coastal
species)
and
Sporo-
bolus
kentrophyllus.
Cistanche
rosea
was
encountered
both
here
and
inland
to
the
north
of
the
jabal.
In
the
saltmarshes
the
commonest
species
was
the
grass
Paspahun
vaginatum.
Also
found
there
were
Sporobolus
helvolus,
Fimbristylis
spathacea
and
Cyperus
?
bifax.
At
the
boundary
between
saltmarsh
and
shingle
were
Chlorin
quinquesetica
and
Enicostema
axillare.
On
the
drier
banks
of
the
lagoon
occurred
the
widespread
tropical
composite
Eclipta
alba.
2
THE
CULTIVATED
BELT
CHIEFLY
IN
THE
VICINITY
OF
SALALAH
Little
of
intrinsic
botanical
interest
was
to
be
found
here,
although
they
were
investigated
in
the
event
of
unusual
aliens
being
discovered.
A
common
escape
by
pathsides
is
the
vicious
shrub
Caesalpinia
bonduc,
having
all
parts
covered
with
sharp
hooked
thorns.
Common
weeds
of
widespread
distribution
found
here
were
Gynandropsis
gynandra,
aphorbia
heterophylla
and
Abutilon
muticum
in
open
grassy
areas.
Asystasia
gangetica
occurred
in
irrigation
ditches,
and
Capsicum
ar
m
our
was
well-established
in
the
shadier
parts
of
the
date-palm
groves.
A
rather
unexpected
alien
was
the
Rhodes
grass,
Chloris
gayana,
although
reference
to
the
literature
showed
that
this
important
African
fodder
grass
has
turned
up
in
Iraq
as
a
probable
escape
from
cultivation
(Bor,
1968).
It
would
also
appear
that
trials
with
this
species
have
been
carried
out
in
Saudi
Arabia
(Pritchard,
1975).
In
gravelly
ground
in
the
vicinity
of
buildings
on
the
edge
of
the
town,
Zygophyllum
simplex
is
a
very
common
weed.
Poly-
carpaea
spicata
also
occurs
here.
3
THE
SALALAH
PLAIN
From
a
narrow
coastal
strip
between
Mirbat
and
Taqah,
this
plain
widens
out
somewhat
westwards
until
at
Arzat
the
hills
have
receded
to
some
10
km
back
from
the
shore.
The
plain
is
fairly
level,
except
where
crossed
by
wadis
draining
the
Qara
hills,
until
beyond
and
inland
from
the
promontory
of
Raysut,
where
it
continues
westwards
for
a
further
25
kin
into
an
area
of
low
flat-topped
hillocks
dissected
by
wadis
tributary
to
the
main
wadi
which
debouches
at
Raysut,
the
Wadi
Adawnib.
The
dominant
species
in
the
Salalah
plain,
and
also
in
other
smaller
coastal
areas
of
level
ground
as
at
the
Wadi
Sayq,
is
the
recently-described
Dichanthium
micranthum
(Cope,
1977).
Closely-related
to
D.
fovea-
latum
(better
known
by
its
earlier
name
Eremopogon
foveolatus),
this
species
appears
to
be
replaced
by
the
latter
in
the
dry
wadis
to
the
north
of
the
jabal.
64
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
The
plain
and
the
wadis
which
course
through
it
were
sampled
at
a
number
of
points
from
cast
to
west.
The
Wadi
Ethon,
which
has
a
short
course
across
the
plain
a
few
kilometers
W
of
Taqah,
where
it
is
still
quite
narrow,
has
a
pebbly
bed,
and
in
places
is
bounded
by
vertical
banks
up
to
is
in
high
on
the
out-
side
curves
of
the
bends
in
its
meandering
course.
These
high
banks,
crumbly
in
texture,
provide
an
ideal
habitat
for
the
long-trailing
menisperm
Cocculus
pendulus
(C.
leacba).
On
the
inside
curves,
the
banks
arc
low,
and
here
may
be
found
the
'Tamar-al-hindi'
or
'Tamarind'
(Tamarindus
indica).
In
somewhat
over-
grazed
and
ovcrbrowsed
ground
beside
the
wadi
was
found
Boerhavia
sp.,
Corchorus
antichorus,
Commicarpus
helenae,
Dyerophytou
indicum
and
Cadaba
baccarinii
(P1.
i).
The
last,
a
Somali
species,
represents
a
new
record
for
the
Arabian
peninsula.
In
the
pebbly
bed
of
the
wadi
itself,
Andrachne
aspera
was
common,
as
were
also
Ricinus
communis
and
Calotropis
procera
two
vir-
tually
ubiquitous
plants
of
the
Arabian
peninsula,
whether
the
habitat
be
xerophytic
or
more
mesophy-
tic.
Less
common
in
the
wadi-bed
were
Anticharis
glandulosa,
McMartin
ovata,
Dm:odium
ospriostrebhun,
Polycarpaca
spicata,
Phyllanthus
amarus
and
Crotalaria
medicaginca.
The
last
is
a
species
widely
distributed
in
Tropical
Asia
from
Afghanistan
eastwards,
recorded
here
from
the
Arabian
peninsula
for
the
first
time.
Arzat,
where
the
plain
is
widest,
was
visited
on
two
occasions.
Here
at
the
edge
of
the
plain
was
a
stand
of
Ficus
salicifolia,
the
most
widespread
of
the
Arabian
figs,
which,
however,
was
found
to
be
only
sporadic
in
its
occurrence
in
Dhofar.
In
its
shade
in
the
Dichan-
thium
grassland
were
Vernonia
cinerea,
a
weedy
compo-
site
found
throughout
the
Old
World
Tropics,
the
pernicious
papaveraceous
weed
Argemone
mexicana,
native,
as
its
name
implies,
to
Central
America
and
the
Caribbean,
long
since
established
in
many
parts
of
the
old
world
and
now
beginning
to
penetrate
into
South
Arabia,
the
ubiquitous
Chcnopodium
mural('
and
the
Indian
Thorn
Apple,
Datum
metel.
Growing
by
the
side
of
a
falaj,
or
water-conduit,
near
the
Ficus
grove
was
the
striking
orange-flowered
Barleria,
B.
proxima.
In
the
grassland
proper
were
one
or
two
scattered
specimens
of
Acacia
nilotica
in
the
shade
of
which
were
found
Fagonia
sp.,
Abutilon
bidentatunt,
Farsetia
Gossypitun
herbaccum,
Peristrophc
bicalyculata
and,
climbing
over
the
rest,
the
asclepiad
Pentatropis
spiralis.
Other
grasses
to
be
found
with
the
Dichanthium
wherever
the
ground
was
more
uneven
were
Cenchrus
setigerus
and
C.
pennisctiformis,
and
growing
incon-
spicuously
amongst
these
the
pale
yellow-flowered
legume
Crotalaria
leptocarpa,
originally
described
from
Socotran
material,
but
now
known
to
occur
also
in
North
East
Africa
(Ethiopia,
Kenya,
Somalia)
and
South
Arabia.
On
the
level
parts
of
the
plain,
the
Dichanthium
forms
almost
pure
stands.
Inland
from
Raysut,
where
the
plain
becomes
more
dissected,
the
vegetation
becomes
more
diverse
again
as
one
passes
westwards.
In
the
small
wadis
tributary
to
the
Wadi
Adawnib
a
few
scattered
Acacia
nilotica
occur,
and
here
and
there
low
bushes
of
the
intricately-
branched
local
jujube
Zizyphus
lcucodcrmis
are
met
with.
This
species
also
occurs
in
the
Hadhramaut,
from
where
it
was
originally
described.
Two
of
the
common-
est
species
in
this
habitat,
however,
arc
Acrua
javanica
and
Leucas
iqflata,
both
perennials
which
are
somewhat
woody
at
the
base,
but not
really
woody
enough
to
be
called
suffrutices.
Here
also
was
found
Hermannia
sp.
nov.
aff.
paniculata.
On
the
sides
of
the
wadis,
Andrachne
aspera,
Rucllia
discifolia,
Cleome
droserifolia,
Jatropha
glandulosa
var.
sublobata
(Radcliffe-Smith,
in
press),
Cadaba
baccarinii
(Pl.
i),
Cissus
quadrangularis
and
Echiochilon
sp.
were
in
evidence.
The
last
is
a
repre-
sentative
of
a
genus
restricted
to
Arabia
and
N
Africa.
By
some
of
these
wadis
was
found
a
glaucous
myrrh
which
proved
to
be
only
the
second
collection
made.
This
is
Commiphora
jigiacea
(Pl.
z),
and
it
is
endemic
to
Dhofar.
It
has
two
little
foliaceous
bracteoles
on
the
pedicel,
hence
its
name,
and
this
feature
is
peculiar
to
it.
Red
and
yellow
flowers
occur
on
the
same
bush,
and
the
fruit
is
cigar-shaped.
Another
myrrh
grows
together
with
C.Pliacca:
C.
abyssinica
var.
simplicifigia.
In
the
sandy
gravel
in
the
middle
of
the
wadi
beds
was
Gossypium
herbaceum,
Rhynchosia
pulverulentn,
Anticharis
glandulosa,
Heliotropium
cf
dasycarptun,
a
curious
heliotrope
with
obscure
flowers,
Commi-
carpus
boissieri,
C.
stenocarpus,
Fagonia
socotrana
var.
somalica,
Tricholaena
teneriffne
and
Eragrostis
mahrana,
a
species
also
originally
described
from
the
Hadh-
ramaut,
and
named
from
the
Mahra
tribe,
whose
terri-
tory
lies
in
the
South
Yemen
immediately
to
the
west
of
Dhofar.
On
the
slopes
above
the
wadis,
the
graceful
grass
Stipagrostis
paradisea
was
common,
with
its
feathery
plumes
blowing
in
the
wind,
and
in
a
small
gully
leading
down
into
one
of
the
tributary
wadis
was
found
Cordia
perrottetii,
also
known
from
India.
In
the
main
wadi,
which
cuts
a
broad
swath
across
65
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
this
part
of
the
plain,
as
well
as
in
some
of
the
tributary
wadis,
the
species
most
in
evidence
by
virtue
of
its
vivid
dark
greenery
was
the
celebrated
frankincense,
Boswellia
sacra
(Pl.
3).
The
Wadi
Adawnib
is
clearly
one
of
its
chief
stations,
for
it
occurs
here
in
abundance,
and
is
quite
a
prominent
feature
in
the
landscape.
Boswellia
sacra
has
of
course
been
known
since
ancient
times,
but
it
is
only
since
1846
that
precise
botanical
information
has
been
available
concerning
it,
when
one
H.
J.
Carter,
a
medical
officer
from
Bombay,
obtained
a
flowering
specimen
from
Rakhyut
(Hopper,
1969).
Although
different
grades
of
the
resin,
or
liban,
are
obtained
from
trees
in
different
parts
of
the
country,
only
one
species
is
represented.
Each
tree
has
its
owner,
and
they
are
apparently
artificially
propagated,
so
that
the
very
natural-looking
stands,
haphazardly
distri-
buted
along
the
wadi,
may
in
fact
not
be
so.
B.
sacra
also
occurs
across
the
border
in
South
Yemen,
where
it
was
recently
investigated
by
Professor
T.
Monod.
James
P.
Mandaville
Jr
has
a
separate
paper
on
frankincense
in
this
volume
(Mandaville,
198o).
Further
west
in
the
Wadi
Adawnib,
and
its
tributary
the
Wadi
Julwul,
theBoswellia
gradually
peters
out.
On
the
north-facing
banks
of
the
wadis
in
this
area
were
found
two
small
and
rather
local
Pavonias,
P.
cf.
cristata
and
P.
cf.
subaphylla,
Endostemon
tenuiflorus,
Tribulus
terrestris,
Barleria
acanthoides,
Seddera
latifolia
and
Boer-
havia
elegans.
In
the
shingle
of
the
wadi-beds
were
occasional
scattered
bushes
of
Moringa
peregrina.
Before
leaving
the
coastal
plains,
of
which
of
course
the
Salalah
plain
is
by
far
the
biggest,
we
may
con-
sider
the
very
different
type
of
vegetation
to
be
found
in
a
representative
area
of
level
ground
just
above
sea-
level
further
to
the
west,
namely
at
the
Wadi
Sayq.
Dichanthium
micranthum
is
still
the
dominant
grass,
but
its
associates
give
the
grassland
there
a
more
meadow-
like
aspect.
When
in
flower,
one
of
the
most
prominent
of
these
is
Crotalaria
saltiana,
which
extends
westwards
to
Aden
and
into
Africa.
Its
bright
yellow,
lupin-like
inflorescences
en
masse
stand
out
strongly
against
the
vivid
green
background.
