Incorporation of ultrafiltration concentrated whey solids into Cheddar cheese for increased yield


Brown, R.J.; Ernstrom, C.A.

Journal of Dairy Science 65(12): 2391-2395

1982


A process for incorporating whey solids into Cheddar cheese was evaluated. Whey was concentrated by ultrafiltration to 9.8-20.3% solids (4.3-7.1% protein) and then heated at 75 deg C for 30 min. Return of this concentrate to cheese milk increased average yield by 4.0% at constant cheese moisture. Cheese made by this procedure was lower in fat than control cheese and had a higher moisture content. Setting time was shorter, and acid development was faster. The pH was lower than that of the control cheese. Specific body, texture, and flavour characteristics were identified. Acid was the only flavour defect more prominent in experimental than in control cheese. None of the specific body or texture characteristics was significantly different. It is concluded that the process is a practical method of handling disposal of whey and increasing cheese yield at the same time.

Incorporation
of
Ultrafiltration
Concentrated
Whey
Solids
into
Cheddar
Cheese
for
Increased
Yield'
RODNEY
.1.
BROWN
and
C.
ANTHON
ERNSTROM
Department
of
Nutrition
and
Food
Sciences
Utah
State
University
Logan
84322
ABSTRACT
A
process
for
incorporating
whey
solids
into
Cheddar
cheese
was
evaluated.
Whey
was
concentrated
by
ultrafiltration
to
between
9.8
and
20.3%
solids
(4.3
to
7.1%
protein)
and
then
heated
at
75
°
C
for
30
min.
Return
of
this
concentrate
to
cheese
milk
increased
average
yield
4.0%
at
constant
cheese
moisture.
Cheese
made
by
this
procedure
was
lower
in
fat
than
control
cheese
and
had
a
higher
moisture
content.
Setting
time
was
shorter,
and
acid
development
was
faster.
The
pH
was
lower
than
that
of
the
control
cheese.
Specific
body,
texture,
and
flavor
char-
acteristics
were
identified.
Acid
was
the
only
flavor
defect
more
prominent
in
ex-
perimental
than
in
control
cheese.
None
of
the
specific
body
or
texture
char-
acteristics
was
significantly
different.
INTRODUCTION
The
combination
of
high
biological
oxygen
demand
and
high
water
content
makes
disposal
of
whey
a
persistent
problem
for
the
cheese
industry.
This
is
especially
true
for
plants
too
small
to
justify
facilities
for
drying
their
own
whey.
Federal
and
state
waste-water
disposal
regulations
have
now
eliminated
dumping
of
raw
whey
into
most
streams
or
sewage
systems
(14).
An
even
more
persuasive
argument
against
dumping
whey
is
the
value
of
whey
itself.
Whey
contains
half
of
the
solids
from
milk,
the
most
valuable
being
the
whey
proteins.
In
addition
to
being
an
excellent
protein
source
themselves
(22),
these
proteins
are
also
valuable
in
sup-
plementing
other
proteins
(17).
They
contain
Received
April
5,
1982.
'Contribution
2693
of
the
Utah
Agricultural
Experiment
Station.
Approved
by
the
Director.
high
sulfur-containing
amino
acids
and
have
tyrosine
as
their
limiting
amino
acid.
The
caseins
contain
more
tyrosine
but
less
me-
thionine
and
cysteine.
When
whey
proteins
and
casein
are
combined,
the
limiting
amino
acids
of
each
group
of
proteins
are
provided
by
the
other,
and
the
overall
protein
value
is
enhanced.
Potential
for
increased
yield
of
cheese
is
the
prime
factor
encouraging
use
of
whey
solids
as
cheese
ingredients.
The
Van
Slyke
cheese
yield
formula
predicts
10.3
kg
of
39%
moisture
Cheddar
cheese
from
100
kg
of
milk
containing
3.6%
fat
and
2.5%
casein
(3.2%
protein)
(20).
The
yield
would
be
11.5
kg
if
the
whey
proteins
were
included
in
the
cheese
with
the
casein.
This
is
a
12%
increase
of
yield.
Among
the
methods
that
have
been
used
to
incorporate
whey
proteins
into
cheese
are
vacuum
con-
centration
of
milk
(9),
concentration
of
skim
milk
by
ultrafiltration
then
addition
of
cream
(6),
and
concentration
of
whole
milk
(16).
