A general survey of the helminth parasites of fish from inland waters in the Fayoum Governorate, Egypt


Al-Bassel, D.A.H.M.

Parasitology Research 90(2): 135-139

2003


During the present investigation, 450 fishes belonging to seven genera and seven species were examined for helminth parasites. Of these, 216 fishes (48%) were found to harbour Acanthocephala (14%), cestodes (16.22%), Digenea (10.66%), Monogenea (1.77%), or nematodes (6.22%). The species richness and intensity of infections are given. Results summarized from nine studies on the helminth parasites of fish from inland waters are presented. The incidence of infection is reported and compared in host/parasite lists.

Parasitol
Res
(2003)
90:
135-139
DOI
10.1007/s00436-001-0558-3
ORIGINAL
PAPER
Dayhoum
A.H.M.
Al-Bassel
A
general
survey
of
the
helminth parasites
of
fish
from
inland
waters
in
the
Fayoum
Governorate,
Egypt
Received:
8
November
2001
/
Accepted:
20
November
2001
/
Published
online:
14
February
2003
©
Springer-Verlag
2003
Abstract
During
the
present
investigation,
450
fishes
belonging
to
seven
genera
and
seven
species
were
ex-
amined
for
helminth
parasites.
Of
these,
216
fishes
(48%)
were
found
to
harbour
Acanthocephala
(14%),
cestodes
(16.22%),
Digenea
(10.66%),
Monogenea
(1.77%),
or
nematodes
(6.22%).
The
species
richness
and
intensity
of
infections
are
given.
Results
summa-
rized
from
nine
studies
on
the
helminth
parasites
of
fish
from
inland
waters
are
presented.
The
incidence
of
in-
fection
is
reported
and
compared
in
host/parasite
lists.
Introduction
In
Egypt,
there
are
nine
lakes
and
about
1,300
fish
farms,
distributed
all
over
the
country.
Lakes
Barda-
weel,
Burullus,
Edku,
Manzala,
Maryut,
Port-Foad
and
Wadi
Al-Raiyan
contain
brackish
water,
Lake
Nasser
has
fresh
water
and
lake
Qarun
has
salt
water.
The
Delta
Governmental
fish
farms
Al-Abassa,
Al-Manzala,
Al-Zawya,
Barseek
and
Maryut
have
brackish
water
and
Al-Rasswa
is
filled
with
salt
water.
Fayoum
fish
farms
use
brackish
water.
The
parasites
of
fish
from
inland
waters
in
Egypt
have
been
studied
by
several
investigators
(Imam
1971;
Wannas
1977;
Mohammed
1978;
Hassan
1980;
Sahlab
1982;
Abo
Al-Hag
1985;
Al-Bassel
1987,
1990;
Negm-Eldin
1987;
Abo
El-Ez
1988).
Three
localities,
Lake
Qarun
(a
closed
basin,
water
level
about
44
m
below
mean
sea
level
and
occupying
the
deepest
part
of
the
Fayoum
depression
in
the
Western
Desert),
Bahr
Youssef
(a
small
branch
of
the
Nile,
the
main
fresh
water
supply
of
the
Fayoum
Governorate)
and
the
Fa-
youm
fish
farms
situated
close
to
Lake
Qarun
were
se-
lected
as
sites
for
the
present
work.
D.A.H.M.
Al-Bassel
Department
of
Zoology,
Faculty
of
Science,
Cairo
University,
Fayoum
Branch,
Fayoum,
Egypt
E-mail:
Materials
and
methods
Most
of
the
fishes
collected
from
the
three
localities
were
captured
alive
and
were
examined
for
helminth
parasites
as
soon
as
possible.
Obtained
cestodes
and
trematodes
were
first
relaxed
and
then
fixed
in
hot
70%
alcohol
or
5%
formalin.
Worms
were
then
stained
using
aceto-alum-carmine
stain.
Nematodes
were
fixed
in
hot
70%
alcohol
and
cleared
in
lactophenol.
Acanthocephala
were
put
in
the
refrigerator
before
being
fixed
in
5%
formalin.
Drawings
were
made
using
a
camera
lucida.
The
name
of
each
fish
was
identified
according
to
Boulenger
(1907).
