The Role of Cats and Dogs in the Epidemiological Cycle of Microsporum canis/Die Rolle von Katzen und Hunden im epidemiologischen Zyklus des Microsporum canis


Zaror, L.; Fischmann, O.; Borges, M.; Vilanova, A.; Levites, J.

Mycoses 29(4): 185-188

1986


mykosen
mykosen
29
(4)
185-188
accepted/angenommen:
December
29,1985
©
Grosse
Verlag
Berlin
1986
The
Role
of
Cats
and
Dogs
in
the
Epidemiological
Cycle
of
Microsporum
canis*
Die
Rolle
von
Katzen
und
Hunden
im
epidemiologischen
Zyklus
des
Microsporum
canis
L.
Zaror',
0.
Fischmann
2
,
M.
Borges
3
,
A.
Vilanova
4
and
J.
Levites
5
I
Instituto
de
Microbiologia
Clinica,
Falcultad
de
Medicina,
Universidad
Austral
de
Chile,
Valdivia,
Chile.
2
Departamento
de
Microbiologia,
Imunologia
e
Parasitologia,
Disciplina
de
Micologia,
Escola
Paulista
de
Medicina,
Sao
Paulo,
Brasil,
Pesquisadora
do
CNPq.
3
Fundacao
Parque
ZoolOgico
de
Sao
Paulo.
4
Servico
de
Zoonose
da
Prefeitura
Municipal
de
Sao
Paulo.
5
POs-Graduando
da
Disciplina
de
Dermatologia
da
Escola
Paulista
de
Medicina.
Key
words:
Microsporum
canis
-
cat
-
dog
-
epidemiology
Schllisselworter:
Microsporum
canis
-
Katze
-
Hund
-
Epidemiologie
Summary:
In
order
to
study
the
presence
of
dermatophytes
in
healthy
domestic
animals,
104
cats
and
126
dogs
were
studied
in
Siio
Paulo
(Brazil),
by
using
the
technique
of
Mariat
&
Tapia.
Mi-
crosporum
canis
was
verified
in
88.46%
of
cats
and
in
7.93%
of
dogs.
In
a
lower
percentage,
M.
gypseum,
Trichophyton
mentagrophytes
and
T.
ajelloi
were
also
isolated.
In
view
of
these
data,
more
attention
should
be
given
to
the
cats
due
to
their
importance
in
the
transmission
and
persistence
of
M.
canis.
Zusammenfassung:
Zur
Untersuchung
auf
Anwesenheit
auf
Dermatophyten
in
gesunden
Haustieren
wurden
104
Katzen
und
126
Hunde
in
Sao
Paulo
(Brasilien)
mit
der
Technik
von
Mariat
&
Tapia
untersucht.
Microsporum
canis
konnte
bei
88,46%
der
Katzen
und
bei
7,93
%
der
Hunde
isoliert
werden.
Mit
einem
niedrigeren
Prozentsatz
wurden
auch
M.
gypseum,
Tricho-
phyton
mentagrophytes
und
T.
ajelloi
gefunden.
Die
Ergebnisse
zeigen
die
Bedeutung
gesunder
Katzen
fur
die
Ubertragung
und
den
Weiterbestand
von
Microsporum
canis-Infektionen.
*This
work
is
part
of
the
thesis
"Contribution
to
the
study
of
the
ecology
of
dermatophytes.
Survey
in
animals
and
areas
of
risk"
to
obtain
the
degree
of
Master
of
Sciences
(L.
Zaror).
This
work
was
suppor-
ted
in
part
by
grants
of
CNPq
(Conselho
Nacional
de
Pesquisas)
and
DirecciOn
de
Investigation
de
la
Universidad
Austral
de
Chile.
mykosen
29,
No.
4
(1986)
186
L.
Zaror
et
al.
Introduction
A
knowledge
of
fungal
microbiota
in
animals
is
of
prime
importance
for
an
understanding
of
the
epidemiological
cycle
of
dermatophytes.
Almeida
et
al.
(1)
Sao
Paulo
(Brazil)
isolated
M.
canis
from
cats
that
were
fed
with
deficient
rations.
Fuentes
et
al.
(7)
in
Cuba
found
M.
gyp-
seum
and
T.
mentagrophytes
in
healthy
cats.
Moreira
et
al.
(13)
in
Belo
Horizonte
(Brazil)
reported
the
isolation
of
M.
canis,
M.
gypseum
and
T.
mentagrophytes
from
healthy
dogs,
and
the
failure
to
isolate
dermatophytes
from
cats.