With
it
was
growing
the
distinctive
little
indigo,
Indigofera
cordifolia,
a
wide-
spread
species
ranging
from
NE
Africa
to
N
Australia,
another
indigo,
I.
colutea,
a
Centaurea
which
could
not
be
matched
but
which
comes
near
to
the
Star
Thistle,
C.
calcitrapa,
Terammus
repens
ssp
gracilis,
Striga
euphrasioides,
an
Indian
species,
here
recorded
for
Oman
for
the
first
time,
four
Ipomoeas,
I.
dichroa
(Pl.
4),
I.
sinensis
ssp.
blepharosepala,
I.
nil
and
I.
obscura,
Alysicarpus
glumaceus,
Cassia
italica,
Corchorus
aestuans,
Leucas
urticifolia
and
a
grass
new
to
Oman,
Hackelochloa
granularis,
widespread
in
the
tropics
generally.
On
the
boundary
between
the
grassland
and
thicket
at
the
base
of
the
slopes
behind
the
coastal
plain
here
was
found
Maytenus
royleana,
a
spiny
celastraceous
shrub
which
extends
from
E
Arabia
to
the
Western
Hima-
laya,
Cassia
torn
and
Pergularia
daemia.
Towards
the
coast,
the
grassland
included
such
species
as
Dyerophy-
ton
indicum,
Hibiscus
vitifolius,
H.
?sidifivMis
(the
type
is
from
NE
Africa)
and
Buchnera
hispida,
a
widespread
species
in
the
Old
World
Tropics.
In
the
part
of
the
level
wadi-bed,
between
the
saltings
and
the
foothills,
which
is
inundated
only
at
the
height
of
the
monsoon,
but
which
is
dry
for
most
of
the
year,
the
following
species
were
encountered
at
the
end
of
the
monsoon
season:
Bacopa
mounted,
Indigofera
obloneolia,
Phyla
nod
flora,
Euphorbia
indica,
Corchorus
trilocularis,
Indigo-
fera
coerulea,
Alysicarpus
longifolius,
Phyllanthus
made-
raspatensis,
Fimbrystylis
sieberana,
Digera
muricata,
Echinochloa
colona,
Heliotropium
ovaVolium,
Desmodium
gangeticum,
Scirpus
litoralis
and
a
Bidens
species
the
identity
of
which
is
not
certain,
near
B.
biternata.
Many
of
these
plants
are
widely
distributed
in
similar
situa-
tions
in
most
tropical
countries
in
the
Old
World.
4
THE
SOUTHWARD-DRAINING
WADIS
OF
THE
JABAL
These
wadis,
of
varying
length
and
importance,
which
drain
the
three
main
mountain
ranges
ofJabal
Samhan,
J.
Qara
and
J.
Qamr,
debouching
into
the
Arabian
Sea,
carry
quite
a
diverse
vegetation
in
which
many
of
the
species
found
in
the
plains
are
also
found,
together
with
a
number
of
other
species
peculiar
to
this
region.
Four
such
wadis
were
visited
to
examine
their
flora,
the
Wadis
Darbat.
Arzat,
Ghayz
and
Sarfait.
(a)
Wadi
Darbat
This
is
the
main
wadi
which
drains
the
highest
moun-
tain
range
in
Dhofar,
the
Jabal
Samhan
(highest
point
2030
m).
Arising
just
behind
the
south-facing
escarp-
ment
of
this
impressive
mountain,
just
west
of
the
summit,
the
Wadi
Darbat
first
pursues
a
westerly
course
before
turning
south
to
reach
the
sea
near
Taqah.
Where
it
changes
its
course,
it
flows
through
a
chain
of
small
lakes
before
plunging
over
a
cliff.
In
October
1977
the
wadi
was
flowing
strongly,
and
such
aquatic
plants
as
Potamogeton
nodosus
and
Ceratopteris
thalictroides
(Pl.
5)
flourished
in
it.
This
area
is
well-
described
by
the
Bents
(1900).
66
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
At
the
edges
of
small
and
rather
badly-tended
plots
of
cultivation
near
the
wadi
was
found
the
Loofah
Luffa
acutangula
-
possibly
a
garden
escape.
In
the
grassy
stretches
flanking
the
lakes,
Digitaria
ciliaris
and
Kohautia
aspera
occurred
commonly,
with
here
and
there
occasional
specimens
of
the
variable
Ruellia
patula,
and
Celosia
trigyna.
Partly
submerged
at
the
margins
of
the
lakes
themselves
was
Polygonum
glabrum,
and
on
limestone
bluffs
overhanging
the
lakes,
Bentia
fruticulosa.
This
genus
was
established
by
Rolfe
(1894)
for
a
plant
collected
by
the
Kew
botanist
Wm.
Lunt
on
Theodore
Bent's
Hadhramaut
expedition
of
1893-4.
The
Dhofar
plant
has
a
rather
more
luxuriant
habit
of
growth
than
the
Hadhramaut
one,
on
account
of
the
more
humid
habitat.
The
commonest
tree
at
Darbat,
as
indeed
all
along
the
south
side
of
the
jabal
in
similar
situations,
is
a
member
of
the
Combretaceae
family,
Anogeissus
dhofarica
(Scott,
1979)
(Pl.
9).
There
is
another
species
in
S
Arabia,
namely
A.
bentii
from
the
Hadhramaut.
Its
timber
is
used
for
building
purposes,
and
selective
felling
on
a
fairly
large
scale
was
observed
at
Darbat.
Associates
of
the
Anogeissus
included
three
members
of
the
spurge
family,
Euphorbia
jatrophoides,
Jatropha
dhojarica
(Radcliffe-Smith,
198o)
(Pl.
c)
and
Croton
coiyertus.
The
first
of
these
is
an
African
species
repre-
sented
in
Dhofar
by
a
distinct
subspecies,
as
yet
un-
described,
and
the
other
two
species
arc
endemic
to
Dhofar,
so
it
can
be
seen
that
the
southward-draining
wadis
region
contains
a
high
proportion
of
the
endemic
species
in
the
Dhofar
flora.
(b)
Wadi
Arzat
This
wadi
drains
the
eastern
part
of
Jabal
Qara
and
its
source
is
adjacent
to
that
of
one
of
the
feeders
of
the
Wadi
Darbat.
It
reaches
the
sea
about
half-way
be-
tween
Salalah
and
Tagah.
In
September
there
were
standing
pools
at
Ain
Arzat,
which
is
situated
in
that
part
of
its
course
just
prior
to
its
debouchment
onto
the
Salalah
plain.
Here
there
were
to
be
found
Digitaria
ciliaris,
a
grass
characteristic
of
this
type
of
habitat,
and
also
the
grasses
Eragrostis
aspera,
E.
ciliaris,
Setaria
verticillata,
Apluda
;idica,
Rhynchelytrum
repel's,
Dactyloctenium
aristatum,
Arthraxon
lancifolius,
A.
pusillus
and
Tetrapogon
tenellus.
The
Euphorbiaceae
were
represented
here
by
Andrachne
aspera,
Jatropha
dhoja
.
rica
(Pl.
c),
Acalypha
indica,
Dalechampia
scandens
var.
cordofana
-
the
characteristic
Old
World
variety
of
this
more
or
less
PLATE
c.
fatropha
dhofarica
A.
Radcliffe-Smith
pantropical
species
-
and
Euphorbia
jatrophoides.
The
first
was
growing
amongst
tumbled
boulders
in
the
wadi-bed,
whereas
the
rest
were
found
on
the
grassy
slopes
and
banks
above
the
wadi.
In
the
legume
family,
the
most
prominent
species
was
the
tree
Delonix
data
(Pl.
6)
especially
in
the
small
wadis
tributary
to
the
main
wadi.
In
Dhofar
and
the
Yemen,
this
species
seems
to
prefer
humid
valleys,
whereas
in
NE
Africa
it
is
a
characteristic
associate
species
of
Acacia,
Commiphora
bushland
in
semi-arid
plains;
it
also
occurs
in
India.
Other
Leguminosae
at
Ain
Arzat
were
Alysicarpus
glumaceus,
Indigofera
coerulea
var.
occidentalis,
Rhynchosia
minima,
Tephrosia
humilis
and
T.
strigosa,
the
last
being
an
Indian
species
here
recorded
from
Arabia
for
the
first
time.
In
the
wadi-bed
itself,
amongst
the
boulders,
two
members
of
the
Commelinaceae
occur,
namely
Com-
melina
forskalaei
and
Aneilema
fivskaolei,
both
named
after
the
same
person,
the
Danish
botanist
Pehr
Forsskal,
despite
the
variant
spellings.
Here
too
was
an
obvious
introduction
from
India,
the
balsam
Impatiens
balsamina.
Other
plants
in
this
habitat
were:
Viola
sp.
nov.
aff.
stocksii,
Tritm!fetta
pentandra,
Geranium
mascatense,
Odium
sp.
cf
.
basilicum,
Lavandula
subnuda,
Forsskaolea
viridis,
Kickxia
hastata,
Cyperus
squarrosus
and
an
interesting
little
umbellifer,
Pimpinella
schweiqUrthii,
which
was
hitherto
known
only
from
Egypt.
In
the
thick
Digitaria-Tetrapogon
grass
community
on
the
wadi
banks,
Oldenlandia
corymbosa,
Lindenbergia
muraria,
Exacum
gracilipes,
initially
described
from
Socotra,
Pupalia
lappacea,
Kohautia
aspera,
and
a
trailing
acanthaceous
shrub,
not
in
flower,
Lepidagathis
?
sp.
nov.
aff.
L.
calycina,
were
found.
67
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
At
the
foot
of
the
grassy
south-cast-facing
slopes
in
the
valley
was
a
mixed
low
shrub
and
rank
grass
com-
munity
in
which
Ruellia
discifolia
and
Abutilon
fruti-
cosum
were
found,
and
over
the
large
limestone
boulders
outcropping
on
these
slopes
were
dense
tangled
masses
of
vegetation
formed
by
the
inter-
twining
of
Rhynchosia
minima,
Lu
a
acutangula
and
two
Ipomoeas,
I.
nil
and
I.
obscura.
(c)
Wadi
Ghayz
This
wadi
drains
the
western
part
of
the
Jabal
Qara
into
the
enclave
of
low
ground
west
of
Raysut,
and
thus
does
not
reach
the
sea
direct
but
forms
a
confluence
with
the
great
Wadi
Adawnib.
It
was
unfortunate
that,
owing
to
military
restrictions,
a
deep
penetration
into
this
wadi
was
not
possible.
Nevertheless,
despite
these
restrictions,
some
interesting
plants
were
found
at
the
point
where
the
wadi
debouchcs
onto
the
plain,
the
most
noteworthy
being
what
may
be
an
undescribed
species
of
Caesalpinia
(Pl.
7)
related
to
the
Somali
species
C.
erianthera.
This
plant
is
already
known
from
collections
made
in
the
Hadhramaut,
but
this
would
appear
to
be
the
first
record
from
Dhofar.
On
the
north-facing
slopes
of
lateral
tributary
wadis
entering
the
main
wadi
at
the
foot
of
Jabal
Qara,
with
less
insolation,
was
found
a
somewhat
richer
flora
than
on
the
sun-baked
southern
slopes.
Here,
for
example,
was
the
grass
Digitaria
nodosa
and
the
fern-ally
Selaginella
imbricata,
a
species
in
which
the
fronds
are
held
aloft
on
a
definite
stem,
as
opposed
to
the
more
familiar
creeping
habit
of
plants
in
this
genus,
and
in
which
the
fronds,
green
above
and
scaly
greyish-
brown
beneath,
arc
splayed
out
only
in
the
most
humid
conditions,
at
other
times
being
tightly
curled
up
and
resembling
an
inverted
bird's
claw.
Also
in
this
situation
was
found
Neuracanthus
robecchii.
The
frankincense
was
found
to
be
very
common
along
the
wadi-bed,
on
'islands'
with
large
boulders,
as
in
the
Wadi
Adawnib,
but
here
it
also
occurred
on
the
steep
slopes
above
the
wadi
as
well.
With
it
on
the
`islands'
was
the
Desert
Rose,
Adenium
obesum
(Pl.
8)
and
a
species
of
Sansevieria.
(d)
Wadi
Sarfait
This
wadi
drains
the
Jabal
Qamr,
and
it
reaches
the
sea
after
a
fairly
precipitous
course
without
any
inter-
vening
coastal
plain.
It
lies
close
to
the
border
of
the
People's
Democratic
Republic
of
Yemen.
It
was
visited
at
only
one
point,
at
some
55o
m
altitude.
At
this
point,
it
was
flowing
quite
strongly
at
the
be-
ginning
of
October
1977,
the
large
flat
limestone
slabs
bordering
its
course
supporting
a
mesophytic
and
semi-hydrophytic
vegetation.