Whey
has
been
heated
to
denature
its
protein
before
being
mixed
with
milk
for
cheese
making
(10),
and
protein
has
been
separated
from
whey
with
heat
and
acid
(4)
or
by
ultra-
filtration
(1,
18)
and
then
been
added
to
cheese
milk.
Whole
milk
also
has
been
ultrafiltered
to
prepare
a
material
to
be
used
directly
in
pro-
ducing
processed
cheese
(8).
The
purpose
of
this
study
was
to
concentrate
the
proteins
in
whey
by
ultrafiltration,
to
apply
sufficient
heat
to
denature
them
partially
without
producing
grittiness,
and
to
add
them
to
cheese
milk.
The
effect
of
this
procedure
on
Cheddar
Cheese
yield
and
quality
was
evaluated.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
Milk
was
obtained
from
the
Utah
State
University
dairy
farm
and
pasteurized
at
63
°
C
for
30
min.
Ten
vats
of
experimental
cheese
were
made
from
55
kg
milk
each
with
control
vats
of
the
same
size
made
simultaneously.
A
standard
Cheddar
cheese
make
procedure
was
used
for
the
controls
(7).
Experimental
vats
1982
J
Dairy
Sci
65:2391-2395
2391
3.5Kg
Whey
Concentrate
(
Heat
2392
BROWN
AND
ERNSTROM
were
identical
to
their
controls
except
for
addition
of
whey
protein
concentrate.
Whey
for
the
first
vat
of
experimental
cheese
was
collected
from
a
vat
of
control
cheese
made
for
that
purpose.
Subsequent
vats
used
the
whey
from
the
previous
pair.
Concentrate
equivalent
to
that
obtained
from
one
vat
of
cheese
was
added
to
each
experimental
vat.
All
cheese
curd
was
weighed
at
hooping,
and
yield
of
cheese
after
pressing
was
calculated
from
the
total
curd
weight.
The
weight
of
added
whey
concentrate
was
included
as
part
of
the
milk
in
calculating
yields
of
experimental
cheese.
Comparisons
of
yield
were
based
on
cheese
with
39%
moisture.
Following
fat
separation,
whey
was
held
at
4
°
C
until
needed,
then
concentrated
by
a
tubular
ultrafiltration
membrane
in
a
re-
circulating
system.
A
one-phase,
counter-flow
heat
exchanger
was
used
in
the
recirculation
loop
to
keep
the
feed
temperature
at
20
°
C,
and
a
back
pressure
of
8.3
x
10
6
dynes/cm
2
was
maintained
during
concentration.
Whey
was
concentrated
by
ultrafiltration
until
solids
in
the
concentrate
were
about
40%
protein
rather
than
11.5%
as
in
whole
whey
(20).
Concentrate
was
stored
at
4
°
C
then
heated
at
75
°
C
for
30
min.
The
pH
was
not
adjusted
at
any
time
between
collection
of
the
whey
and
heating.
Heating
pasteurized
the
concentrate,
partially
denaturing
the
whey
proteins
at
the
same
time.
The
concentrate
then
was
added
to
cheese
milk
at
the
same
time
as
the
coagulating
enzyme.
All
whey
produced
was
concentrated
for
addition
to
the
next
batch
of
cheese
and
the
cycle
repeated.
Figure
1
is
a
hypothetical
material
balance
for
the
whole
process.
Lactose
can
be
extracted
from
the
ultrafiltration
permeate
by
reverse
osmosis,
but
that
portion
of
the
process
was
not
evaluated
in
this
study.
Preliminary
experiments
showed
both
60
and
90
°
C
were
unsatisfactory
30-min
heat
treatments
for
the
concentrate
because
of
whey
protein
denaturation,
which
was
either
not
extensive
enough
or
too
extensive
to
permit
trapping
of
whey
protein
in
the
curd.
Heating
concentrate
at
90
°
C
produced
a
granular
material
that
settled
to
the
bottom
of
the
vat
when
added
to
cheese
milk.
The
60
°
C
treated
concentrate
became
only
slightly
more
viscous
after
heating,
whereas
the
texture
of
the
75
C
treated
concentrate
was
similar
to
that
of
40%
fat
cream.