Results
and
discussion
Incidence
of
helmintic
groups
in
the
fishes
of
the
three
different
locations
Trematode
infections
Monogenea
were
found
only
in
Tilapia
galilaea
from
Fayoum
fish
farms;
and
their
incidence
was
1.77%
(Table
1).
Recent
surveys
on
the
helminth
parasites
of
Tilapia
spp
in
different
localities
in
Egypt
failed
to
demonstrate
these
parasites
(Wannas
1977;
Hassan
1980;
Sahlab
1982;
Abo
Al-Hag
1985;
Al-Bassel
1987;
Negm-Eldin
1987;
Table
2).
Al-Bassel
(1990)
rede-
scribed
these
parasites
from
T.
nilotica
from
the
fish
farm
Maryut
in
Egypt,
with
an
incidence
of
0.58%.
Although
the
present
work
did
not
include
the
inves-
tigation
of
encysted
metacercariae,
these
parasites
were
reported
by
several
investigators
from
the
Nile:
El-Aroussi
(1984)
from
Clarias
lazera
with
an
incidence
of
60.66%,
El-Naffar
and
El-Shahawy
(1986)
from
C.
lazera,
Mormyrus
kannume
and
T.
galilaea,
with
an
incidence
of
90.89%,
76%
and
71.51%,
respectively,
and
El-Dally
(1988)
from
C.
lazera,
with
an
incidence
of
71.25%.
Al-Bassel
(1990)
reported
encysted
metacercariae
from
C.
lazera,
Schilbe
mystus
and
T.
galilaea
from
Lake
Nas-
ser,
with
an
incidence
of
70%,
92%
and
82%,
respectively.
Digenean
infections
were
reported
in
C.
lazera,
Mugil
capito
and
Synodontis
schall.
The
incidence
(30%)
in
136
Table
1
Incidence
of
helminth
parasites
in
fish
at
different
localities
in
Egypt
Fish
species
Locality
Total
examined
No.
Total
infected
Trematoda
Cestoda
Nematoda
Acanthocephala
Monogenea
Digenea
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Mugil
capito
Lake
Qarun
50
15
30
0 0
15
30
0
0 0
0
0 0
Fayoum
fish
farms
50
23
40
0 0
20
40
0
0 0
0
0 0
Tilapia
galiktea
Bahr
Youssef
50
45
90
0 0 0 0
0
0
5
10
40
80
Fayoum
fish
farms
50
12
24
8
16
0 0
0
0 0
0
4
8
Clarias
lazera
Bahr
Youssef
50
16
32
0 0
7
14
6
12
3
6
0 0
Barbus
bynni
Bahr
Youssef
50
25
50
0 0 0 0
25
50
0
0
0 0
Lates
nibticus
Bahr
Youssef
50
26
52
0 0 0 0
0
0
10
20
16
32
Synodontis
schall
Bahr
Youssef
50
12
24
0
0
6
12
2
4
4
8
0 0
Mormyrus
kannume
Bahr
Youssef
50
46
92
0 0 0 0
40
80
6
12
0 0
Table
2
The
incidence
of
helminth
parasites
in
freshwater
fish
from
different
localities
in
Egypt.
Acanth.
Acanthocephala,
Cest.
cestodes,
Digen.
digenetic
trematodes,
Monog.
Monogenea,
Nema.
Nematoda
Fish
Author
Locality
Total
examined
Total
infected
(%)
Monog.
(%)
Digen.
Cest.
Nema.
Acanth.