Blasquez
(3)
in
Lisbon
found
M.
canis
in
8%
of
dogs
and
in
3.3
%
of
cats
without
lesions.
Mantovani
(11)
reported
the
identification
of
this
fungus
in
11%
of
dogs
and
in
37%
of
cats
from
Bologne
and
in
5%
of
dogs
and
18%
of
cats
from
Rome;
96%
of
the
animals
showed
no
clinical
signs
of
infection.
In
view
of
the
limited
information
on
this
subject,
we
in
Sao
Paulo
have
sought
to
investig-
ate
healthy
cats
and
dogs
in
order
to
elucidate
the
role
of
these
animals
in
the
epidemiological
cycle
of
M.
canis.
Materials
and
Methods
The
presence
of
dermatophytes
was
studied
in
104
cats
and
126
dogs,
captured
by
the
Zoono-
sis
Service
and
the
Protector
Association
of
Animals
of
Sao
Paulo,
Brazil.
The
samples
were
collected
by
Mariat
&
Tapia's
method
(12).
Sterile
carpets,
5
cm
x
5
cm,
were
rubbed
on
the
tegument
of
the
animals
and
were
then
pressed
on
selective
agar
for
der-
matophytes
-
DTM.
The
plates
were
incubated
at
room
temperature
for
21
days.
The
isolated
fungi
were
cultivated
in
lactrimel
agar
and
were
classified
according
to
Rebell
and
Taplin
(15).
Results
The
table
1
shows
the
dermatophytes
isolated
from
dogs
and
cats
without
lesions.
Association
of
M.
canis
with
other
dermatophytes
was
observed
in
12
cats:
M.
canis
with
M.
gypseum
-
10;
M.
canis
with
T.
mentagrophytes
-
1;
M.
canis
with
T.
ajelloi
-
1.
Discussion
The
investigation
of
the
mycoses
in
animals,
or
the
presence
of
fungi
that
are
able
to
produce
them,
contributes
to
a
knowledge
of
the
frequence
and
extension
of
the
etiological
agents,
and
to
a
more
exact
definition
of
the
problem
of
their
dissemination
to
man.
Although
M.
canis
has
been
described
primarily
in
dogs,
it
seems
to
be
more
common
in
cats.
Frommel
(6)
in
1892,
in
Chile,
inoculated
himself
with
scales
of
a
dog
with
dermatomy-
cosis
and
reproduced
the
mycosis
in
his
arm.
Then
he
considered
the
possibility
of
sick
dogs
and
cats
being
important
carriers
in
the
transmission
of
tinea.
Badillet
et
al.
(2)
reported
that
M.
canis
represents
81%
of
the
zoophylic
dermatophytes
isolated.
These
authors
attributed
to
cats
an
important
role
in
the
epidemiological
cycle
of
dermatophytes
since
these
animals
were
responsable
for
73%
of
the
human
dermatomycosis.
People
who
live
in
big
cities,
especially
in
apartments,
and
who
have
pet
animals,
among
them
cats
and
dogs,
are
more
exposed
to
fungal
infections,
especially
by
M.
canis
(10).
Due
to
changing
habits,
an
increase
in
dermatomycosis
due
to
M.
canis
has
been
observed
after
the
Second
Great
War.
In
1980,
the
cat
population
of
Munich,
a
city
of
approximately
1700
000,
was
estimated
to
be
150
000
(16).
Epidemiologically,
the
control
of
cats
and
dogs
as
proposed
by
Hajsig
(8)
would
be
of
great
interest
since
Mantovani
(11)
estimates
that
in
Rome,
20
000
school
days
per
year
are
lost,
due
only
to
M.
canis
infection.
Dermatophyte
transmission
could
be
prevented
after
epidemiolo-
gical
surveys,
through
a
close
contact
among
physicians,
veterinarians
and
the
Zoonosis
mykosen
29,
No.
4
(1986)
Microsporum
canis
187
Table
1
Dermatophytes
identified
in
healthy
cats
and
dogs
(Sao
Paulo,
Brazil)
Studied
Isolated
Dermatophytes
Animals
M.
canis
M.
gypseum
T.
mentagrophytes
T.
ajelloi
Total
No.
%
No.
%
No.
No.
%
No.
104
Cats
92
88.46*
15
14.42
1
0.96
2
1.92
110
126
Dogs
10
7.93
5
3.96
0
0.00
0
0.00
15
*The
percentage
was
calculated
in
relation
to
the
total
number
of
each
animal
species.
Control
Service
with
mycological
support,
followed
by
the
elimination
of
mongrel
infected
dogs
and
cats,
if
possible.