Degree
of
denaturation
is
affected
by
temperature,
heating
time,
pH,
and
con-
100Kg
Milk
Make
Cheese
12.2Kg
Cheese
91.3Kg
Whey
Ultrafiltration
87.8Kg
Permeate
Reverse
Osmosis
4.9Kg
Lactose
82.9Kg
'Water'
Figure
1.
Schematic
diagram
of
the
cheese
making
process
based
on
100
kg
of
3.6%
fat,
3.2%
protein
milk.
centration
(12,
19).
Milk
and
cheese
fats
were
measured
by
the
Babcock
method.
Total
solids
for
both
milk
and
whey
concentrate
were
determined
by
steaming
followed
by
vacuum
drying
of
samples
(3).
Protein
determinations
were
by
micro-
Kjeldahl
with
a
mercuric
sulfate
catalyst
(11).
Cheese
was
prepared
for
protein
analysis
by
a
solution
of
25
g
cheese
and
10
g
sodium
citrate
blended
with
300
ml
water
in
a
Waring
blender.
Water
then
was
added
to
bring
the
solution
to
500
ml.
Vacuum
drying
was
used
for
determination
of
cheese
moistures.
Cheese
pH
was
measured
with
a
quinhydrone
electrode
with
the
samples
prepared
as
for
fat
determination.
Ash
was
measured
by
standard
procedures
(2).
The
phenol-sulfuric
acid
method
as
modified
by
Verhey
was
used
for
determination
of
lactose
(15,
21).
Flavor,
and
body/texture
were
evaluated
by
a
panel
of
three
qualified
cheese
graders.
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
65,
No.
12,
1982
TECHNICAL
NOTE
2393
TABLE
1.
Properties
of
experimental
cheese
versus
controls.
Significance
of
Characteristic
Experimental
Control
difference'
Yield
2
'
3
(kg)
Moisture
(%)
Protein'
Fat
3
(%)
pH
Setting
Time
(min)
Mean
SD
11.33
.29
41.0
1.1
20.81
1.19
31.5
.8
5.1
.1
13.7
5.2
Mean
SD
10.88
.25
39.0
1.4
20.18
1.05
31.8
.7
5.2
.2
19.2
2.9
Paired
t
test
(10
pairs).
**,
Significant
at
.01;
*,
significant
at
.05.
2
Based
on
100
kg
of
milk.
3
Adjusted
to
39%
moisture
for
comparison.
Samples
were
coded
randomly
before
evalua-
tion.
Specific
defects
were
noted
by
each
judge,
allowing
each
sample
the
possibility
of
being
criticized
from
zero
to
three
times
for
each
defect.
Age
of
cheese
at
evaluation
was
51
±
7
(SD)
days.
Experimental
and
control
samples
were
compared
by
paired
t
tests
for
total
cheese
yield,
percents
moisture,
protein,
and
fat
in
the
cheese,
cheese
pH,
and
setting
time.
Each
pair
in
the
analysis
represented
one
vat
of
control
cheese
and
one
vat
of
experimental
cheese
made
and
evaluated
simultaneously.
Incidences
of
flavor
and
body/texture
criticisms
in
experimental
versus
control
cheese
were
com-
pared
by
the
same
method.
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
Milk
used
for
cheese
making
was
3.6
±
.05
(SD)%
fat
and
12.7
±
.1%
total
solids.
Whey
concentrate
when
added
to
the
cheese
milk
varied
from
9.8
to
20.3%
solids
with
a
mean
of
16.1
±
3.3.
Protein
content
ranged
from
4.3
to
7.1%.
Mean
ash
content
was
.79
±
.11%,
and
mean
lactose
content
was
9.43
±
2.03%.
All
four
of
these
measures
increased
from
one
sample
to
the
next,
indicating
a
cumulative
effect
of
whey
concentrate
addition
over
the
10
consecutive
vats
of
cheese.
Cheese
composition
and
characteristics
did
not
show
correlation
with
concentrate
composition.
Solids
concen-
tration
from
one
vat
to
the
next
would
be
expected
to
increase
until
equilibrium
was
reached.
Properties
of
experimental
and
control
cheeses
are
compared
in
Table
1.
Measures
were
not
taken
to
control
moisture
in
the
experi-
mental
cheese,
but
necessary
moisture
ad-
justments
were
for
comparison
of
yield,
protein,
and
fat.