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
Tilapia
galiktea
Wannas
(1977)
Lake
Nasser
40
100.0
0.0
62.5
0.0
20.0
100.0
Hassan
(1980)
Lake
Nasser
200
50.0
0.0 0.0
0.0
46.0
43.0
Abo
Al-Hag
(1985)
Nile,
in
Sharkiya
10
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Al-Bassel
(1987)
Lake
Wadi
Al-Rayin
18
22.2
0.0 0.0
0.0
0.0
22.2
Al-Bassel
(1990)
Lake
Nasser
50
100.0
0.0 0.0
0.0
100.0
10.0
Clarias
lazera
Wannas
(1977)
Lake
Nasser
20
15.0
0.0 0.0
5.0
0.0
0.0
Mohammed
(1978)
Nile,
near
Cairo
24
81.3
0.0
81.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
Hassan
(1980)
Lake
Nasser
50
82.0
0.0
44.0
62.0
6.0
0.0
Sahlab
(1982)
Lake
Manzala
66
68.1
0.0
30.3
15.2
22.7
0.0
Abo
Al-Hag
(1985)
Nile,
in
Sharkiya
86
68.6
0.0
56.9
12.7
12.7
0.0
Al-Bassel
(1987)
Lake
Wadi
Al-Raiyan
86
17.4
0.0
17.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
Negm-Eldin
(1987)
Nile,
in
Delta
166
85.5
0.0
82.5
16.3
40.4
0.0
Abo
El-Ez
(1988)
Nile,
in
Giza
111
89.2
0.0
75.7
32.4
39.6
0.0
Al-Bassel
(1990)
Lake
Nasser
50
92.0
0.0
32.0
22.0
60.0
0.0
Barbus
bynni
Wannas
(1977)
Lake
Nasser
60
91.6
0.0
53.0
83.3
0.0
0.0
Hassan
(1980)
Lake
Nasser
100
66.0
0.0
38.0
54.0
7.0
0.0
Abo
Al-Hag
(1985)
Nile,
in
Sharkiya
10
20.0
0.0 0.0
0.0
20.0
0.0
Al-Bassel
(1987)
Lake
Wadi
Al-Raiyan
30
13.3
0.0 0.0
13.3
0.0
0.0
Al-Bassel
(1990)
Lake
Nasser
50
70.0
0.0 0.0
52.0
18.0
0.0
Synodontis
schall
Abo
El-Ez
1988
Nile,
in
Giza
72
62.5
0.0
48.6
41.7
8.3
0.0
Al-Bassel
(1990)
Lake
Nasser
50
84.0
0.0
14.0
2.0
68.0
0.0
Lates
niloticus
Abo
El-Ez
(1988)
Nile,
in
Giza
87
64.4
0.0 0.0
0.0
24.1
50.6
Al-Bassel
(1990)
Lake
Nasser
50
98.0
0.0 0.0
0.0
72.0
52.0
Mormyrus
kannume
Al-Bassel
(1990)
Lake
Nasser
100
100.0
0.0 0.0
86.0
42.0
0.0
M.
capito
from
Lake
Qarun
was
less
than
that
in
the
same
species
(40%)
from
Fayoum
fish
farms
and
less
than
the
72.85%
reported
by
Al-Bassel
(1990)
in
the
same
host
from
Lake
Qarun.
This
decrease
in
the
incidence
may
be
due
to
the
increase
in
salinity
and
pollution
influx
into
the
Lake
Qarun
during
the
past
10
years.
Moravec
and
Libosvarsky
(1975)
reported
an
incidence
range
of
15-90%
in
M.
capito
from
Lake
Burullus
in
Egypt.
An
incidence
of
12-14%
was
reported
in
C.
lazera
and
S.
schall
from
Bahr
Youssef
(Table
1).
Digenetic
trema-
todes
were
not
found
in
Barbus
bynnilates
niloticus
and
Mormyrus
kannume.
Imam
(1971)
reported
an
incidence
of
92.4%
in
C.
lazera
and
96.61%
in
S.
schall
from
the
river
Nile.
Various
investigators
reported
different
inci-
dences
in
the
same
fishes
from
further
localities
(Table
2).
Cestode
infections
These
infections
were
reported
from
C.
lazerabarbus
bynni,
M.
kannume
and
S.
schall
from
Bahr
You-
ssef,
their
incidence
reaching
4%,
12%,
50%
and
80%,
respectively
(Table
1).
Al-Bassel
(1990)
described
these
infections
in
the
same
hosts
from
Lake
Nasser,
with
an
incidence
of
2%,
22%,
52%
and
86%
respectively.
Imam
(1971)
described
such
infections
in
B.
bynni,
C.
lazera
and
S.
schall
from
the
Nile
in
Cairo,
their
incidence
being
6%,
41%
and
100%
respectively.
No
cestodes
were
found
in
other
exam-
ined
fishes.
