Dermatophytes and Keratinophilic Fungi in Cats and Dogs Dermatophyten und keratinophile Pilze bei Katzen und Hunden


Caretta, G.; Mancianti, F.; Ajello, L.

Mycoses 32(12): 620-626

1989


mycoses
32
(8)
620
—626
accepted/angenommen:
June
10,
1989
C
Grosse
Verlag
Berlin
1989
Dermatophytes
and
Keratinophilic
Fungi
in
Cats
and
Dogs
Dermatophyten
und
keratinophile
Pilze
bei
Katzen
und
Hunden
G.
Caretta
l
,
F
Mancianti
2
and
L.
Ajello
3
'Istituto
di
Micologia
Medica,
University
di
Pavia,
Italy
2
Dipartimento
di
Patologia
Animale,
Facolta
di
Medicina
Veterinaria,
University
di
Pisa,
Italy
3
Division
of
Mycotic
Diseases,
Center
for
Infectious
Diseases,
Centers
for
Disease
Control,
Public
Health
Service,
U.S.
Department
of
Health
and
Human
Services,
Atlanta,
Georgia,
U.S.A.
Key
words:
Dermatophytes
keratinophilic
fungi
cat
dog
Schliisselworter:
Dermatophyten
keratinophile
Pilze
Katze
Hund
Summary:
During
an
11
month
period
from
January
to
November
1987,
dermatophytes
and
keratinophilic
fungi
were
isolated
from
70
(75
%)
of
93
cats
and
62
(36.9
%)
of
168
dogs.
The
most
common
isolate
was
Microspo-
rum
canis
from
54
(58
%)
cats
and
33
(19.6
%)
dogs,
followed
by
Trichophyton
mentagrophytes
from
5
(5.4
%)
cats
and
9
(5.3
%)
dogs,
Aphanoascus
fulvescens
(4
cats
and
9
dogs),
M.
gypseum
(5
dogs),
Tr.
terrestre
(3
dogs)
Myceliophthora
vellerea
(2
dogs)
and
Chrysosporium
indicum,
Chr.
merdarium
and
Chr.
tropicum
from
cats.
Alternaria,
Scopulariopsis,
Penicillium,
Cladosporium,
Aspergillus
and
Acre-
monium
spp.,
in
descending
frequency,
were
the
most
commonly
found
fungi
in
cats
and
dogs.
The
frequent
infestation
by
the
mite
Tyrophagus
putrescentiae
on
M.
canis
cul-
tures
suggest
that
mites
may
play
a
part
in
the
carriage
of
fungi
among
animals.
This
mycophagous
mite
could
disperse
the
fungi
in
animal
hair
by
way
of
their
fecal
pellets
during
a
transitory
infestation.
In
this
instance,
the
female
mite
can
lay
eggs
and
these
could
hatch
on
the
animal's
hair
or
in
Petri
dishes
in
which
hair
samples
are
cul-
tured.
In
this
event
the
future
prospects
of
ani-
mal
prophylaxis
against
dermatophytes
could
be
made
more
effective
by
the
regular
use
of
acaricide
agents
on
animal
hair.
Zusammenfassung:
Seit
Januar
1987
wur-
den
innerhalb
von
11
Monaten
Dermato-
phyten
und
keratinophile
Pilze
bei
70
(75
%)
von
93
Katzen
und
bei
62
(36,9
%)
von
168
Hunden
isoliert
worden.
Am
hau-
figsten
wurde
Microsporum
canis
bei
54
(58
%)
Katzen
und
33
(19,6
%)
Hunden
iso-
liert,
gefolgt
von
Trichophyton
mentagro-
phytes
bei
5
(5,4
%)
Katzen
und
9
(5,3
%)
Hunden,
Aphanoascus
fulvescens
(4
Kat-
zen
und
9
Hunden),
M.
gypseum
(5
Hun-
den),
Tr.
terrestre
(3
Hunden),
Myceliopht-
hora
vellerea
(2
Hunden)
und
Chrysospo-
rium
indicum,
Chr.
merdarium,
Chr.
tropi-
cum
bei
Katzen.
Alternaria,
Scopulariopsis,
Penicillium,
Cladosporium,
Aspergillus
und
Acremo-
nium
waren
mit
abnehmender
Frequenz
die
Pilze,
die
am
meisten
bei
Katzen
und
Hun-
den
gefunden
wurden.