On
the
boulders
above
the
wadi
was
the
trailing
shrub
Woodfordia
uniflora,
also
known
in
the
Yemen
and
Tropical
Africa,
as
well
as
the
shrivelled
remains
of
a
Gladiolus
(Acidanthera)
species,
probably
G.
ukam-
banensis,
which
also
occurs
in
E
Africa,
and
plants
of
an
Aloe,
A.
cf.
inermis,
flowering
specimens
of
which
were
unfortunately
out
of
reach
on
a
sheer
cliff.
Bordering
the
wadi
in
disturbed
scrub,
much
trampled
and
browsed
by
cattle,
was
an
Indigofera,
I.
cf.
trita.
On
the
damp
limestone
slabs
in
the
bed
of
the
wadi
itself
were
Ammannia
baccifera,
a
Sesbania
species
near
S.
bispinosa,
the
widespread
Samolus
valerandi,
equally
at
home,
in
wet
places
near
the
sea,
in
Britain
as
in
South
Arabia,
Veronica
anagalloides,
two
moisture-
loving
ferns,
Pteris
vittata
and
the
Maidenhair
Fern,
Adiantum
capillus-veneris,
three
sedges,
Cyperus
nutans
var.
eleusinoides,
C.
squarrosus
and
the
Indian
C.
alulatus,
recorded
here
for
the
first
time
from
Arabia,
and
two
grasses,
Digitaria
stricta
and
Chloris
virgata.
Much
of
the
middle
reaches
of
the
Wadi
Sarfait
were
shaded
by
huge
trees
of
the
fig,
Ficus
vasta.
5
THE
SOUTH-FACING
SLOPES
AND
LIMESTONE
CLIFFS
OF
THE
JABAL
This
habitat,
containing
both
grassy
slopes
and
wooded
slopes,
the
former
usually
at
the
tops
of
the
cliffs
and
the
latter
at
the
base,
appeared
to
be
fairly
uniform
along
the
length
of
the
Qara
and
Qamr
ranges,
al-
though
eastwards
on
to
the
scarp
of
Jabal
Samhan
both
the
rougher
terrain
and
the
drier
climate
brought
about
a
rapid
diminution
in
the
density
of
the
vegeta-
tion
cover.
Again,
sampling
was
hampered
by
military
restrictions.
The
most
thorough
sampling
was
made
in
the
west,
above
the
Wadi
Sayq
near
Kharfait
and
at
Khadrafi,
although
the
slopes
west
of
Mirbat
and
be-
hind
Salalah
were
also
briefly
examined.
Both
at
Mirbat
and
at
Kharfait,
from
sea-level
up
to
c.
Ioo
m
altitude,
although
not
in
between,
the
most
prominent
tree
species
was
the
Arabian
endemic
Boscia
arabica
(Pl.
D)
of
the
Caper
family,
distin-
guished
by
its
dark
grey
smooth
trunk
and
flat,
cedar-
like
crown.
Associated
with
this
at
Mirbat
were
Jatropha
dhofarica
(Pl.
c)
and
Cissus
quadrangularis,
a
widespread
succulent
vine
here
growing
very
pro-
fusely
and
in
places
thickly
festooning
the
Boscias.
On
68
rti
y,
.:3
111
/
6
'4
.
A-tit/
1
44**
,
44
,
4;Zr,
Aifil6:2TO
PLATE
D.
Boscia
arabica
Pestalozzi
,
,e4434,
kii
m
ir.„not
e
-
x
(...1'.:
.41
'
1A
t
t 10
,,
.
V.
4
14 ,
A
'17
r
AM,
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
7'r#
'4
't
•'••••
:
.
`
t".1
``'
*a-
.14
4
ris
'ar
.
t
4.4
me.
4
1"
4
•••••
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A
4,1611144,41
.
14
:
^
..);
'14
the
slopes
behind
Salalah,
the
Jarropha
was
particularly
abundant,
there
constituting
the
dominant
component
of
the
open-scrub
vegetation
community
which
graded
into
grassland
both
at
the
top
and
at
the
base
of
the
jabal
at
this
point.
With
the
Boscia
at
Kharfait,
however,
in
the
dense
thicket
and
woodland
which
clothed
the
slopes,
the
myrrh
Commiphora
abyssinica
var.
simplicifigia
was
one
of
the
codominant
woody
species,
the
others
being
Anogeissus
dhoja
rica
(Pl.
9)
and
Delonix
data
(Pl.
6).
In
places
the
Connniphora
served
to
support
thick
masses
of
the
climber
Rhynchosia
minima.
Rough,
coarse
grasses
interpenetrated
the
thickets
wherever
the
gradient
was
not
so
steep,
and
the
commonest
of
these
were
Brachiaria
deflexa
and
Urochloa
panicoides.
Grasses
which
preferred
shadier
habitats
within
the
Commiphora
etc.
thickets
were
Eragrostis
ciliaris,
Aristida
adsceusionis,
Panicwn
trichoides
and
Sorghum
purpureo-sericeum.
The
parasite
Striga
gesnerioides
was
associated
with
the
grass-
clumps,
particularly
of
the
latter
species.
Other
shrubby
species
associated
with
the
Anogeissus,
Commiphora
and
Delonix
in
the
thickets
were
Croton
confertus,
Allophylus
rubifaius,
Trona
orientalis,
Prenma
resinosa
and
the
curious
endemic
member
of
the
Com-
positae,
Blepharispernu
blau,'',
with
the
florets
dis-
posed
in
dense
spherical
heads.
The
Desert
Rose,
Adelina!!
obesum
(Pl.
8),
was
also
met
with
here,
but
in
such
a
mesophytic
habitat
it
produces
enormous
leaves,
conveying
upon
it
a
very
different
appearance
to
that
which
it
presents
in
more
xerophytic
habitats.
The
following
suffrutices
were
also
found
here:
Barleria
?
aucherana,
Ruellia
discifolia
and
Hybanthus
durus,
which
is
endemic
to
Dhofar.
On
shady
rocks
in
shallow
soil
was
found
the
diminutive
pepper
Peperomia
pelhicida,
with
pale
grey-
green
more
or
less
translucent
foliage,
and
in
soil-
filled
pockets
in
limestone
boulders
was
the
small
caudiciform
succulent
Dorstenia
foetida.
Trailing
over
rocks
in
the
thicket
was
the
Melon,
Cucumis
melo.
Favouring
fairly
deep
shade
in
the
thickets
were
the
following
mostly
rather
delicate
perennial
and
annual
species:
Echo/hint
?
sp.
nov.,
Meineckia
phyllanthoides,
Negripteris
scioana,
Lepidagathis
?
sp.
nov.,
Polygala
obtusissima,
Phyllanthus
rotundifolius,
Desmodium
osprio-
streblum,
Physalis
micrantha,
Justicia
heterocarpa,
and
a
twining
asclepiad,
Ceropegia
cf.
boerhaviifolia.
69
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
At
the
higher
altitude
of
Khadrafi
(600-700
m)
the
Boscia
was
no
longer
in
evidence,
and
the
Commiphora
and
Delonix
did
not
predominate.
Instead,
the
Anogeis-
sus
(Pl.
9)
is
the
dominant
tree
here,
and,
associated
with
it
in
the
thickets
arc
Cadia
purpurea,
Euclea
schimperi
and
the
occasional
Ficus
vasta,
with
the
con-
spicuous
Ipomoea
cairica
draped
everywhere.
At
this
altitude,
too,
the
widespread
Old
World
tropical
shrub
Dodonaea
viscosa
is
abundant,
forming
almost
pure
stands
on
more
or
less
level
or
gently-sloping
ground.
From
the
air,
its
bright
green
foliage
stands
out
in
marked
contrast
to
the
dull
brownish-green
foliage
of
the
Anogeissus.
At
the
margins
of
the
thickets,
the
very
fragrant
endemic
labiate
shrub
Beduin
sp.
(Orthosiphon
comosum)
(P1.
Jo)
is
occasionally
found,
and
in
the
thickets
the
vividly
scarlet-flowered
Ruttya
fruticosa
(Pl.
II)
is
a
common
component
of
the
under-
storey.
Jasminum
grandiflorum
is
found
trailing
over
other
shrubs
and
over
rocks.
Other
shrubs
or
woody
perennials
found
here
on
the
thicket
margins
are
Plumbago
zeylanica,
Gomphocarpus
fruticosus
and
Helio-
tropium
longiflorum.
The
limestone
boulders
at
the
edges
of
the
thickets
and
by
the
pathsides
house
a
distinctive
flora
in
the
pockets
of
soil
in
their
crevices
and
hollows.
The
aroid
Renutsatia
vivipara
with
its
spherical
tubers
and
bulbili-
ferous
spikes
is
a
common
feature
of
this
type
of
habi-
tat,
and
also
found
here
arc
the
grass
Oplismenus
burmannii,
the
ferns
Hypodematium
crenatum
and
Adian-
tum
incisum,
the
broomrape
Orobanche
minor,
and
also
Justicia
heterocarpa,
Rnngia
parviflora
and
?
Hctemanthus
sp.
In
open
ground
by
the
pathsides
arc
the
grasses
Arthraxon
inicans
and
A.
prionodes,
Eustachys
paspal-
oides
and
Chloris
inensensis,
the
latter
usually
amongst
rocks;
here
too
are
Wahlenbergiallexuosa,
Sida
veronici-
folia,
Hypoestes
paniculata,
Commelina
sp.
nr.
albescens,
Orthosiphon
pallidus,
Solatutm
incanum,
Melhania
ovata,
and
Laportea
interrupts.
In
places
the
Dodonaea
scrub
was
interpenetrated
by
patches
of
coarse
grassland,
the
chief
component
of
which
was
Themeda
quadrivalvis.
In
this
habitat
were
found
Ricinus
con
u
nimis
var.
africana,
Sida
ovata,
Vigna
radiata
var.
sublobata,
Hibiscus
?
sp.
nov.
(Pl.
12),
Alectra
parasitica,
Lobelia
heyneana
and
a
small
annual
herb
of
Indian
affinity,
Canscora
concanensis.
Near
the
crest
of
the
Jabal
Qamr,
at
Zcerat,
some
75o
in
altitude,
the
composition
was
basically
the
same,
but
with
the
addition
of
Kalanchoe
sp.
and
Eulophia
guineensis
var.
purpurata
on
the
limestone
boulders,
Rhus
cf
sornalensis
and
Olea
europea
(incl.
0.
africana)
in
the
thickets,
and
Ficus
palmata
and
F.
cf.
ingentoides
in
the
open
glades.
6A
THE
GRASSLAND
ATOP
THE
JABAL
This
area
was
probably
the
poorest
in
terms
of
num-
bers
of
species
ill
the
whole
of
the
Dhofar
mountains,
certainly
in
the
Jabal
Qara
where
it
was
investigated
at
several
points.
A
dense
blanket
of
Themeda
quadrivalvis
covers
everything,
but
where
this
has
been
disturbed
somewhat,
e.g.
by
bulldozing
for
road-making
as
at
Aqabat
Hamir
on
the
Thamarit
road
(some
io
km
S
of
Aqabat
al
Hatab),
other
grasses
such
as
Apluda
mutica,
Setaria
pumila,
Oplismenus
burmannii
and
Dichanthium
annulatum
may
also
be
met
with.
Where
the
ground
is
slightly
uneven,
the
grass
Capillipediurn
parvillorum
occurs
with
the
Themeda.
In
ruderal
patches
by
roadsides
through
the
grass-
land,
the
tall
Abelmoschus
esculeutus
is
found,
clearly
an
introduction,
and
also
the
widespread
legume
Crota-
laria
retusa.
Scattered
ill
the
grassland
are
small
copses
of
Anogeissus
dhofarica,
sometimes
with
associated
Ficus
sycomorus,
with
Ruttya
fruticosa
in
the
understorey
and
Euclea
schimperi,
Olea
europea
(incl.
0.
africana)
and
occasionally
Beduin
sp.
and
Corallocarpus
epigaeus
around
the
margins.
The
latter,
an
Indian
plant,
repre-
sents
a
new
record
for
the
Arabian
peninsula.
6B
JABAL
TO
THE
WEST
OF
HASIK
This
mountain,
at
the
dry
eastern
end
of
the
Sampan
range,
and
consequently
outside
the
green
belt,
pre-
sents
a
very
different
picture
of
mountain-top
vegeta-
tion
from
that
found
on
J.
Qamr
and
J.
Qara.
At
96o
in
the
following
species
were
recorded
on
the
rocky
slopes:
Salsola
rubescens,
Trichodesma
?
boissieri,
Barlcria
aucheratta,
Echiochilon
strigosum,
Pycnocycla
caespitosa,
Lavandula
?
sp.
nov.,
Latinaea
spinosa,
L.
castanosperma,
Taverniera
sp.,
Periploca
visciformis,
Heliotropittm
cf.
calcareum
and
a
grass,
Cymbopogon
?
sp.
nov.