Al-Bassel
(1987)
reported
cestode
infections
in
B.
bynni
from
Lake
Wadi
Al-Raiyan
in
Fayoum,
with
an
incidence
of
13.3%.
Various
investigators
137
reported
cestodes
in
freshwater
fishes
from
different
localities
in
Egypt.
The
incidence
is
shown
in
Table
2.
Nematode
infections
These
infections
are
widely
distributed
in
most
examined
fishes,
except
Mugil
capito
and
B.
bynni,
which
were
free
of
nematodes.
The
highest
incidence
(20%)
was
reported
in
Lates
niloticus
and
the
lowest
(6%)
in
C.
lazera
(Table
1).
Imam
(1971)
observed
nematodes
in
Nile
fishes,
with
an
incidence
of
92.54%
in
S.
schall
and
3.8%
in
Bagrus
bayad.
Various
other
workers
found
nema-
todes
in
freshwater
fishes,
as
shown
in
Table
2.
Acanthocephalan
infections
Such
infections
were
reported
in
L.
niloticus,
M.
capito
and
T.
galilaea.
The
lowest
incidence
was
6%
in
M.
capito
from
Fayoum
fish
farms
and
the
highest
reached
80%
in
T.
galilaea
from
Bahr
Youssef
(Table
1).
Moravec
and
Libosvarsky
(1975)
described
the
lowest
incidence
(5%)
in
M.
capito
and
the
highest
(18.2%)
in
M.
cephalus,
both
fish
originating
from
Lake
Burullus
in
Egypt.
Differences
in
the
incidence
are
compiled
in
Table
2.
With
respect
to
the
incidence
of
specimens
of
the
above-described
four
groups
of
worms,
three
observa-
tions
are
very
important:
1.
Monogenean
infections
were
restricted
to
fresh-wa-
ter
fish
(Tilapia
spp)
from
fish
farms
(Maryut,
Fayoum).
2.
No
cestodes
or
nematodes
were
observed
in
M.
capito.
3.
Acanthocephalan
infections
recorded
in
M.
capito
from
Fayoum
fish
farms
(brackish
water)
were
not
found
in
the
same
fish
species
from
Lake
Qarun
(salt
water).
These
findings
may
be
based
on
the
presence
or
absence
of
appropriate
intermediate
hosts
(e.g.
Dogiel
1962).
Table
3
Intensity
of
infection
and
list
of
parasites
for
the
different
fishes
examined.
The
intensity
is
the
number
of
parasitic
species/fish.
A
Acanthocephala,
C
cestodes,
M
Monogenea,
N
Nematoda,
T
digenetic
trematodes
Fish
Locality
Genus
of
parasite
Species
Intensity
Mugil
capito
Lake
Qarun
Saccocoelium
Looss,
1902
(T)
S.
tensum
Looss,
1902
9-90
S.
obesum
Looss,
1902
9-70
S.
gohari
Al-Bassel,
1987
3-7
S.
saoudi
Al-Bassel,
1990
2-3
Haploporus
Looss,
1902
(1')
H.
laterally
Looss,
1902
1-2
H.
lossii
Al-Bassel,
1990
9-50
H.
benedenii
Looss,
1902
3-5
Lecithobotryes
Looss,
1902
(1')
L.
putrescens
Looss,
1902
8-60
L.
helmymohamedi
Al-Bassel,
1987
4-7
Neohaploporus
Manter,
1963
(T)
N.
qarunenis
Al-Bassel,
1987
1-2
Unicoelium
Thacher
and
Dossmann,
1975
(T)
U.
fayoumensis
Al-Bassel,
1987
2-4
Neosaccocoelium
Al-Bassel,
1990
(T)
N.
aegyptiacus
Al-Bassel,
1990
1-2
Unisaccus
Martin,
1983
(T)
U.
elnaffari
Al-Bassel,
1990
2-3
Haplosplanchus
Looss,
1902
(T)
H.
stunkardi
Gupta
and
Ahmad,
1979
6-9
H.
indica
Gupta
and
Ahmad,
1979
8-9
H.
pachysoma
Looss,
1902
5-30
H.
otolithi
Gupta
and
Ahmad,
1979
3-5
H.
edkuensis
Al-Bassel,
1990
1-2
Saccocoelioides
Szidat,
1954
(T)
S.
