Mechanoreceptors in the medial and lateral glenohumeral ligaments of the canine shoulder joint
Grandis, A.; Spadari, A.; Bombardi, C.; Casadio Tozzi, A.; D.S.rdi, N.; Lucchi, M.L.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 20(4): 291-295
In order to have a better understanding of the role of ligaments in canine shoulder joint stability, the presence of mechanoreceptors in the medial (MGHL) and lateral (LGHL) glenohumeral ligaments was detected by means of a modified gold chloride stain. Three morphologically distinct mechanoreceptors were identified: Ruffini receptors (type I endings), Pacinian corpuscles (type II endings) and Golgi tendon organ-like receptors (type III endings). These receptors are mainly localized at each end of the ligaments and are prevalently in their glenoid portion. In particular, in the MGHL the highest density was at the cranial arm of the insertion into the scapula. The variety of mechanoreceptors in canine shoulder ligaments might indicate an afferent function in providing the CNS with joint proprioceptive information. Therefore, besides acting as passive mechanical stabilizers, the MGHL and the LGHL may serve as sensory structures, contributing actively to joint stability. Ligamentous injuries which occur in shoulders not only affect mechanical restraint but also alter the proprioceptive input to the CNS by means of disruption of the mechanoreceptors.