7
THE
UPPER
DIP-SLOPE
IMMEDIATELY
BEHIND
THE
CREST
OF
THE
JABAL,
ABOVE
600
M
This
region,
ust
north
of
where
the
Themeda
grassland
thins
out
and
is
replaced
by
the
bare-looking
rocky
hills
of
typical
Arabian
aspect,
was
investigated
at
two
points,
namely
in
the
vicinity
of
Ayun
on
the
Wadi
Ayun,
some
45
km
NW
of
Raysut,
and
at
Aqabat
al
Hatab
on
the
Salalah-Thamarit
road
some
35
kin
due
N
of
Salalah
as
the
crow
flies.
70
1
..
"„
,
'
4:
3
i
t
-
.
4
A
0,10,
rw
et
,
1
11
t
fr
'
4
,
4.t.
4.
4
4
;A'
.4
r*
4,
1•
te
4
44.
4
.is
tY
V
'I
Si
,.
sir
4
Itu.
114
eijk
,
4
41
41 /401
,
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
PLATE
9.
Anogeissus
dhofarica
A.
J.
Scott
I
-r4
r,
1
•e;
tr
PLATE
I0.
Beduin
sp.
(Orthosiphon
comosimi
Bak.,
non
Wight)
PLATE
11.
Ruttyafruticost.
Lindau
(Photograph
M.
D.
Gallagher)
7
-31,aboi
,
au•?
4,
'"
•"'"
,
,•••
7:
-
Am
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
IP"
,
.
.itg*
-
t
N4k,„,•
- -
5•••
"":-.
•••
.0;
-•
Al
J
,r--
-4
-
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it
.v
.-
r
"
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-
-
.-„,,
t
,
.
-
0
-....</.
0
.:
••
-
••'
.,--5 •••4
.
-1,„,.
.4.0.
A
lilw
'-''
,.
-
Jog
i
p..-4,..?
t....-
•••!
..`
-
..
a
......,-
.
.k.
.
-
1
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..
e
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44,--
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1
Jillaa,
..4
•••
I
*
4
.
,,
/.
01k
"
-
4
11t...
7..,•••d•
PLATE
E.
Swamp
at
Ayun
with
Typha
angustata
Bory
&
Chaub.
and
Phragtnites
australis
(Cay.)
Trin.
ex
Stcud.
at.
(a)
Ayun
The
northward-draining
Wadi
Ayun
at
Ayun
has
carved
a
gorge
for
itself
in
the
limestone
here
of
vary-
ing
depth,
and
in
places,
as
at
Ayun
pools,
the
point
chosen
for
our
camp
site,
deep
pools
persist
well
into
the
dry
season.
Around
these
pools
was
a
fairly
typical
hydrophilous
flora
of
Typha
angustata
(Pl.
E),
a
reed
mace,
growing
in
about
0.5
m
of
water,
behind
which
occurred
a
belt
of
Phragmites
australis.
In
the
damp
ground
fringing
the
Phragmites
belt
were
the
sharply-
pointed
rush
juncus
rigidus
and
the
sedges,
Cyperus
?
bifax
and
Eleocharis
geniculata
(E.
capitata).
In
the
drier
parts
of
the
gravelly
and
pebbly
bed
were
found
Tamarix
mannifera,
Anticharis
arabica,
the
widespread
grass
Sporobohts
spicams,
Tephrosia
apollinea
probably
the
commonest
of
the
Oman
legumes,
Ochradenus
baccatus,
Pentatropis
spiralis,
Acacia
etbaica
ssp.
uncinata,
Pulicaria
sp.,
Forsskaolea
tenacissima,
Woodfordia
um:flora,
Indigofera
oblongifigia,
Euphorbia
arabica,
Chrozophora
oblongifolia,
Iphiona
scabra,
Amaranthus
graecizans,
Pen-
nisetum
divisum,
Chrysop(gon
plumulosus,
Polygala
erioptcra
and
Echinops
spinosissinms.
.
v.•
t
••
,
k
0
,
PLATE
F.
Coccuhts
b(*tirii
Schwcinf.
cx
Ball.
?
ssp.
nov.
On
the
limestone-boulder-strewn
slopes
just
above
the
wadi-bed
occasional
rather
stunted
specimens
of
the
Boswellia
(Pl.
3)
were
to
be
seen,
together
with
Moringa
peregrina
and
Acacia
tortilis.
Two
mistletoes
were
occasionally
found
parasitizing
these
latter
species,
Loranthus
schimperi
on
the
Moringa
and
L.
acaciae,
appropriately
enough,
on
the
Acacia.
An
acacia
less
frequently
met
with,
fortunately,
as
it
has
the
most
vicious
hooked
spines,
was
A.
hamulosa.
The
shrubs
in
this
habitat
were
Maytemis
royleana,
Cocculus
balfourii
73
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
?
ssp.
nov.
(Forman,
198o)
(Pl.
F),
a
cladode-bcaring
species,
Zizyphus
leucodermis,
and
Lycium
shatvii
(L.
arabicum).
Three
succulents
were
found
here,
a
Garai-
luma
sp.
(prob.
C.
quadrangula),
Euphorbia
schimperi
and
E.
hadhramautica
(Pl.
B).
The
following
perennial
herbs
were
seen:
Suaeda
baccata,
Trichodesma
africanum
and
Erigeron
bovei.
Capparis
cartilaginea
(C.
galeata)
occurs
in
crevices
in
the
limestone
cliff's
of
the
gorge
above
these
slopes.
In
the
sandy
and
gravelly
beds
of
smaller
wadis
tributary
to
the
main
one
were
found
Lavandula
sp.
nr
.
L.
sontaliensis
and
L.
nimmoi,
Echiochilon
kotschyi,
Indigofera
semitrijuga,
I.
articulata,
Tricholaena
teneriffae,
Periploca
aphylla,
a
curious
Euphorbia
near
E.
schimperi
but
with
nutant
fruits,
Pergularia
tomentosa,
Trichodesma
?
boissieri
and
Kleinia
odora.
In
places
in
these
tributary
wadis
were
large
drifts
of
dried
mud,
and
muddy
banks,
and
this
type
of
substratum
favoured
the
following
species:
Psoralea
plicata,
Glinus
lotoides,
Launaea
massauiensis,
Zaleya
pentrandra,
Anagallis
ar-
vensis,
Eragrostis
cilianensis
and
Hypoestes
paniculata.
In
the
pebbly
and
sandy
ground
just
above
the
banks
of
these
wadis
were
Saponaria
montana
var.
pubescens,
Justicia
odora,
Kelkronia
gillettii,
new
to
Arabia,
Fagonia
sp.,
Launaea
spinosa,
Melhania
muricata,
Dactyloctenium
nr.
robecchii,
Heliotropium
sp.
cf
.
H.
albovillosum,
Tribulus
terrestris,
Volutaria
lippii,
Jattbertia
aucheri,
Cleome
sp.
nov.
aff.
C.
socotrana,
Cistanche
rosea
(Pl.
13),
Limonium
axillare,
Centaurea
ail
C.
calcitrapa
and
Fagonia
socotrana
vel
nummulariifolia.
Four
at
least
of
these
species
are
thus
either
conspecific
with
(the
Saponaria
and
the
Melhania)
or
else
very
close
to
species
on
the
island
of
Socotra.
In
this
area,
there
are
occasional
blocks
of
limestone
pavement,
in
the
crevices
of
which
Seddera
glomerata,
another
plant
of
Socotran
affinity,
was
to
be
found.
Sandstone
outcrops
also
occasionally
occur
near
Ayun,
and
two
of
the
commonest
shrublets
on
this
formation
were
the
widespread
Cadaba
farinosa
and
Salvadora
persica.
On
the
rough
stony
slopes
of
crumbled
sandstone
beneath
these
outcrops
were
an
Indigofera
(I.
sp.
nr
.
insularis),
Suaeda
sp.
and
the
stiffly-
branched
little
semisucculent
Arabian
endemic,
Cam-
pylanthus
pungens,
hitherto
known
only
from
Yemen
and
the
Hadhramaut,
and
here
recorded
from
Dhofar
for
the
first
time.
(b)
Aqabat
al
Hatab
Two
sites
were
visited
in
the
neighbourhood
of
this
pass,
through
which
the
main
road
from
Salalah
to
Thamarit
passes,
(i)
a
small
wadi
tributary
to
the
main
wadi
running
west-east
at
c.
720
m,
and
(ii)
the
main
wadi
itself,
running+
south-north
at
Goo
in.
(i)
The
tributary
wadi.
This
gully
(Pl.
G)
at
the
very
edge
of
the
last
vestiges
of
Themeda
grassland
north
of
the
jabal
crest,
was
chosen
for
investigation
since
a
prior
cursory
inspection
had
revealed
a
considerable
diversity
of
flora,
representing
both
humid
and
arid
types.
In
the
wadi
bed,
Convolvulus
glomeratus
and
Ipomoea
obscura
were
very
conspicuous
in
the
mornings
when
in
full
flower
in
September,
but
by
noon
the
flowers
shrivelled.
Here
too
was
Commicarpus
boissieri,
Dyscho-
riste
cf.
D.
radicans,
Commelina
nr.
C.
albescens,
Grewia
erythraea,
G.
villosa
and
Ficus
cf.
F.
ingentoides.
On
the
rocky
south-facing
slopes
of
this
gully
were
Kickxia
?
sp.
nov.,
Teucrium
yentense,
Centaurium
pul-
chellum,
Pavonia
arabica,
Hildebrandtia
sp.
aff.
H.
africana,
Endostemon
tenuijlorus,
Chascanum
cf.
C.
sessilffoliunt,
Euphorbia
balsamifera
ssp.
adenensis
(Pl.
H),
E.
cactus,
Coleus
barbatus,
Tephrosia
sp.,
Leucas
sp.,
Lantana
vibur-
noides,
Sarcostemma
viminale,
Chlorophytum
laxum,
Cyphostemnia
ternatum
and
an
undetermined
myrrh,
Commiphora
sp.
The
Pavonia,
Chascanum,
Coleus,
Teph-
rosia
and
Leucas
were
all
growing
beneath
the
protec-
tive
somewhat
spiny
branches
of
the
Commiphora
bushes,
whereas
the
other
species
were
exposed
on
the
open
slopes.
On
the
north-facing
slopes
there
was
a
rather
differ-
ent
assemblage
of
species
viz.:
Barleria
?aucherana,
Plectranthus
marrubioides,
Echidnopsis
sp.
prob.
E.
bentii,
and,
climbing
over
the
small
Commiphoras,
the
twiner
Ipomoea
cairica.
Above
the
wadi,
but
in
its
vicinity,
were
areas
of
more
or
less
level
ground
with
here
and
there
a
number
of
small
hillocks.
Euphorbia
balsamifera
ssp.
adenensis
was
the
predominant
feature
of
the
hillocky
terrain,
with
scattered
clumps
of
the
grass
Chrysopogon
plumu-
losus,
amongst
which
the
prostrate
Euphorbia
granulata
was
common,
and
also
the
small
composite
Helichry-
sum
somalense,
on
which
Orobanche
cernua
was
parasitic,
whereas
in
the
level
ground
Vernonia
arabica
and
Poly-
gala
dhofarica
were
found.
Withania
?
sp.
nov.
occurred
here
in
roadside
rubble.
(ii)
The
main
wadi.
At
a
point
just
over
Ioo
m
below
the
tributary
wadi
described
in
(i),
and
some
2-3
kin
further
north,
a
number
of
the
humid
types,
e.g.
Ipomoea
cairica,
had
disappeared,
whereas
the
more
74
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
Of*
V.
'
0
.4
0
'
A
ra
,
4
0
'
_a
.0
qi4L
44.
.r
,
le;
-
1111"
-
ip.
A
4
IVY
*
,.„;•
iY
1,44.•""
Jay
.;
1
%.
PLATE
G.
Near
Aqabat
al
Hatab,
Jabal
Qara
arid
types,
e.g.
the
Commiphora,
were
present
in
greater
quantity.
Heliotropiiini
longiflorum,
Plantago
albicans,
Rumex
vesicarius,
Trichodesma
cardiosepahtm,
a
Dhofar
endemic,
Achyrantkes
aspera
var.
pubescens,
a
wide-
spread
weed
of
the
arid
zone,
Kickxia
?
sp.
nov.,
Ammi
majus,
Diplotaxis
cf.
D.
erucoides,
an
atypical
variant
of
the
NE
African
and
S
Arabian
Crotalaria
leptocarpa,
Launaea
mucronata,
Osteospermum
vaillautii,
Helichrysum
somalense,
Volutaria
lippii
and
the
curious
and
very
distinctive
grass
Leptothrium
senegalense
were
all
found
growing
either
in
sandy
ground
in
the
dried-up
wadi-
bed
or
else
in
sandy
soil
amongst
the
pebbles
and
boulders
on
the
banks
above
the
bed.
Dyschoriste
cf.