elgindyi
Al-Bassel,
1990
2-4
Fayoum
Haplosplanchus
Looss,
1902
(T)
H.
pachysomus
Looss,
1902
5-35
fish
farms
Dicrogaster
Looss,
1902
(T)
D.
contractus
Looss,
1902
4-6
D.
maryutensis
Al-Bassel,
1990
1-2
Saccocoelioides
Szidat,
1954
(T)
S.
magniovatus
Szidat,
1954
1-2
Neoechinorhynchus
Stiles
and
Hassall,
1904
(A)
N.
ichthyobori
Saoud
et
al.,
1974
2-5
Tilapia
galilaea
Bahr
Youssef
Contracaecum
Railliet
and
Henry,
1912
(N)
Contracaecum
larvae
Mayers,
1962
3-5
Acanthosentis
Verma
and
Datta,
1929
(N)
A.
tilapiae
Baylis,
1948
5-8
Fayoum
Gyrodactylus
Nordmann,
1832
(M)
G.
funduli
Hargis,
1955
9-32
fish
farms
Acanthosentis
Verma
and
Datta,
1929
(N)
A.
tilapiae
Baylis,
1948
1-2
Clarias
lazera
Bahr
Youssef
Orientoreadium
Tubangui,
1931
(T)
0.
batracoides
Tubangui,
1931
3-5
Polyonchobothrium
Diesing,
1854
(C)
P.
clarias
Meggitt,
1930
2-4
Procamallanus
Baylis,
1923
(N)
P.
laeviconchus
Baylis,
1923
3-6
Barbus
bynni
Bahr
Youssef
Bothriocephalus
Rudolphi,
1808
(C)
B.
barbus
Fahmy
et
al.,
1978
6-9
Lates
niloticus
Bahr
Youssef
Cucullanus
Mueller,
1777
(N)
C.
barbi
Paperna,
1964
4-6
Paragorgorhynchus
Golvan,
1957
(A)
P.
chariensis
Troncy,
1969
3-5
Synodontis
schall
Bahr
Youssef
Sandonia
McClelland,
1957
(T)
S.
sudanensis
McClelland,
1957
1-2
Wenyonia
Woodland,
1923
(C)
W.
virilis
Woodland,
1923
1
Cithariniella
Khalil,
1964
(N)
C.
citharini
Khalil,
1964
3-4
Mormyrus
kannume
Bahr
Youssef
Proteocephalus
Fuhrmann
and
Baer,
1925
(C)
P.
pentastoma
La-Rue,
1911
2-4
Cucullanus
Mueller,
1777
(N)
C.
barbi
Paperna,
1964
4-6
138
Presence
of
specific
genera
of
parasites
in
fishes
from
the
three
locations
Helminth
parasites
were
identified
to
species
level.
It
is
worth
mentioning
that
double
and
triple
infections
with
specimens
of
the
major
groups
of
helminth
parasites
were
reported
in
all
fish
examined,
except
the
single
in-
fection
with
cestodes
seen
in
B.
bynni
from
Bahr
Youssef
(Table
1).
Infections
of
M.
capito
Nine
genera
and
20
species
of
digenetic
trematodes
were
reported
in
specimens
from
Lake
Qarun,
while
three
genera
and
four
species
were
reported
from
Fayoum
fish
farms.
No
acanthocephalans
were
reported
in
Lake
Qarun,
although
these
parasites
were
found
in
Fayoum
fish
farms
(Table
3).
The
genera
Haplosplanchnus
and
Saccocoelioides
were
found
in
two
localities
(Lake
Qa-
run,
Fayoum
fish
farms).
The
genera
Dicrogaster
and
Neoechinorhynchus
were
restricted
to
Fayoum
fish
farms,
but
the
genera
Haploporus,
Lecithobotryes,
Neo-
haploporus,
Neosaccocoelium,
Saccocoelium,
Unicoelium
and
Unisaccus
were
restricted
to
Lake
Qarun.
The
gen-
era
Haplosplanchnus
and
Saccocoelium
were
the
first
competitors
of
other
trematode
genera
in
Lake
Qarun,
while
the
genera
Dicrogaster
and
Haplosplanchnus
were
the
first
competitors
of
the
other
genera
in
Fayoum
fish
farms
(Table
3).