Das
haufige
Auftre-
-
620
G.
Caretta
et
al.:
Keratinophilic
Fungi
in
Cats
and
Dogs
ten
der
Milbe
Tyrophagus
putrescentiae
in
Kulturen
von
M.
canisdeutet
darauf
h
in,
&II
die
Milben
bei
der
Ubertragung
von
Pilzen
zwischen
Tieren
eine
Rolle
spielen.
Diese
mykophage
Milbe
kann
den
Pilz
im
Fell
eines
Tieres
wahrend
einer
vorubergehen-
den
Infestation
fiber
den
eigenen
Kot
ver-
breiten:
Eier,
vom
Milbenweibchen
gelegt,
kiinnen
im
Fell
des
Tieres
oder
auf
Petri-
schalen
mit
Pilzkulturen
von
Fellproben
zum
Schliipfen
gelangen.
In
diesem
Fall
sollte
fiir
kiinftige
prophy-
laktische
Malinahmen
gegen
Dermatophy-
ten
an
Tieren
die
Einbeziehung
akarizider
Wirkstoffe
erwogen
werden.
Introduction
The
presence
of
dermatophytes
on
wild
and
domestic
animals
is
now
well
recognized
and
has
been
briefly
reviewed
by
Ajello
(1974)
and
Ozegovic
(1980).
Cats
and
dogs
have
been
suspected
to
be
the
most
important
carriers
of
zoophilic
dermatophytes
to
which
the
fungi
are
adapted
to
such
a
high
degree,
that
these
ani-
mals
are
considered
by
some
investigators
to
be
their
natural
hosts
(Dvorak
and
Otce-
nasek,
1982).
It
is
also
known
that
these
animals
with
no
clinical
signs
of
disease
may
act
as
potential
sources
of
human
infections.
However
it
is
not
always
clear
in
what
form
those
organ-
isms
are
present
on
their
bodies.
The
present
paper
reports
the
results
of
an
extensive
survey
of
dermatophytes
on
the
coats
of
cats
and
dogs
in
the
regional
area
of
Tuscany,
Italy,
in
the
period
of
January
to
November
1987.
Materials
and
Methods
The
168
dogs
and
93
cats,
referred
to
the
Department
of
Animal
Pathology,
Veteri-
nary
Medicine,
Pisa
University
with
sus-
pected
fungal
disease
were
subjected
to
a
standard
investigative
procedure.
The
ani-
mals
were
sampled
by
brushing
their
hair
coats
with
a
sterile
fine
metal
comb
(Mac-
kenzie,
1963).
All
specimens
from
these
animals
were
examined
under
the
Wood's
lamp
(Ultraviolet
radiation)
and
inspected
by
direct
microscopy
for
ectoparasites
in
addition
to
dermatophytes.
Isolation
of
dermatophytes
and
keratino-
philic
fungi
was
made
by
placing
fragments
of
the
material
onto
the
surface
of
Sabou-
raud's
dextrose
agar
(containing
20
units
of
penicillin,
40
of
streptomycin,
0.05
mg
chloramphenicol
and
0.5
mg
cyclohexi-
mide/m1).
The
Petri
dishes
were
incubated
at
28
°C.
Cultures
were
examined
every
few
days
and
not
discarded
until
the
fourth
month.
Subcultures
were
made
as
required
on
Sabouraud's,
cornmeal
agar
with
1
%
dextrose
and
Emerson's
agar
medium.
Results
The
zoophilic,
geophilic
and
other
kerati-
nophilic
fungi
that
were
isolated
from
the
cats
and
dogs
and
their
relative
prevalences
are
shown
in
Table
1.
Dermatophytes
and
keratinophilic
fungi
were
isolated
from
70
(75
%)
out
of
93
cats
and
62
(36.9
%)
out
of
168
dogs.
Zoophilic
dermatophytes
M.
canis
and
Tr.
mentagrophytes
were
obtained
from
59
(63.4
%)
of
the
93
cats
examined
and
from
42
(25
%)
of
the
168
dogs.
Microsporum
canis
was
the
most
frequently
recorded
species.
This
fungus
was
found
in
58
%
of
the
cats
and
in
19.6
%
of
the
dogs.
Among
these
animals
only
3
cats
showed
signs
of
fungal
infection
on
this
facial
area.