D.
radicans
and
Teucrium
yemense
grew
in
crevices
on
the
tops
of
large
boulders
on
the
wadi-banks,
whereas
in
the
stony
ground
further
from
the
edge
of
the
wadi
were
to
be
found
Barleria
proxima,
B.
?aucherana,
Farsetia
longisiliqua,
Fagonia
socotrana
var.
somalica,
Helianthemum
?
sp.
nov.,
Reseda
sphenocleoides,
Suaeda
sp.,
Andrachne
telephioides
and
Asphodelus
fistulosus.
In
rock-crevices
in
the
cliffs
and
rock-outcrops
over-
looking
the
wadi
were:
Justicia
sp.
nov.,
Salvia
1
41111F
fr
-
a
J.
a
A
//
f)
1
1
:
/
.
aA
ar
a
PLATE
H.
aphorbia
balsamifera
Ait.
ssp.
ado
lensis
(Deft.)
l3ally
aegyptiaca,
Linumium
axillare,
Telephium
sphaerosper-
mum,
Atractylis
kentrophylloides,
Robbairea
delikana,
Dichanthiumhveolatum,
Cyperus
wissmannii,
Sporobolus
sp.,
Kkinia
pendula,
Adenitnn
obesunt
(Pl.
8)
and
Coln-
mipkora
abyssinica
var.
simplicifigia.
75
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
8
THE
LOWER
DIP-SLOPE,
DIPPING
GRADUALLY
TO-
WARD
THE
EMPTY
QUARTER
Below
600
m
the
gradient
becomes
much
less
steep
to
the
north
of
the
Jabal
Qara,
and
thereafter
there
is
a
steady
and
relentless
decline
into
the
Rub'
al
Khali,
the
sand
sea
which
occupies
roughly
one-quarter
of
the
total
land-area
of
the
Arabian
peninsula.
The
lower
dip-slope
was
investigated
botanically
at
six
points
travelling
first
northward
from
the
Jabal
Qara
and
then
north-eastwards
toward
Muscat,
the
last
sampling
locality
being
near
Haima
in
the
Jiddat
al
Harasis,
just
outside
the
strict
confines
of
Dhofar
province
itself.
(a)
55o
m
altitude,
48
km
on
the
Salalah-Thamarit
road,
41
km
due
N
of
Salalah
At
this
point
a
broad
wadi
crosses
the
road,
a
tributary
of
the
great
Wadi
Dawqa,
not
far
from
Hanun.
This
became
known
as
'Frankincense
Wadi',
because
it
was
the
first
place
in
Arabia
where
the
author
set
eyes
on
Boswellia
sacra
(Pl.
3).
The
Boswellia
here
was
by
no
means
as
abundant
as
in
the
Wadi
Adawnib
to
the
south
of
the
jabal,
but
such
specimens
as
there
were
were
generally
well-grown,
being
up
to
4
in
in
height.
A
thin
zone
ofBoswellia
arcs
around
the
north
of
the
jabal
west-
wards
from
Hasik,
fluctuating
but
slightly
in
altitude.
The
aridity/humidity
tolerance
spectrum
is
clearly
very
fine
for
this
species.
No
other
trees
of
comparable
size
were
found
here
no
Acacia
or
Zizyphus,
for
example
the
associate
flora
in
the
wadi-bed
and
along
the
banks
being
composed
chiefly
of
small
shrubs,
suffrutices,
trailing
perennials
and
ephemerals.
Between
this
wadi
and
adjacent
wadis
were
a
series
of
virtually
sterile
doabs
covered
with
slag-like
flakes
of
rock
and
conveying
an
almost
moon-like
barrenness
on
the
scene.
The
sandy
drifts
in
the
wadi-bed
itself,
however,
carried
quite
a
varied
flora.
Here
were:
Zygophyllum
decumbens
var.
megacarpum,
Crotalaria
aegyptiaca,
Cym-
bopogon
schoenanthus,
Launaea
castanosperma,
Pulicaria
leucophylla,
Cassia
holosericea,
Chrysopogon
plumulosus,
Cometes
abyssinica,
Lochia
sp.
(intermediate
between
L.
bracteata
and
L.
kuriensis)
a
genus
hitherto
known
only
from
the
Socotran
Archipelago,
Echiochilon
sp.,
Arnebia
hispidissima,
Centaurea
aff.
C.
calcitrapa,
Pluchea
laxa,
Taverniera
sp.,
Hermannia
sp.
nov.
aff.
H.
paniculata,
Convolvulus
hystrix
(Pl.
14),
Vernonia
arabica,
Pulicaria
sp.,
Convolvulus
glomeratus,
Kohautia
retrorsa,
Mori-
candia
sinaica,
Asparagus
aphyllus
var.,
Grantia
senecio-
noides,
Cleome
brachycarpa,
Herniaria
sp.
nr.
H.
mascaten-
sis,
Fagonia
nr.
F.
lahovarii,
Zygophyllum
nr.
Z.
album
and
Z.
prismaticum,
Salsola
rubescens,
Suaeda
sp.
nov.
(Pl.
is),
which
was
first
collected
some
years
ago
on
Al-
Sawda
island
in
the
Kuria
Muria
group,
Cioduegosia
welshii,
Viola
cinerea
and
the
long-trailing
Merremia
somalensis
(Pl.
16)
and
Cocculus
pendulus.
In
dried
mud
drifts
in
the
middle
of
the
wadi
were
found
scattered
young
plants
of
Farsetia
longisiliqua
and
occasional
clumps
of
Dichanthhun
.
foveolatum,
Aloe
prob.
A.
dhu-
farensis
and
Periploca
visciformis
were
found
in
crevices
of
limestone
rocks
along
the
edge
of
the
wadi,
and
Monsonia
heliotropioides
occurred
on
the
gravelly
slopes
above
the
wadi
edge.
(b)
510
m
altitude,
63
km
on
the
Salalah-Thamarit
road
Here
the
most
conspicuous
species
was
a
low-growing
palm
Nannorrhops
ritchiana
(Griff.)
Aitch.
(incl.
N.
arabica
Burret)
(P1.
j)
growing
in
a
fairly
level
piece
of
gravelly
semi-desert.
This
palm
is
also
found
in
Iran,
Afghanistan,
Pakistan
and
W
India.
It
develops
no
trunk.
Associated
with
it
were
the
grasses
Panicum
turgidum,
a
widespread
desert
species,
and
Lasiurus
scindicus
(L.
hirsutus)
and
the
legumes
Taverniera
lappa-
cea
and
Tephrosia
quartiniana.
(c)
480
in
altitude,
65
km
on
the
Salalah-Thamarit
road
A
few
scattered
Acacias
occurred
at
this
point,
also
in
gravelly
semi-desert,
with
here
and
there
clumps
of
Rhazya
stricta.
Associated
with
these
were
Crotalaria
persica,
Polygala
erioptera,
Farsetia
burtonae,
Zygophyllum
simplex
and
a
complex
population
of
Cleome
spp.
possibly
a
hybrid
swarm
involving
as
the
parent
species
C.
quinquenervia
and
C.
proinosa.
(d)
Dawqa,
25o
m
altitude,
some
100
km
N
of
Thamarit
Here
there
is
an
artificial
swamp
in
the
desert,
which
has
formed
where
fossil
water
has
been
allowed
to
con-
tinue
to
gush
from
an
uncapped
borehole,
surrounded
by
howling
wilderness.
Such
hydrophilous
plants
as
Phragmites
australis,
Typha
angustata,
Juncellus
laevi-
gatus
and
Fimbrystylis
spathacea
were
found
here,
to-
gether
with
the
rather
more
xerophilous
species
Heliotropium
kotschyi
(H.
tuberculosum),
Sporobolus
spicatus
and
Aeluropus
lagopoides.
(e)
NE
of
Dawqa,
150
m
altitude,
some
118
km
on
the
Thamarit-Muscat
road.
Here
was
a
sandy
depression
in
which
was
a
grove
of
the
extremely
xerophilous
mimosoid
leguminous
tree
Prosopis
cineraria.
Associated
with
this
was
the
76
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
ti
,A
4
,
•.,.1
„.
i
Vbv
PLATE
J
.
Nannorrhops
ritchiana
(Griff.)
Aitch.
polymorphic
and
equally
xerophilous
widespread
sedge
Cyperus
conglomerates,
a
Suaeda
sp.,
Zygophylltini
cf.
Z.
album,
Z.
sp.,
and
1-leliotropium
?azzanum.
Approximately
to
km
NE
of
this
locality
was
found
a
probable
new
species
of
the
Saharo-Sindian
genus
Tribulus.
The
Zygophyllaccac
is
a
family
especially
associated
with
this
phytogeographical
element.
(f)
100
in
altitude,
48
kin
NE
of
Haitna
In
a
semi-desert
steppe
community,
which
extends
for
so
km
along
the
road
near
Haima,
Zygophyllaccac
and
Chenopodiac
cae
pr
e
dominate.
The
following
species
were
encountered
at
this
point:
Cormilaca
monacantha,
Crotalaria
persica,
Salsola
bottac,
Zygophyl-
bun
simplex,
Fagonia
ovaliJ;)lia
var.
qatarensis
and
Stipagrostis
phimosa.
Not
related
to
the
transect
across
the
Jabal
Qara
to
the
edge
of
the
Empty
Quarter,
but
containing
a
num-
ber
of
sp
ec
i
es
f
oun
d
part
i
cu
l
ar
l
y
on
t
h
e
north
side
of
j
the
abal,
was
the
eastward-draining
wadi
above
Hasik
in
Kuria
M
ur
i
a
Bay,
the
Wadi
Rabkhut,
which
was
visited
by
some
members
of
the
party.
This
steep-
sided
wadi
drains
the
north-eastern
flank
of
Jabal
Samhan,
which
lies
to
the
cast,
and
outside
the
limit
of,
Dhofar's
'green
belt'.
Boswellia
sacra
(Pl.
3)
was
present
in
small
numbers
in
the
wadi,
on
the
rocky
slopes
beneath
the
cliffs,
and
in
the
sandy
gravel
in
the
wadi-bed
were
found
Cucumis
prophetarum,
Indigofera
nr.
I.
argentea,
Tephrosia
quartiniana,
Psilo-
trichum
sericeum,
Cleonie
brachycarpa,
Exacum
mine,
Taverniera
glauca,
T.
sp.,
Hochstettera
schimperi,
Tricho-
cicsmn
Cadaba
farinosa,
Pentatropis
spiralis
and
here
and
there
clumps
of
the
tall
grass
Saccharum
ravennae.
Conclusions
In
the
confines
of
Oman's
southern
province
of
Dhofar,
which
is
roughly
shaped
like
a
square
with
sides
c.
25o
km
long,
it
may
therefore
be
seen
that
the
flora
falls
into
two
main
groups
-
the
Sudano-Deccanian
clement,
represented
on
the
south
side
of
the
mountains,
which
peters
out
eastwards
near
Mirbat,
to
reappear
in
India
in
the
Gujarat;
and
the
Saharo-Sindian
clement
which
is
77
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
represented
elsewhere
in
the
province.
Representatives
of
the
Mediterranean
and
Irano-Turanian
elements,
however,
are
also
found
in
Oman,
but
these
are
chiefly
in
the
northern
mountains
(Mandaville,
1977).
Acknowledgements
The
author
hereby
expresses
his
sincere
gratitude
to
His
Majesty
Sultan
Qaboos
bin
Said,
Sultan
of
Oman,
and
his
Government
for
their
invitation
to
him
to
par-
ticipate
in
the
Survey
of
this
unique
region
of
the
Arabian
peninsula.
Thanks
are
also
here
expressed
to
Mr
James
P.
Mandaville,
Jr,
of
Aramco,
Dhahran,
Saudi
Arabia,
for
his
kind
co-operation
:
for
permission
to
draw
freely
upon
his
report,
'A
Botanical
Recon-
naisance
in
Dhofar',
made
to
the
Adviser
for
the
Con-
servation
and
Development
of
the
Environment
in
the
Ministry
of
Diwan
Affairs
in
the
Sultanate;
to
incorporate
species
from
his
systematic
list,
deter-
mined
by
Miss
D.
Hillcoat
of
the
British
Museum
(Natural
History),
into
the
species
list;
and
to
include
his
invaluable
list
of
vernacular
names
as
an
Appendix
to
this
paper.
Thanks
are
also
expressed
to
Miss
D.
Hillcoat,
and
to
colleagues
on
the
staff
of
the
Royal
Botanic
Gardens,
Kew,
too
numerous
to
mention
by
name,
for
their
patience
and
assistance
in
naming
the
soo-odd
numbers
collected
during
the
course
of
this
Survey,
and
not
least
to
the
Director
of
the
Royal
Botanic
Gardens,
Kew,
and
the
Keeper
of
the
Her-
barium,
for
releasing
him
from
normal
duties
for
six
weeks
in
order
to
take
part
in
it.
References
BENTHAM,
G.
&
HOOKER,
J.
D.,
1862-83.