An
effective
register
of
animals
in
breeding
establishments,
and
an
adequate
cleaning
and
brushing
of
animals
in
private
houses,
would
be
complementary
mea-
sures
to
control
ringworm.
The
most
pronoumed
case
of
dermatophytes
on
an
animal
species
corresponds
to
a
close
host-parasite
relation
as
verified
in
the
cat
with
respect
to
M.
canis.
The
differing
results,
including
ours,
among
researchers,
should
be
attributed
partially
to
the
methodology
of
stu-
dy
(2,
5,
7,
13).
The
verification
of
M.
canis
in
88.46%
of
cats
and
7.93
%
of
dogs
in
Sao
Paulo
(Brazil),
leads
us
to
conclude
that
the
cat
is
the
most
important
domestic
animal
in
the
transmission
and
persistence
of
M.
canis,
in
agreement
with
many
authors,
among
them
Londero
et
al.
(9)
in
Brazil,
Badillet
et
al.
(2)
in
France,
Chmel
(4)
in
Czecho-Slovakia
and
Pesterev
(14)
in
Russia.
Otherwise
cats
and
dogs
do
not
seem
to
be
an
adequate
reservoir
for
M.
gypseum
and
T.
men-
tagrophytes
(2,
3,
8).
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W.
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I.
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A.
N.
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A.
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(Moskwa),
R.
D.
Azulay
(Rio
de
Janeiro),
G.
Bader
(Rostock),
V.
A.
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(Sofia),
W.
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(Hannover),
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(Dresden),
Hannelore
Bohme-Ziegler
(Berlin),
K.
H.
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(Hannover),
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Botter
(Haarlem),
Waltraud
Braun
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F
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Olga
Fischman
Gompertz
(Sao
Paulo),
Erika
Friedrich
(Eggstedt),
Brigitte
Gedek
(Munchen),
H.
Gemeinhardt
(Berlin),
M.
Hajsig
(Zagreb),
Ursula
Haufe
(Greifswald),
M.
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(Olomouc),
Theresia
Heymer
(Bonn),
Kasuke
Ito
(Gifu),
D.
Janke
(Fulda),
H.-D.
Jung
(Templin),
Ursula
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(Rostock),
R.
Kaden
(Berlin),
P.
N.
Kaschkin
(Leningrad),
J.
Kejda
(Praha),
R
Kielstein
(Jena-Zwatzen),
B.
Knoche
(Dusseldorf),
Yvonne
and
H.
A.
Koch;
H.
Konigsbauer
(Knittelfeld),
G.-W.
Kor-
ting
(Mainz),
H.
Kraft
(MOnchen),
Luise
Krempl-
Lamprecht
(Mi.inchen),
E.
S.
Kuttin
(Ness-
Ziona),
W.
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(Basel),
A.
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(Santa
Maria),
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(Siegen),
J.
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(Hamburg),
W.
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(Hamburg),
K.
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(Hamburg),
Hanne-Lene
Muller
(Basel),
0.
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(Kreuzlingen),
S.
Nolting
(MUnster),
W.
Osswald
(Porto),
M.
Plempel
(Wuppertal-
Elberfeld),
W.
Raab
(Wien),
M.
Refai
(Cairo),
F.
M.
Rush-Munro
(Auckland),
K.
P.
Schaal
(Bonn),
K.
F
Schaller
(Koblenz),
N.
D.
Schekla-
kow
(Moskau),
C.
Schirren
(Hamburg),
Chri-
stina
Schonborn
(Leipzig),
H.
Scholer
(Basel),
Ursula
Schulze
(AsunciOn),
H.-G.
Schwarz
(Hamm),
P.
Skobel
(Duren),
C.
E.
Sonck
(Turku),
W.
Sowinski
(Poznan),
F
Staib
(Berlin),
M.
Stau-
ber
(Offenbach),
G.
Strittgen
(Berlin),
H.
Teller
(Berlin),
Josefine
Thurner
(Wien),
R.
Vanbreu-
seghem
(Brussel),
N.
van
Uden
(Oeiras),
A.
Weber
(Erlangen),
G.
A.
de
Vries
(Baarn),
S.
Windisch
(Berlin),
H.
Ziegler
(Berlin).
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=
G
roved.
Schriftleitung:
Prof.
Dr.
W.
Meinhof,
NordhoffstraBe
9,
D-5100
Aachen.
Anzeigenverwaltung:
Grosse
Verlag
GmbH.
Druck:
Druckerei
L
Vogt,
Dudenstral3e
10,
D-1000
Berlin
61.
mykosen
29,
No.
4
(1986)