One
of
these
cats
failed
to
fluoresce
under
filtered
ultra-violet
light.
Trichophyton
mentagro-
phytes
was
recovered
from
5
(5.4
%)
cats
and
9
(5.3
`
3
/0)
dogs.
Five
of
these
dogs
showed
obvious
signs
of
infection
(areas
of
alopecia)
and
their
hair,
when
microscopi-
cally
was
found
to
have
been
invaded
by
Tr
mentagrophytes.
Geophilic
dermatophytes
of
the
M.
gyp-
seum
complex
and
Tr
terrestre
were
found
621
Table
1:
Dermatophytes
and
keratinophilic
fungi
isolated
from
the
hair
of
cats
and
dogs.
Cats
of
animals
examined
93
of
positive
animals
70
(75%)
Dogs
168
62
(36.9%)
Species
isolated
:
Aphanoascus
fulvescens
(Cooke)
Apinis
4
(4.3
%)
9
(5.3
%)
Chrysosporium
indicum
(Randhawa
&
Sandhu)
Garg
3
(3.2%)
0
Chr
merdarium
(Link
ex
Grey.)
Carmichael
2
(2.1
%)
0
Chr
tropicum
Carmichael
2
(2.1
%)
1
(0.6%)
Microsporum
canis
Bodin
54
(58%)
33
(19.6%)
M.
gypseum
(Bodin)
Guiart
&
Gregorakis
0
5(3%)
Myceliophthora
vellerea
(Sacc.
&
Speg.)
Von
Oorschot
0
2
(1.2%)
Trichophyton
mentagro-
phytes
(Robin)
Blanchard
5
(5.4%)
9
(5.3%)
Tr
terrestre
Dune
&
Frey
0
3
(1.7%)
Acremonium
sp.
5
(5.3%)
4
Alternaria
sp.
37
(39.8%)
98
(58%)
Aspergillus
sp.
12(13%)
26
(15.4
%)
Beauveria
sp.
2
(2.1
%)
7
(4.1
%)
Botriotrichum
sp.
0
1
(0.6%)
Candida
sp.
0
1
(0.6%)
Chaetomium
sp.
1
(1.05%)
2
(1.2%)
Cladosporium
sp.
19
(20.4
%)
34
(20.2
%)
Geotrichum
sp.
70
(75
%)
1(0.6%)
Fusarium
sp.
3
(3.2%)
2(1.2%)
Paecilomyces
sp.
0
4
(14
%)
Papulaspora
sp.
0
1(0.6%)
Penicillium
sp.
21
(22.5
%)
31
(18.4
%)
Rhodotorula
sp.
0
1
(0.6%)
Scopulariopsis
sp.
30
(32.2%)
49
(29%)
Stachibotrys
sp.
2
(3.2%)
1
(0.6%)
Syncephalastrum
sp.
1
(1.05%)
0
Trichoderma
sp.
2
(3.2%)
1
(0.6%)
Verticillium
sp.
0
6
(3.5%)
G.
Caretta
et
al.:
Keratinophilic
Fungi
in
Cats
and
Dogs
only
in
3
%
and
1.7
`)/0
of
the
dogs
respec-
tively.
Of
the
keratinophilic
fungi
recorded,
Aphanoascus
fulvescens
was
found
to
be
common
on
cats
(4.3
%)
and
on
dogs
(5.3
%).
Its
conidial
state
(Chrysosporium
keratinophilum)
was
prevalent
on
cats
only.
Occasionally
a
few
other
species
of
the
genus
Chrysosporium
were
isolated.
Chry-
sosporium
tropicum,
Chr.
merdarium
and
Chr
indicum
were
isolated
from
3
cats;
Myceliophthora
vellerea
(=
Chr
asperatum)
and
Chr
tropicum
from
2
and
1
dogs
respec-
tively.
Many
other
fungi
colonizing
the
hair
of
the
cats
and
dogs
were
recorded.
Alternaria,
Scopulariopsis,
Penicillium,
Cladosporium,
Aspergillus
and
Acremonium
spp.,
in
descending
frequency,
were
the
most
com-
monly
found
fungi
in
cats
and
dogs.
Of
these
cycloheximide-resistent
keratinophilic
fungi,
Scopulariopsis
was
found
to
be
not
markedly
different
in
occurrence
on
cats
(32.2
%)
and
dogs
(29
%).