Genera
plantarum
ad
exemplaria
imprimis
in
herbariis
kewensibus
servata
definita.
3
vols.
London.
BENT,
T.
&
M.
V.
A.,
190o.
Southern
Arabia.
London:
Smith,
Elder.
BOR,
N.
L.,
1968.
Grarnineae.
C. C.
Townsend
&
E.
Guest,
(Eds.).
Flora
of
Iraq,
Vol.
9.
COPE,
T.
A.,
1977.
A
New
Species
of
Dichanthium
from
Southern
Arabia.
Publications
from
Cairo
University
Herbarium
Nos.
7
&
8:
325.
FORMAN,
L.
L.,
1980.
Cocculus
balfourii
(Menispermaccae)
in
Oman
(Dhofar).
Kew
Bull.
35
(2):
379-81.
HEPPER,
F.
N.,
1969.
Arabian
and
African
Frankincense
Trees.
Journal
of
Egyptian
Archaeology
55:
66-8.
MANDAVILLE,
J.
P.,
Jr,
1977.
Plants.
In
The
Scientific
Results
of
the
Oman
Flora
&
Fauna
Survey
1973.
[J.Ontan
Stud.
Spec.
Rep.
(No.
I)]
:
229-65.
1980.
Frankincense
in
Dhofar.
J.
Oman
Stud.
Spec.
Rep.
No.
2:
87-9.
PRITCHARD,
C.
J.
R.,
1975.
A
preliminary
investigation
of
the.
potential
of
Rhodes
Grass
(Chloris
gayana)
for
growing
lambs
under
an
intensive
grazing
system.
Publication
of
the
Animal
Production
and
Agricultural
Research
Centre,
Hofuf,
Saudi
Arabia.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH,
A.,
1980.
A
new
species
of
Jatropha
from
Dhofar.
Kew
Bull.
35
(2):
253-5.
in
press.
Notes
on
African
Euphorbiaceae
(9).
Kew
Bull
35
(4).
ROLFE,
R.
A.,
1894.
Bentia.
In
'Botany
of
the
Hadhrarnaut
Ex-
pedition'.
Kew
Bull.
(1894):
338.
ST
JOHN,
H.,
1970.
Classification
and
Distribution
of
the
Ipomoea
pes-caprae
group.
Bot.
Jb.
89
(4):
563-83.
SCOTT,
A.
J.,
1979.
A
revision
of
Anogeissus
(Combretaceae).
Kew
Bull.
33
(4):
555-66.
SMYTHE,
K.
R.,
1980.
Marine
Mollusca
of
Dhofar.
J.
Oman
Stud.
Spec.
Rep.
No.
2:
9o-6.
Address
for
correspondence
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH,
The
Herbarium,
Royal
Botanic
Gardens,
Kew,
Richmond,
Surrey,
TW9
3AB,
England.
78
Family
MENISPERMACEAE
Cocculus
pendulus
(J.
R.
&
G.
Forst.)
Diels
Cocculus
balfourii
Schwcinf.
cx
Ball.
f.
?
ssp.
nov.
Family
PAPAVERACEAE
Argemone
niexicana
L.
Family
CRUCIFERAE
Diplotaxis
cf.
D.
erucoides
(L.)
DC.
Diplotaxis
harra
(Forssk.)
Boiss.
?
Erysimum
sp.
Farsetia
burtonae
Oliv.
Farsetia
longisiliqua
Decne.
Farsetia
sp.
Moricandia
sinaica
(Boiss.)
Boiss.
Family
CAPPARmAcEAn
Boscia
arabica
Pestalozzi
Cadaba
baccarinii
Chiov.
(first
record
for
Arabia)
Cadabafarinosa
Forssk.
Capparis
cartilaginea
Decne.
Cleome
brachycarpa
(Forssk.)
Vahl
ex
DC.
Cleome
droserifolia
(Forssk.)
Del.
Cleonte
pruinosa
T.
Anders.
Cleome
pruinosa
x
quinquenervia
Cleonte
quinquenervia
DC.
Cleome
sp.
nov.
aff.
C.
socotrana
Balf.
f.
(C.
vcnosa
Hutch.
fined.)
Gynandropsisgynandra
(L.)
Briq.
Family
RESEDACEAE
Ochradenus
baccatus
Del.
Reseda
sphenocleoides
Deft.
Family
CISTACEAE
Helianthemutn
?
sp.
nov.
Family
VIOLACEAE
Hybanthus
durus
(Bak.)
0.
Schwartz
Viola
cinerea
Boiss.
Viola
sp.
nov.
aft
V.
stocksii
Boiss.
Dicotyledones
DIVISION
ANTHOPHYTA
(Plate
D)
(Plate
1)
Family
POLYGALACEAE
Polygala
dhofarica
Bak.
Polygala
erioptera
DC.
Polygala
obtusissinia
Hochst.
Family
CARYOPHYLLACEAE
(Plate
F)
Polycarpaea
spicata
Wt.
&
Am.
Robbairea
delileana
Milne-Redh.
Saponaria
montana
(Balf.
f.)
Bark.
var.
pubescens
Bark.
Family
ILLECEBRACEAE
Cometes
abyssinica
R.
Br.
Herniaria
sp.
nr
.
H.
ntascatensis
Bornm.
Lochia
sp.
inter
L.
bracteata
Balf.
I.
and
L.
kuriensis
A.
R.
Sm.
Family
TAMARICACEAE
Tamarix
mannifera
Ehrenb.
Family
MALVACEAE
Abelmoschus
esculentus
(L.)
Moench.
Abutilon
bidentatunt
Hochst.
ex
A.
Rich.
Abutilon
fruticosum
Guill.
&
Perr.
Abutilon
niuticuni
(Del.)
Webb
CietOtegosia
mvelshii
(T.
Anders.)
Garcke
Gossypiuni
herhaceum
L.
Hibiscus
sidiformis
Baill.,
var.
an
ssp.
nov.
Hibiscus
vitifolius
L.
Hibiscus
?
sp.
nov.
Pavonia
arabica
Hochst.
&
Steud.
ex
Boiss.
Pavonia
cf.
P.
cristata
Schulz
&
Guerke
Pavonia
subaphylla
0.
Schwartz
e
descr.
Pavonia
triloba
Guill.
&
Perr.
Sewn
incana
(Cay.)
DC.
Sida
ovata
Forssk.
(S.
grewioides
Guill.
&
Perr.)
Sida
veronicifolia
Lam.
Family
BOMBACACEAE
Adansonia
digitata
L.
Family
STERCULIACEAE
Hermannia
sp.
nov.
aft
H.
paniculata
Franch.
Melhania
muricata
Ball.
I.
Melhania
ovata
(Cay.)
Spreng.
(Plate
12)
(Plate
A)
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
SYSTEMATIC
LIST
OF
PLANT
SPECIES
Collected
by
the
Oman
Flora
and
Fauna
Survey
(Dhofar),
1977
and
also
by
James
P.
Mandavillc,
Jr
in
September,
1976.
Determinations
by
the
Staff
of
the
Herbarium
of
the
Royal
Botanic
Gardens,
Kew,
by
Miss
D.
Hillcoat
and
Mr
A.
J.
Crabbe
of
the
British
Museum
(Natural
History)
and
by
Professor
M.
N.
el
Hadidi
(Cairo;
Zygophyllaceac).
In
this
list
the
anthophyte
families
are
presented
in
the
Bentham
&
Hooker
(1862-83)
sequence.
The
specimens
are
deposited
in
the
Herbarium,
Royal
Botanic
Gardens,
Kew,
and
in
the
General
Herbarium
of
the
Botany
Department
at
the
British
Museum
(Natural
History).
79
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
Family
TILIACEAE
Corchorus
aestuans
L.
Corchorus
antichorus
(L.)
Raeusch.
Corchorus
trilocularis
L.
Grewia
erythraea
Schweinf.
Grewia
villosa
Willd.
Triumfetta
pentandra
A.
Rich.
Family
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Fagonia
?lahovarii
Volk.
&
Schweinf.
Fagonia
ovaVolia
Hadidi
var.
qatarensis
Hadidi
Fagonia
socotrana
(Ball.
1.)
Schweinf.
var.
somalica
Sprague
Fagonia
cf.
F.
socotrana
(Ball.
f.)
Schweinf.
&
F.
nunmtularilfolia
Baker
Fagonia
sp.
A
Fagonia
sp.
B
Kelleronia
gillettii
Bak.
I.
(first
record
for
Arabia)
Tribulus
terrestris
L.
Tribulus
sp.
nov.
Zygophyllum
cf.
album
L.
Zygophyllum
decumbens
Del.
var.
megacarpuni
H.
Hosny
Zygophyllum
?prismaticum
Chiov.
Zygophyllum
simplex
L.
f.
Zygophyllum
sp.
Family
GERANIACEAE
Geranium
mascatense
Boiss.
Geranium
yemense
Defl.
Monsonia
heliotropoides
(Cay.)
Boiss.
Family
BALSAMINACEAE
Impatiens
balsamMa
L.
Family
BURSERACEAE
Boswellia
sacra
Flueck.
(Plate
3)
Commiphora
abyssinica
(Berg.)
Engl.
var.
simplicifolia
Schweinf,
vel
aff.
Commiphora
cf.
C.
crenato-lobata
Chiov.
Commiphora
foliacea
Sprague
Commiphora
mukul
(Hook.)
Engl.
Commiphora
sp.
A
Commiphora
sp.
B
Family
CELASTRACEAE
Maytenus
royleana
(Wall.
ex
M.
A.
Laws.)
Cufod.
Family
RHAMNACEAE
Zizyphus
leucodermis
(Bak.)
0.
Schwartz
Family
VITACEAE
Cissus
quadrangularis
L.
Cyphostenuna
ternatunt
(Forssk.)
Descoings
Family
SAPINDACEAE
Allophylus
rubifolius
(Hochst.)
Engl.
Dodonaea
viscosa
L.
Family
ANACARDIACEAE
Rhus
?somalensis
Engl.
Family
MORINGACEAE
Moringa
peregrine
(Forssk.)
Fiori
(M.
aptera
Gaertn.)
Family
LEGUMINOSAE
Acacia
asak
(Forssk.)
Willd.
Acacia
etbaica
Schweinf.
ssp.
uncinata
Brenan
Acacia
hamulosa
Benth.
Acacia
nilotica
(L.)
Willd.
Acacia
tortilis
(Forssk.)
Hayne
ssp.
?
Alysicarpus
glumaceus
(Vahl.)
DC.
Alysicarpus
longifolius
(Roth)
Wt.
&
Am.
Cadia
purpurea
(Pict.)
Ait.
Caesalpinia
bonduc
(L.)
Roxb.
Caesalpinia
sp.
cf
.
C.
erianthera
Chiov.
(probably
first
record
for
Dhofar)
(Plate
7)
Cassia
holosericea
Fresen.
Cassia
italica
(Mill.)
Lam.
ex
F.
W.
Andr.
Cassia
obtusifolia
L.
Cassia
tora
L.
Crotalaria
aegyptiaca
Benth.
Crotalaria
leptocarpa
Balf.
f.
Crotalaria
medicaginea
Lam.
(first
record
for
Arabia)
Crotalaria
persica
(Burm.
f.)
Merr.
Crotalaria
retusa
L.
Crotalaria
sdltiana
Andr.
Delonix
elata
(L.)
Gamble
(Plate
6)
Desmodium
garigeticum
(L.)
DC.
Desmodium
ospriostreblum
Chiov.
Indigofera
argentea
Burm.
f.
forma,
vel
aff.
Indigofera
articulata
Gouan
Indigofera
coerulea
Roxb.
Indigoftra
coerulea
Roxb.
var.
occidentalis
Gillett
&
Ali
Indigofera
colutea
(Burm.
f.)
Merr.
Indigofera
cordifolia
Heyne
Indigofera
sp.
aff.
I.
insularis
Chiov.
Indigofera
oblongifolia
Forssk.
Indigofera
phillipsiae
Bak.
f.
Indigofera
sentitrijuga
Forssk.
Indigofera
trita
L.
f.
var.
scabra
(Roth)
Ali
Indigofera
nr.
I.
trita
L.
f.
Lotus
garcinii
DC.
Ormocarpum
dhqfarense
Hillc.
&
Gillett
Prosopis
cineraria
(L.)
Druce
Psoralea
corylifolia
L.
Psoralea
plicata
Del.
Rhynchosia
minima
(L.)
DC.
Rhynchosia
pulverulenta
Stocks
Sesbania
aff.
bispinosa
(Jacq.)
W.
F.
Wight
Tamarindus
indica
L.
Taverniera
glauca
Edgew.
Taverniera
lappacea
Forssk.
Taverniera
sp.
A
Taverniera
sp.
B
Taverniera
sp.
C
Tephrosia
apollinea
(Del.)
DC.
Tephrosia
huntilis
Guill.
&
Perr.