Infections
with
Haplosplanchnus
and
Saccocoelium
were
more
numerous,
compared
with
other
genera
in
Lake
Qarun.
Here,
the
highest
intensity
of
infections
(9-90
parasites/fish)
was
noted
in
the
case
of
S.
tensum
and
the
lowest
(1-2
parasites/fish)
was
noted
for
H.
edkuensis,
Neohaploporus
qarunensis,
Neosaccocoelium
aegyptiacus
and
S.
portsaidensis.
At
the
Fayoum
fish
farms,
the
highest
intensity
(5-35
par-
asites/fish)
was
recorded
for
infection
with
H.
pachyso-
mus
and
the
lowest
(1-2
parasites/fish)
was
noted
for
S.
magniovatus
(Table
3).
It
is
interesting
to
note
that
all
the
above
recorded
genera
of
trematodes
were
known
from
mullets
in
the
Mediterranean
Sea.
Accordingly,
it
may
be
assumed
that
the
original
specimens
of
Mugil
spp
which
were
transferred
from
the
Mediterranean
Sea
to
Lake
Qarun
must
have
carried
the
parasites.
The
parasites
survived
in
Lake
Qarun
due
to
the
presence
of
suitable
intermediate
hosts
(Al-Bassel
1990).
Infections
of
T.
galilaea
The
acanthocephalan
parasite
Acanthosentis
tilapiae
was
found
in
Bahr
Youssef
and
Fayoum
fish
farms.
The
infection
intensity
ranged
from
1-2
parasites/fish
to
5-8
parasites/fish,
respectively.
The
larvae
of
the
nema-
tode
Contracaecum
were
found
only
in
Bahr
Youssef,
with
an
intensity
of
3-5
parasites/fish.
Al-Bassel
(1990)
reported
the
same
parasite
from
the
same
host
in
Lake
Nasser
with
an
intensity
of
1-25
parasites/fish.
Bahr
Youssef
represented
a
new
locality-record
for
this
par-
asite.
The
monogenean
parasite
Gyrodactylus
funduli
was
found
in
Fayoum
fish
farms
with
an
intensity
of
9-32
parasites/fish.
Al-Bassel
(1990)
reported
the
oc-
currence
of
this
parasite
in
T.
nilotica
at
the
Maryut
fish
farm,
reaching
10-50
parasites/fish.
T.
galilaea
and
the
Fayoum
fish
farms
were
found
to
be
a
new
host
and
locality
record
for
this
parasite.
Infections
of
other
fish
from
Bahr
Youssef
Five
species
of
freshwater
fish
were
examined
(Table
3).
Clarias
lazera
were
found
infected
with
Orientocreadium
batracoides,
Polyonchobothrium
clarias
and
Procamall-
anus
laeviconchus,
with
intensities
of
3-5,
2-4
and
3-6
parasites/fish,
respectively.
Barbus
bynni
were
found
infected
with
the
cestode
genus
Bothriocephalus
barbus,
reaching
6-9
specimens/fish.
Lates
niloticus
were
infect-
ed
with
Cucullanus
barbi
(4-6
parasites/fish)
and
Par-
agorgorhyncus
chariensis
(3-5
parasites/fish).
Synodontis
schall
were
found
infected
with
Cithariniella
citharini
(3-4
parasites/fish),
Sandonia
sudanensis
(1-2
parasites/
fish)
and
Wenyonia
virilis
(1
parasite/fish).
Finally,
Mormyrus
kannume
was
infected
with
Cucullanus
barbi
and
Proteocephalus
pentastoma
with
an
intensity
of
4-6
and
2-4
parasites/fish,
respectively
(Table
3).
Thus,
the
infection
rates
in
Clarias
lazera
and
Syn-
odontis
schall
were
higher
than
those
in
Barbus
bynni,
Lates
niloticus
and
Mormyrus
kannume.
The
highest
in-
tensity
of
infection
(6-9
parasites/fish)
were
noted
in
B.
bynni
and
the
lowest
(1
parasite/fish)
in
S.
schall.
Acknowledgement
This
work
was
supported
by
a
grant
of
the
Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft,
Bonn.
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