Of
the
other
fungi
usually
considered
as
contaminants,
Alternaria
spp.
were
found
in
58
%
of
the
dogs
and
in
39.8
%
of
the
cats;
Penicillium
and
Cladosporium
spp.
were
found
to
be
not
markedly
different
in
occur-
rence
(20
%
abt.)
in
both
animals.
In
view
of
the
frequency
with
which
these
fungi
occur
on
various
substrates
in
nature,
their
presence
in
quantity
is
perhaps
not
surpris-
ing.
In
most
instances
these
moulds
were
isolated
in
Petri
dishes
mixed
with
M.
canis.
It
is
worth
including
among
the
results
of
this
study
the
frequent
contamination
by
mites
identified
as
Tyrophagus
putrescentiae
Schrank.
They
were
observed
in
Petri
dishes
with
the
prevailing
growth
of
M.
canis.
In
cultures
of
this
fungi,
numerous
mites
were
seen
by
direct
steromicroscopy
after
6-8
weeks
(Figures
1
and
2).
Discussion
Microsporum
and
Trichophyton
were
the
two
major
genera
of
zoophilic
fungi
isolated
from
both
animals,
yet
the
relative
import-
ance
of
individual
genera
and
species
varied
considerably
between
the
two
groups.
Microsporum
canis
was
more
regularly
isolated
from
cats
(58
%)
than
from
dogs
(19.6
%)
while
Tr.
mentagrophytes
was
iso-
lated
less
frequently
from
both
animals
(5.4
%).
The
geophilic
M.
gypseum
(3
%)
and
Tr.
terrestre
(1.7
%)
were
recorded
only
from
622
$0
'
*•
VI
-:
1
.
G.
Caretta
et
al.:
Keratinophilic
Fungi
in
Cats
and
Dogs
Ec4
.
r
r
lj
.';
;),-•
-.•
-•
A
IIIr
4
r
"
de
e
..
Figure
1:
Mites
(adults)
in
a
Microsporum
canis
culture.
4".
lk
*
4141
4 ,
/
,7
01
gl
'
,I
A
,
.
ties
V
9.
4
e•
,
L4
k ,
1.
ra3
4
-
1
2
,
Lima_
k
Figure
2:
Tyrophagus
putrescentiae
mounted
in
lactophenol
X
110.
623
G.
Caretta
et
al.:
Keratinophilic
Fungi
in
Cats
and
Dogs
dogs.
Aphanoascus
fulvescens
was
not
infre-
quently
isolated
from
cats
(4.3
%)
and
dogs
(5.3
%).
Our
data
on
the
occurrence
of
zoo-
and
geophilic
dermatophytes
in
cats
and
dogs,
agree
with
those
of
other
investigators
(Weiss
and
Weber,
1983;
McAleer,
1980).
McAleer
in
the
metropolitan
area
of
Perth
(Australia)
recorded
that
M.
canis
was
the
only
fungus
isolated
from
cats.
Dermato-
phyte
infections
in
dogs
were
less
common
and
were
caused
by
M.
canis,
M.
gypseum
and
Tr.
mentagrophytes.
Microsporum
canis
was
most
commonly
isolated
from
cats
and
dogs
by
Carman
et
al.
(1979)
in
the
North
Island
of
New
Zealand.
Piontelli
and
Toro
(1987),
in
the
metro-
politan
area
of
Valparaiso
(Chile),
showed
the
occurrence
of
M.
canis
in
16
%
of
cats
and
only
in
4.2
`)/0
of
dogs
that
were
clinically
normal.
The
geophilic
species
Tr.
terrestre
and
Tr
ajelloi
were
found
to
occur
fre-
quently
on
dogs.
In
England
Quaife
and
Womar
(1982)
showed
that
up
to
35
%
of
long-haired,
asymptomatic
cats
were
infected
by
M.
canis.
In
M.
canis
and
Tr.
mentagrophytes
there
are
great
regional
differences
in
frequency
and
distribution.
The
percentage
of
Tr.
men-
tagrophytes
in
dogs
in
England
and
Brazil
is
especially
high,
while
this
species
is
rare
in
Yugoslavia
and
completely
absent
in
cats
in
Greece
(Male
et
al.,
1980).
From
276
cats
examined
in
seven
cat-
teries
in
Finland
by
Aho
et
al.
(1987),
none
of
them
yielded
M.
canis,
while
Tr.
terrestre
was
isolated
from
twenty
(7.2
%)
of
the
cats.