Tephrosia
quartiniana
Cuf.
Tephrosia
strigosa
(Dalz.)
Ali
(first
record
for
Arabia)
(Plate
2)
8o
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
Teranmus
repens
(Taub.)
Bak.
f.
ssp.
gracilis
(Chiov.)
Verdc.
Vigna
radiata
(L.)
Wilcz.
var.
sublobata
(Roxb.)
Verdc.
Family
CRASSULACEAE
Kalanchoe
sp.
Family
COMBRETACEAE
Anogeissus
dhofarica
A.
J.
Scott
Family
LYTHRACEAE
Ammannia
baccifera
L.
Woodfordia
uniflora
(A.
Rich.)
Koelme
Family
CUCURBITACEAE
Corallocarpus
epigaeus
(Rott.)
C.
B.
Cl.
(first
record
for
Arabia)
Cucumis
melo
L.
Cucumis
prophetarum
L.
ssp.
prophetarum
Cucurbita
pepo
L.
Li
fa
acutangula
(L.)
Roxb.
Family
AizoAcEAE
Aizoon
canariense
L.
Glinus
lotoides
L.
Telephium
sphaerospermum
Boiss.
Trianthema
triquetra
Rottl.
ex
Willd.
Zaleya
pentandra
(L.)
C.
Jeffrey
Family
UMBELLIFERAE
Amtni
majus
L.
Pinipinella
schweigfurthii
Aschers
(first
record
for
Arabia)
Pycnocycla
caespitosa
Boiss.
&
Hausskn.
Family
RUBIACEAE
Jaubertia
aucheri
Guill.
[Gaillonia
aucheri
(Guill.)
Jaub.
&
Spach]
Kohautia
aspera
(Heyne
ex
Roth)
Brem.
Kohautia
caespitosa
Schnizl.
var.
schimperi
(Presl)
Brem.
Kohautia
retrorsa
(Boiss.)
Brem.
Oldenlandia
corynibosa
L.
var.
coryinbosa
Family
COMPOSITAE
Atractylis
kentrophylloides
(Baker)
F.
G.
Davies
comb.
nov.
fined.
(Carduncellus
kentrophylloides
Baker)
Bidens
sp.
cf
.
B.
biternata
(Lour.)
Merr.
&
Sherff
Blepharisperinum
hirtum
Oliv.
Centaurea
sp.
aff.
C.
calcitrapa
L.
Echinops
spinosissiinus
Turra
Eclipta
alba
(L.)
Hassk.
Erigeron
bovei
Boiss.
Grantia
senecionoides
Baker
Helichrysum
somalense
Bak.
f.
(H.
pumilum
(Klatt)
Moeser)
Hochstettera
schimperi
DC.
Iphiona
scabra
Decne.
Kleinia
odora
(Forssk.)
Berger
Kleinia
pendula
(Forssk.)
DC.
Launaea
castanosperma
F.
G.
Davies
Launaea
massauensis
(Fres.)
Ktze.
Launaea
mucronata
(Forssk.)
Muschl.
Launaea
spinosa
(Forssk.)
Sch.-Bip.
Osteospermum
vaillantii
(Decne.)
Norl.
(Tripteris
vaillantii
Decne.)
Pluchea
laxa
Baker
Pluchea
ovalis
(Pers.)
DC.
Pulicariaglutinosa
(Boiss.)
Jaub.
&
Spach
Pulicaria
leucophylla
Baker
Pulicaria
sp.
Sclerocarpus
africamisJacq.
Vernonia
arabica
F.
G.
Davies
Vernonia
cinerea
Less.
Volutaria
lippii
(L.)
Cass.
Family
CAMPANULACEAE
Lobelia
heyneana
Roem.
&
Schultes
(first
record
for
Arabia)
Wahlenbergiaflexuosa
(Hook.
f.
&
Thorns.)
Thulin
(first
record
for
Arabia)
Family
PLUMBAGINACEAE
Dyerophytum
indicum
(Gibs.
ex
Wight)
0.
Kuntze
(
Vogelia
indica
Gibs.
ex
Wight)
Limonium
axillare
(Forssk.)
0.
Kuntze
(Statice
axillaris
Forssk.)
Plumbago
zeylanica
L.
Family
PRIMULACEAE
Anagallis
arvensis
L.
ssp.
arvensis
Samolus
valerandi
L.
Family
EBENACEAE
Euclea
schimperi
(A.
DC.)
Dandy
Family
OLEACEAE
Jasminurn
grandiflorum
L.
(J.floribundum
R.
Br.
ex
Fresen.)
Olea
europaea
L.
s.l.
(incl.
0.
africana
Mill.,
O.
chrysophylla
Lam.,
0.
aucheri
(Chev.)
Ehrend.)
Family
SALVADORACEAE
Salvadora
persica
(L.)
Garcin.
Family
APOCYNACEAB
Adenium
obesuni
(Forssk.)
Roem.
&
Schuh.
(Plate
8)
Rhazya
stricta
Decne.
Family
ASCLEPIADACEAE
Calotropis
procera
(Ait.)
Ait.
f.
Caralluma
sp.
Ceropegia
cf.
C.
boerhaviifolia
Defl.
Echidnopsis
sp.
Glossonenia
varians
(Stocks)
Benth.
ex
Hook.
f.
GoinphocarpusJi
uticosus
(L.)
Ait.
f.
Pentatropis
spiral
is
(Forssk.)
Decne.
Pergularia
daemia
(Forssk.)
Chiov.
Pergularia
tomentosa
L.
Periploca
aphylla
Decne.
Periploca
visciformis
(Vatke)
K.
Schum.
Sarcostennna
viminale
(L.)
R.
Br.
Family
GENTIANACEAE
Canscora
concanensis
C.
B.
Cl.
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
(Plate
9)
81
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
Centaurium
pulchellum
(Sw.)
Drucc
Enicostemma
axillare
(Lain.)
A.
Raynal
Exacum
affine
Ball.
f.
Exacumgracilipes
Balf.
f.
Family
BORAGINACEAE
Arnebia
hispidissima
(Lchm.)
DC.
Cordia
perrottetii
Wight
Echiochilon
kotschyi
(Boiss.
&
Hohen.)
I.
M.
Johnston
Echiochilon
strigosum
(Dcflers)
I.
M.
Johnston
Echiochilon
sp.
nov.
Echiochilon
sp.
Heliotropium
cf.
H.
albo-villoston
Ricdl
Heliotropium
?azzanum
0.
Schwartz
Heliotropium
cf
H.
calcareum
Stocks
Heliotropium
cf.
H.
dasycarpum
Lcdcb.
Heliotropium
drepanophyllum
Baker
Heliotropium
?fartakense
0.
Schwartz
Heliotropium
kotschyi
(Ledeb.)
Guerkc
(H.
tuberculosunt
(Boiss.)
Boiss.)
Heliotropium
long
forum
(A.
DC.)
Jaub.
&
Spach
Heliotropium
ovalifolium
Forssk.
Trichodesma
africanum
(L.)
R.
Br.
Trichodesma
boissieri
Post
?
ssp.
nov,
Trichodesma
cardiosepalum
Oliv.
Family
CON
VULVULACEAE
Convulvulusglorneratus
Choisy
Convolvulus
hystrix
Vahl
(Plate
14)
Cressa
cretica
L.
Hildebrandtia
sp.
aff.
H.
africana
Vatke
Ipontoca
cairica
(L.)
Sweet
Ipontoea
dichroa
Choisy
(Plate
4)
Iponwea
nil
(L.)
Roth
(I.
hederacea
Jacq.)
Ipontoea
obscura
(L.)
Kcr-Gawl.
Ipontoea
pes-caprae
(L.)
R.
Br.
Ipottwea
sinensis
(Dcsr.)
Choisy
ssp.
blepharosepala
(Hochst.
ex
A.
Rich.)
Mccusc
Merretnia
somalensis
(Vatke)
Hall.
1.
(Plate
16)
Seddera
glonterata
(Ball.
f.)
0.
Schwartz
Seddera
lattfolia
Hochst.
&
Stcud.
Family
SOLANACEAE
Capsicum
annum
L.
Datura
metel
L.
Lycium
shatvii
Roeni.
&
Schuh.
Physalis
micrantha
Link
Solarium
incanum
L.
Solanum
luteum
Mill.
Withania
?
sp.
nov.
Family
SCROPIIULARIACEAE
Alectra
parasitica
Hochst.
ex
A.
Rich.
Anticharis
arabica
(Hochst.
&
Stcud.)
Endl.
Anticharis
glandulosa
Aschers.
Bacopa
monnieri
(L.)
Pennell
Buclutera
hispida
Buch.-Hatn.
ex
I).
Don
Campylanthus
pungens
0.
Schwartz
(first
record
for
Oman)
Kickxia
hastata
(R.
Br.
ex
Benth.)
Dandy
Kickxia
?
sp.
nov.
Lindenbergia
muraria
(Roxb.)
Brii
hl
Lindenbergia
sp.
nr
.
L.
nmraria
(Roxb.)
Briihl
Striga
euphrasioides
Benth.
(first
record
for
Oman)
Striga
gesnerioides
(Willd.)
Vatke
ex
Engl.
Veronica
anagalloides
Guss.
Scrophulariacca
indet.
Family
OROBANCIIACEAE
Cistanche
rosea
Bak.
Cistanche
tubulosa
(Schenk)
Hook.
1.
Orobanche
cernua
Locfl.
Orobanchc
minor
Sin.
(Plate
13)
Family
ACANTHACEAE
Asystasia
gangetica
(L.)
T.
Anders.
sens.
lat.
Barleria
acanthoides
Vahl
Barleria
aucherana
Nees
Barleria
proxima
Lindau
Barleria
smithii
Rcndlc
Bentia
ft;
itticulosa
Rolfe
Blepharis
linariifolia
Pers.
Dyschoriste
cf.
D.
radicans
Nees
Erbolitiiii
sp.
Hypoestes
paniculata
(Forssk.)
Schwcinf.
Justicia
heterocarpa
T.
Anders.
Justicia
odora
(Forssk.)
Vahl
Justicia
sp.
nov.
aff.
J.
procumbetts
L.
Lepidagathis
?
sp.
nov.
aff.
L.
calycina
Nees
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
Neuracatithus
robecchii
(Lindau)
C.
B.
Cl.
(or
possibly
N.
argyro-
phyllus
Cltiov.)
Peristrophe
bicalyculata
(Rctz.)
Nees
Ruellia
discifolia
Oliv.
Ruellia
patula
Jacq.
sells.
lat.
Rungia
parviflora
Nees
Ruttya
fruticosa
Lindau
Family
VERBENACEAE
Chascammt
sp.
cf
.
C.
sessiliflorum
(Vatke)
Moldenkc
Lantana
?viburnoides
(Forssk.)
Valil
Phyla
nodillora
(L.)
Greene
Premna
resinosa
(Hochst.)
Schauer
Family
AVICENNIACEAE
Avicennia
marina
(Forssk.)
Vieth.
Family
LABIATAE
Becium
sp.
(Orthosiphon
comosunt
Bak.,
non
Wight)
(Plate
o)
Coleus
barbatus
(Andr.)
Benth.
Endostemon
tenttiflorus
(Benth.)
Ashby
Lavandula
sp.
cf
.
L.
nimmoi
Benth.
etc.
Lavandula
subnuda
Bcnth.
Lavandula
?
sp.
nov.
Leucas
itylata
Benth.
(Physoleucas
infiata
(Benth.)
Jaub.
&
Spach)
Leucas
urticifolia
(Vahl)
R.
Br.
Leucas
sp.
(Plate
11)
82
THE
VEGETATION
OF
DHOFAR
Ocinunt
sp.
cf
.
O.
basilicum
L.
Orthosiphon
pallidus
Royle
Plectranthus
marrubioides
Hochst.
ex
Benth.
Salvia
aegyptiaca
L.
Teucrium
nummulariifolium
Bak.
Teucrium
yentense
Defiers
Family
PLANTAGINACEAE
Platago
albicans
L.
Family
NYCTAGINACEAE
Boerhavia
elegans
Choisy
Boerhavia
sp.
Commicarpus
boissieri
(Heimerl.)
Cufod.
Commicarpus
helettae
(J.
A.
Schultes)
Meikle
Commicarpus
stenocarpus
(Chiov.)
Cufod.
Family
AMARANTHACEAE
Achyranthes
aspera
L.
var.
pubescens
(Moq.)
C.
C.
Townsend
Aervajavanica
(Burin.
f.)
Juss.
ex
Schultes
Amaranthus
graecizans
L.
var.
graecizans
Celosia
trigyna
L.
Digera
tintricata
(L.)
Mart.
ssp.
muricata
Psilotrichtint
sericeunt
(Koen.
cx
Roxb.)
Dalz.
Pupalia
lappacea
(L.)
Juss.
var.
velutina
(Moq.)