The
geophilic
species
Tr
terrestre
and
A.
fulvescens
are
not
considered
to
be
pathogenic.
These
fungi
showing
an
affinity
for
dogs,
represent
contamination
of
the
hair
by
soil.
The
numerous
isolates
of
Alternaria
and
Scopulariopsis
spp.
cultured
from
dogs
and
cats
also
represent
contamination
of
the
hair
by
soil.
These
moulds
are
generally
con-
sidered
to
be
ubiquitous
saprophytes
occur-
ring
on
a
wide
variety
of
substrates.
How-
ever,
they
are
occasionally
reported
as
pathogens
on
humans
and
animals
(Rippon,
1982;
Aho,
1983).
English
(1965)
demon-
strated
the
ability
to
disintegrate
human
hair
in
a
variety
of
normally
saprophytic
species,
among
which
were
Alternaria
and
Scopula-
riopsis
spp.
The
most
common
genera
of
these
contaminant
fungi
isolated
in
this
study,
were
basically
the
same
as
those
described
by
Aho
(1983)
and
Piontelli
&
Toro
(1987)
in
cats
and
dogs.
Of
special
interest
in
cats
and
dogs
exam-
ined
for
the
presence
of
dermatopathogenic
fungi
is
related
to
the
fact
that
these
animals
are
capable
of
carrying
ringworm
fungi
saprophytically.
They
are
suspected
of
being
the
source
of
infection
in
human
cases
of
ringworm.
In
Austria,
human
dermatomycoses,
which
could
be
proven
to
have
originated
from
dogs
or
cats
in
1960,
were
caused
by
Tr.
mentagrophytes
in
66
%
and
M.
canis
in
29
%
of
cases.
During
1968-1971
the
figures
were
78
%
and
19
%
while
during
1975-78
they
were
16
%
and
83
%
respec-
tively
(Male
et
al.,
1980).
The
transmission
of
dermatophytes
to
humans
from
both
dogs
and
cats
is
usually
by
direct
contact
and
indirectly
through
fun-
gus-bearing
hair
and
scales
from
infected
animals.
Data
relating
to
their
distribution
among
and
on
living
animals
are
based
on
disease
incidence,
but
their
ecology
is
beset
with
major
difficulties.
Tr.
mentagrophytes
occurs
world-wide.
M.
canis
is
frequently
associated
with
cats,
the
most
important
asymptomatic
carriers
of
this
zooanthropo-
philic
species.
Important
in
the
carriage
and
distribution
of
dermatophytes
among
animals
for
Aust-
wick
(1968)
are
the
spiral
hyphal
append-
ages
of
sexual
and
asexual
reproductive
structures;
the
ease
with
which
these
spirals
can
become
attached
to
the
hair
of
small
rodents
and
insectivores
could
be
an
important
epidemiological
factor.
In
our
opinion,
mites
may
play
a
part
in
the
carriage
and
distribution
of
geo-
and
624
G.
Caretta
et
al.:
Keratinophilic
Fungi
in
Cats
and
Dogs
zoophilic
dermatophytes
among
animals.
The
occurrence
of
Tr.
rnentagrophytes
and
the
ectoparasite
in
dogs
was
recorded
by
Kamyszek
(1984).
The
life
cycle
of
Tyrophagus
putrescentiae
lasts
2-3
weeks
at
23
°C
at
a
relative
humidity
of
87
%
(Hughes,
1961).
At
tem-
perature
values
ranging
from
to
26
°C
and
at
a
relative
humidity
of
between
95
%
and
100
%
mites
appear
to
complete
a
generation
in
about
12
days
in
summer
time,
in
3
weeks
at
17
°C
and
in
about
8
weeks
at
11
°C
(Rivard,
1961a,
1961b;
Kevan
and
Sharma,
1963).
The
best
season
for
laying
eggs
and
reproduction
by
these
mites
is
the
end
of
spring
and
the
beginning
of
summer.
They
may
even
mate
at
2
°C,
but
very
few
eggs
are
layed
at
that
temperature.
The
period
of
major
production
of
eggs
(about
437
by
every
female)
is
when
the
tempera-
ture
reaches
17
°C.
At
this
temperature
after
one
week
some
eggs
hatch
but
the
highest
percentage
of
hatching
(93-97
`)/0)
occurs
at
26
°C.
In
the
present
study
the
association
of
Tyr.
putrescentiae
with
M.
canis
in
Petri
dishes
in
which
dog
and
cat
hair
sample
were
cul-
tured,
could
be
related
to
the
presence
of
the
fungus
and
of
eggs
of
this
ectoparasite
in
the
hair
of
asymptomatic
cats
and
dogs.
In
this
instance
the
fungal
infection
or
dispersion
is
secondary
to
the
infestation
of
these
animals
by
this
mycophagus
mite.
During
this
transi-
tory
infestation,
the
female
mite
can
lay
eggs.
At
suitable
temperature
and
humidity
con-
ditions,
the
eggs
could
hatch
on
the
animal's
hair,
as
they
do
in
Petri
dishes
in
which
hair
samples
have
been
cultured.
In
this
event
the
mite
implicated
in
the
fungal
infection
or
dispersion,
appears
after
6-8
weeks.
In
ani-
mal
hair,
Tyr.
putrescentiae
could
disperse
the
fungus
by
way
of
its
fecal
pellets
or
by
passive
carriage
of
conidia
which
adhere
to
its
cuticle.
Tyrophagus
putrescentiae,
which
is
a
com-
mon
pest
in
laboratory
fungal
culture,
fed
on
twenty-two
of
twenty-four
species
of
stor-
age
fungi
tested
by
Sinha
(1984).
This mite
species
can
also
feed
on
a
variety
of
veget-
able
matter
as
well
(Hughes,
1976).
In
nature
this
species
and
other
mites
can
feed
on
various
fungal
species
among
which
on
the
dermatophytes
(Geeraerts,
1976)
colo-
nizing
keratinaceous
substrates
in
soil.
Although
we
have
observed
an
associ-
ation
of
Tyr.
putrescentiae
and
M.
canis,
in
which
the
fungus
serves
in
nature
as
food
for
the
mite
and
the
mite
as
a
phoront
for
the
fungus,
additional
information
concerning
this
hypothesis
needs
to
be
obtained.
In
this
event,
the
future
prospects
of
ani-
mal
prophylaxis
against
dermatophytes
could
be
rendered
more
advantageous
by
the
regular
use
of
acaricidal
agents
on
ani-
mal
fur
and
not
by
a
fungicide,
even
if
the
control
of
mites
is
not
easy
and
the
control
of
mite
eggs
is
more
difficult
than
that
of
adult
mites.
Acknowledgements:
This
work
was
sup-
ported
by
the
Ministero
della
Pubblica
Istruzione,
Italy.
The
technical
assistence
of
Mrs.
Gloria
Della
Volpe
and
Mr.
Luigi
Morandi
is
appreciated.
References
1.
Achten,
G.,
J.
Wanet-Rouard,
F.
van
Hoof
(1979):
Les
onychomycoses
a
moisissures.
Dermato-
logica
159,
128-149.
2.
Aho,
R.
(1983):
Saprophytic
fungi
isolated
from
the
hair
of
domestic
and
laboratory
animals
with
suspected
dermatophytosis.
Mycopathologia
83,
65-73.
3.
Aho,
R.,
A.A.
Padhye,
L.
Ajello
(1987):
Myco-
logical
and
epidemiological
studies
on
Trichophy-
ton
terrestre
in
cats.
Mykosen
30,
157-165.
4.
Ajello,
L.
(1974):
Natural
history
of
the
dermato-
phytes
and
related
fungi.
Mycopathol.
Mycol.
appl.
53,
93-110.
5.
Austwick,
P.K.C.
(1968):
Mycotic
infections.
Symp.
tool.
Soc.
Lond.
No.
24,
249-271.
6.
Carman,
M.G.,
F.M.
Rush-Munro,
E.M.
Carter
(1979):
Dermatophytes
isolated
from
domestic
and
feral
animals.
N.Z.
Vet.
J.
27,
136
and
143-4.
7.
Dvofak,
J.,
M.
Otoenagek
(1982):
Natural
rela-
tionship
of
dermatophytes
to
the
milieu
of
their
existence.
A
review.
Mykosen
25,
197-209.
8.
English,
M.P.
(1965):
The
saprophytic
growth
of
non-keratinophilic
fungi
on
keratinized
substrate
and
comparison
with
keratinophilic
fungi.
Trans.
Brit.
Mycol.
Soc.