Hook.
f.
Family
CHENOPODIACEAE
Atriplex
farinosum
Forssk.
Chenopodium
murale
L.
Cormslaca
monacantha
Dcl.
Salsola
bottae
(Jaub.
&
Spach)
Boiss.
Salsola
rubescens
Franch.
Suaeda
baccata
Forssk.
Suaeda
fruticosa
Forssk.
Suaeda
sp.
nov.
aft
S.
fruticosa
Forssk.
(also
known
from
the
Kuria
Muria
Islands)
Suaeda
sp.
A
Suaeda
sp.
B
Suaeda
sp.
C
Family
POLYGONACEAE
Polygonum
glabrum
Willd.
Rumex
vesicaritts
L.
Family
PIPERACEAE
Peperotnia
pellttcida
(L.)
Kunth
Family
LORANTIIACEAE
Loranthus
acacias
Zucc.
Loranthus
schimperi
Hochst.
ex
A.
Rich.
Family
EUPHORBIACEAE
Acalypha
indica
L.
Andrachne
aspera
Sprcng.
var.
aspera
Andrachne
telephioides
L.
Chrozophora
oblongifolia
(Del.)
Adr.
Juss.
ex
Spreng.
Croton
confertus
Baker
Dalechampi
a
scandens
L.
var.
cordofana
(HoChst.
ex
A.
Rich)
Muell.
Arg.
Euphorbia
arabica
Hochst.
&
Steud.
cx
Boiss.
Euphorbia
balsam!
e
.
ra
Ait.
ssp.
adenensis
(Deft.)
Bally
Euphorbia
cactus
Ehrenb.
Euphorbia
granulata
Forssk.
Euphorbia
hadrainautica
Baker
Euphorbia
heterophylla
L.
Euphorbia
indica
Lain.
Euphorbiajatrophoides
Pax
var.
an
ssp.
nov.
Euphorbia
schimperi
Pres1
Euphorbia
sp.
aff.
E.
schimperi
Pres1
Jatropha
glandulosa
Vahl
var.
sublobata
(0.
Schwartz)
Radcliffe-Smith,
comb.
nov.
Jatropha
dhofarica
A.
Radcliffe-Smith
Jatropha
pandurifidia
Andr.
Meineckia
phyllanthoides
Baill.
ssp.
phyllanthoides
Phyllanthus
amarus
School.
&
Thonn.
Phyllanthus
maderaspatensis
L.
Phyllanthus
rotundifolitts
Klein
ex
Willd.
Ricinus
con:mut:is
L.
var.
africana
Muell.
Arg.
Family
URTICACEAE
Forsskaolea
tenacissima
L.
Forsskaolea
viridis
Ehrenb.
Laportea
interrupta
(L.)
Chew
Family
ULMACEAE
Trent('
oricntalis
(L.)
Bl.
Fancily
MORACEAE
Dorstenia
foetida
(Forssk.)
Schwcinf.
&
Engl.
Ficus
cf.
F.
ingentoides
Hutch.
Ficus
palmata
Forssk.
Ficus
syconiorus
L.
Ficus
salicifalia
Vahl
Ficus
vasta
Forssk.
Monocotyledones
Family
ORCHIDACEAE
Eulophia
guineensis
Lindl.
var.
purpurata
Reichb.
f.
ex
Kotschy
Family
IRIDACEAE
Gladiolus
ukantbanensis
(Baker)
Marais
(Acidanthera
ukantbanensis
Baker)
Family
AMARYLLIDACEAE
?
Haentatithus
sp.
Family
LILIACEAE
Aloe
cf.
A.
dhufarensis
Lavr.
Aloe
cf.
A.
inertias
Forssk.
Asparagus
aphyllus
L.
var.
Asphodelusfistillosus
L.
Chlorophytton
laxtnn
R:
Br.
Sansevieria
sp.
Liliacca
indet.
(Plate
15)
(Plate
H)
(Plate
B)
A.
(Plate
C)
83
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
Family
COMMELINACEAE
Aneilemaforskaolei
Kunth
Comnielina
sp.
nr
.
C.
albescens
Hassk.
Commelina
sp.
nr
.
C.
albescens
Hassk.
and
C.
ussilensis
Schweinf.
Commelina
forskalaei
Vahl
Family
JuNcAcEAE
Juncus
rigidus
Desf.
Family
PALMAE
Nannorrhops
ritchiana
(Griff)
Aitch.
(N.
arabica
Burret)
(Plate
J)
Phoenix
sp.
Family
PANDANAcEAE
Pandanus
odoratissinius
L.
f.
Family
TYPIIACEAE
Typha
angustata
Bory
&
Chaub.
Family
ARACEAE
Remusatia
vivipara
Schott
Family
POTAMOGETONACEAE
Potatnogeton
nodosus
Poir.
Family
CYPERACEAE
Cyperus
alulatus
Kern
(first
record
for
Arabia)
Cyperus?
bifax
C.
B.
Cl.
Cyperus
conglomeratus
Rottb.
s.l.
Cyperus
maims
Vahi
var.
eleusinoides
(Kunth)
Haines
Cyperus
squarrosus
L.
Cyperus
tvissmannii
0.
Schwartz
e
descr.
Eleocharis
geniculata
(L.)
Rocm.
&
Schultes
(E.
capitata
(L.)
R.
Br.)
Fintbristylis
sieberana
Kunth
Fimbristylis
spathacea
Roth
Juncellus
laevigatus
(L.)
C.
B.
Cl.
Scirpus
(Schoenoplectus)
litoralis
Schrad.
Family
GRAMINEAE
Aeluropus
lagopoides
(L.)
Trin.
ex
Thw.
Apluda
'indica
L.
Aristida
adscensionis
L.
Aristida
fimiculata
Trin.
&
Rupr.
Arthraxon
lancifolius
(Trio.)
Hochst.
Arthraxon
micans
(Nees)
Hochst.
Arthraxon
prionodes
(Staid.)
Dandy
Arthraxon
pusillus
Bor
Brachiaria
deflexa
(Schunt)
C.
E.
Hubbard
ex
Robyns
Capillipedium
parvifiorum
(R.
Br.)
Stapf
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
Cenchrus
pennisetifortnis
Hochst.
&
Steud.
Cenchrus
setigerus
Vahl
Chloris
gayana
Kunth
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
Chloris
mensensis
(Schweinf.)
Cuf.
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
Chloris
quitiquesetica
Bhide
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
Chloris
virgata
Sw.
Chrysopogon
plumulosus
Hochst.
Cytnbopogon
schoenatithus
(L.)
Spreng.
Cymbopogon
?
sp.
nov.
Dactyloctenium
aegyptium
(L.)
P.
Beauv.
Dactyloctenium
aristatum
Link
Dactyloctenium
?
robecchii
(Chiov.)
Chiov.
Dichanthium
annulatum
(Forssk.)
Stapf
Dichanthium
(Eremopogon)
foveolatum
(Del.)
Roberty
Dichanthium
(Eremopogon)
micranthunt
T.
A.
Cope
Digitaria
ciliaris
(Retz.)
Kocl.
Digitaria
nodosa
Parl.
Digitaria
stricta
Roth
ex
Rom.
&
Schult.
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
Echinochloa
colons
(L.)
Link
Eragrostis
aspera
(Jacq.)
Nees
Eragrostis
cilianensis
(All.)
Lut.
ex
F.
T.
Hubbard
Eragrostis
ciliaris
(L.)
R.
Br.
Eragrostis
mahrana
Schwcinf.
Eustachys
paspaloides
(Vahl)
Lanza
&
Mattei
Hackelochloa
granularis
(L.)
0.
Ktze.
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
lialopyrum
niucronatum
(L.)
Stapf
Heteropogon
contortus
(L.)
P.
Beauv.
Heteropogon
melanocarpus
(Ell.)
&nth.
Lasiurus
scindicus
Henr.
(L.
hirsutus
(Forssk.)
Boiss.)
Leptothrium
senegalense
(Kunth)
W.
D.
Clayton
Oplisnienus
burmannii
(Retz.)
P.
Beauv.
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
Panicum
trichoides
Sw.
(probably
a
new
record
for
Arabia)
Panic=
turgidum
Forssk.
Paspalunt
vaginatum
Sw.
Pennisetunt
divisum
(Gmel.)
Henr.
Phragmites
australis
(Cay.)
Trin.
ex
Steud.
(Plate
E)
Rhynchelytrum
repens
(Willd.)
C.
E.
Hubbard
Rottboellia
exaltata
Saccharum
ravennae
(L.)
Murr.
Setaria
interniedia
Rocin.
&
Schult.
(S.
tomentosa
(Roxb.)
Kunth)
Setaria
pumila
(Poir.)
Roem.
&
Schult.
(S.
pallidifusca
(Schumach.)
Stapf
&
C.
E.
Hubbard)
Setaria
verticillata
(L.)
P.
Beauv.
Setaria
viridis
(L.)
P.
Beauv.
Sorghum
purpureo-sericeum
(A.
Rich.)
Aschers.
&
Schweinf.
Sporobolus
helvolus
(Trio.)
Dur.
&
Schinz
Sporobolus
kentrophyllus
(K.
Schum.)
W.
D.
Clayton
Sporobolus
spicatus
(Vahl)
Kunth
Sporobolus
sp.
Stipagrostis
paradisea
(Edgew.)
de
Winter
Stipagrostis
plumosa
(L.)
Munro
ex
T.
Anders.
Tetrapogon
tenellus
(Roxb.)
Chiov.
Themeda
quadrivalvis
(L.)
0.
Ktze.
Tricholaena
teneriffae
(L.f.)
Link
Urochloa
panicoides
P.
Beauv.
Urochondra
setulosa
(Trim)
C.
E.
Hubbard
DIVISION
PTERIDOPHYTA
Class
LYCOPSIDA
Family
SELAGINELLACEAE
Selaginella
itubricata
(Forssk.)
Spreng.
(Plate
E)
84
A.
RADCLIFFE-SMITH
Rhynchosia
minima
Impatiens
balsamina
Apinda
mutica
Pulicaria
glutinosa
Rentusatia
vivipara
Lantana
?viburnoides
Ficus
sp.
Euphorbia
sp.
(bush),
sap
used
to
treat
camel
mange
Compositae
sp.
Solanum
incanunt
Ecbolitint
sp.
Becium
sp.,
juice
used
by
women
as
cosmetic
Heliotropium
sp.
Croton
confertsts
Setaria
pumila,
seeds
eaten
in
famine
nahoq
qaraz
(Kathiri)
qitadah
(Kathiri)
ras'ah
(Kathiri)
rubit
rithith
sa'b
sabr
(Kathiri)
sa'dot
saghat
sananiti
sha'r
(Kathiri)
sharai
shathayt
shuqat
sufayqqat
Ric/tins
cominimis
var.
africana
Acacia
etbaica
subsp.
uncinata
Acacia
hamulosa
Fagonia
socotrana
var.
somalica
Ceropegia
cf
C.
boerhaviifolia,
edible
tuber
Arthraxon
pusillus
Acacia
etbaica
ssp.
uncinata
Aloe
sp.
Cyperus
sp.
Anogeissus
dhofarica
Iponwea
obscura
general
term
for
grasses
(literally:
'hair)
Dodonaea
viscosa
general
term
for
ferns
tree,
Burseraceous
?
Laportea
interrupts
dijar
agharib
dalul
dhawta
dhuwaylah
(Kathiri)
facia
ghamricl
ghayclayt
habok
haglyat
halqamat
harom
hOdam
holim
hOr
infirart
kalit
karthOb,
karthib
kom
khafut
khartarayt
khaymar
khoz
kidhi
matubtub
maytayn
mughalif
mughur
mushat
(Kathiri)
Euclea
schimperi
Dorstenia
foetida,
tuber
edible
Cyphostemma
ternatum
Blepharispermunt
hirtum
Indigofera
trita
var.
scabra
Ortnocarpum
dhofarense,
favoured
fodder
sheep,
goats
Phoenix
sp.
Pandanus
odoratissimus
Jasminum
grandiflorum
Olea
europaea
(0.
africana)
Ruttya
fruticosa,
a
bee
plant
Boswellia
sacra
Anogeissus
dhofarica
Woodfordia
uniflora
Cadia
purpurea
Aloe.
sp.
Ficus
vasta
Euphorbia
sp.
Sorghum
(cult.)
note:
first
consonant
may
be
lateral
Maytenus
royleana
Euphorbia
balsamifera
ssp.
adenensis
Euphorbia
balsamile
.
ra
ssp.
adenensis
Heteropogon
contortus
(note:
term
may
also
be
used
generically
for
other
tall
grasses)
Rhus
sp.
(tree)
Jatropha
dhofarica
tabtab
takhamkhaui
tayf
tayq
ta'zif
(Kathiri)
of
thharyot
tharbith
tikodOha
tisha4
zidorut
zirkan
zuburwat
86