48,
219-235.
625
G.
Caretta
et
al.:
Keratinophilic
Fungi
in
Cats
and
Dogs
9.
Geeraerts,
J.
(1976).
Etude
par
le
test
en
croix
de
l'attraction
de
differentes
souches
de
Microspo-
rum
langeroni
et
de
Microsporum
audouinii
sur
Tyrophagus
putrescentiae
(Acarina:
Acaridae).
Bull.
Soc.
Fr.
Mycol.
med.
5,
137-140.
10.
Hughes,
A.M.
(1961):
The
mites
of
stored
food.
Ministry
Agr.
Fish.
&
Food
(London),
Tech.
Bull.
9,
287
p.
11.
Kamyszek,
E
(1984):
Badania
nad
ekstensywnos-
cia
inwazji
ektopasozytow
i
dermatofitow
u
psow
na
terenie
Poznania
w
latach
1978-1982.
Medy-
cyna
Weterynaryjna
40,
299-302.
12.
Kevan,
Mc
E.D.K.,
G.D.
Sharma
(1963).
The
effects
of
low
temperatures
on
Tyrophagus
putres-
centiae.
In:
Advances
in
Acarology,
vol.
I,
J.A.
Naegele
(ed.)
Comstock
Publ.
Assoc.
112,
130.
13.
Mackenzie,
D.W.R.
(1963):
"Hairbrush
diag-
nosis"
in
detection
and
eradication
of
non-fluo-
rescent
scalp
ringworm.
Brit.
med.
J.
2,
363-365.
14.
Male,
0.,
J.
Thurner,
W.
Jaksch
(1980):
Dog
and
cat
as
sources
of
human
dermatomycoses.
pp.
353-360.1n:
Preusser
(eds.)
Medical
Mycology.
Zbl.
Bakt.
Suppl.
8,
Gustav Fischer
Verlag,
Stutt-
gart,
N.Y..
15.
McAleer,
R.
(1980):
Keratinophilic
fungi
on
four
animal
groups.
Austral.
Vet.
J.
56,
387-390.
16.
McAleer,
R.
(1980):
Zoophilic
dermatophytes
and
their
natural
hosts
in
Western
Australia.
Med.
J.
Austral.
2,
506-508.
17.
Oteenakk,
M.
(1978):
Ecology
of
the
dermato-
phytes.
Mycopathologia
65,
67-72.
18.
Oiegovia,
L.
(1980):
Wild
animals
as
reservoirs
of
human
pathogenic
dermatophytes.
pp.
369-380.
In:
Preusser
(eds.)
Medical
Mycology.
Zbl.
Bakt.
Suppl.
8,
Gustav
Fischer
Verlag,
Stuttgart,
N.Y..
19.
Piontelli,
E.L.,
M.A.
Toro
(1987):
Los
animales
domesticos
(perros
y
gatos)
como
reservorio
fun-
gino.
Boletin
Micol.
4,
149-158.
20.
Quaife,
R.A.,
S.M.
Womar
(1982):
Microsporum
canis
isolations
from
show
cats.
Vet.
Rec.
110,
333-334.
21.
Rippon,
J.W.
(1982):
Medical
Mycology.
Saunders,
Philadelphia.
22.
Rivard,
I.
(1961a):
Influence
of
temperature
and
humidity
on
mortality
and
rate
of
development
of
immature
stages
of
the
mite
Tyrophagus
putrescen-
tiae
(Schrank)
(Acarina
:
Acaridae)
reared
on
mold
cultures.
Can.
J.
Zool.
39,
419-426.
23.
Rivard,
I.
(1961b):
Influence
of
the
temperature
and
humidity
on
longevity,
fecundity
and
rate
of
increase
of
the
mite
Tyrophagus
putrescentiae
(Schrank)
(Acarina
:
Acaridae)
reared
on
mold
cultures.
Can.
J.
Zool.
39,
869-876.
24.
Weiss,
R.,
A.
Weber
(1983):
Kultureller
Nachweis
von
Dermatomykoseerregern
bei
Heimtieren
mit
Hautveranderungen.
Praktische
Tierarzt
64,
827-830.
Correspondence:
Prof.
Dr.
Giuseppe
Caretta,
Istituto
di
Micologia
Medica,
University
di
Pavia,
Via
S.
Epifanio,
14,1-27100
Pavia,
Italy.
-
626
-