Increases
in
cheese
yield
were
significant,
averaging
4.0
±
2.8%
for
10
pairs
of
samples.
These
gains
would
have
been
even
higher
if
concentrate
had
not
been
included
as
milk
in
yield
calculations
of
the
experimental
cheese.
Each
of
the
10
pairs
showed
a
higher
yield
for
experimental
cheese
over
the
control.
The
largest
yield
increase
for
any
one
of
the
10
pairs
was
8.9%.
Percent
protein
did
not
differ
significantly,
but
percent
fat
was
significantly
lower
in
the
experimental
cheese
(Table
1).
Fat
could
be
added
to
the
experimental
cheese
milk
to
bring
its
fat
back
to
that
of
the
controls,
which
would
increase
the
yield
even
further.
This
also
may
lower
moisture
in
the
cheese.
The
lower
pH
in
the
experimental
cheese
(Table
1)
is
a
sign
of
accelerated
growth
of
starter
organism,
which
prevents
other
possible
defects.
Accelerated
growth
was
from
high
free
nitrogen
and
lactose
from
the
heated
whey
concentrate
and
high
moisture
in
the
cheese.
The
correlation
coefficient
between
pH
as
measured
by
pH
meter
and
detection
of
acid
defect
by
the
graders
was
-.84
with
a
prob-
ability
of
.001
of
chance
difference
from
0.
Setting
time
was
decreased
when
whey
concentrate
was
returned
to
the
cheese
milk
(Table
1).
Residual
coagulating
enzyme
in
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
65,
No.
12,
1982
Control
Significance
of
difference'
Number
of
Samples
Criticized'
Experimental
2394
BROWN
AND
ERNSTROM
TABLE
2.
Flavor
and
body/texture
defects
of
experimental
and
control
cheese.
Flavor
Acid
27
13
Bitter
5
1
Fermented/fruity
1
Flat
1
0
Sulfide
1
0
Unclean
5
0
Whey
taint
4
1
Yeasty
1
1
Body/texture
Crumbly
1
0
Curdy
1
7
Slight
gas
4
8
Open
25
20
Pasty
3
0
Weak
5
1
'Each
number
represents
criticism
of
one
of
ten
samples
by
one
of
three
graders.
'Paired
t
test
(10
pairs).
**,
Significant
at
.01.
whey
may
account
for
this
(13).
Recovery
of
clotting
enzyme
from
whey
by
ultrafiltration
for
reuse
in
cheese
making
has
been
investigated
(5).
Experimental
and
control
cheese
did
not
differ
significantly
in
any
specific
flavor
or
body/texture
defect
except
acid
(Table
2).
Acid,
bitter,
fermented/fruity,
sulfide,
unclean,
and
whey
taint
were
criticisms
more
often
detected
in
the
experimental
cheese.
Flat
was
the
only
flavor
criticism
commonly
ascribed
to
controls.
Acid
defect
may
be
related
to
the
accelerated
rate
of
starter
activity
in
the
ex-
perimental
cheese
without
steps
to
reduce
moisture
content.
The
other
five
defects
could
be
grouped
together
as
strong
flavors
which
judges
found
difficult
to
distinguish
from
each
other.
They
contrast
with
the
characteristic
description
flat
for
the
control
cheese.
This
suggests
a
possible
acceleration
of
the
aging
process
when
concentrate
is
added.
Higher
moisture
in
the
experimental
cheese
could
account
for
the
slight increase
in
pasty
and
weak
defects
and
the
decrease
in
curdiness.
A
slight
resistance
to
binding
in
the
press,
presumably
from
the
whey
proteins,
resulted
in
a
tendency
toward
more
open
and
crumbly
cheese.
None
of
these
body/texture
defects
were
encountered
significantly
more
often
in
the
experimental
cheese.
CONCLUSIONS
The
objective
of
this
study
was
to
determine
whether
a
practical
process
incorporating
whey
protein
into
cheese
could
be
used
to
increase
cheese
yield
without
adversely
affecting
quality.
The
data
obtained
suggest
other
benefits
from
the
process.
The
process
is
a
practical
method
of
handling
disposal
of
whey
and
increasing
cheese
yield
at
the
same
time.
Cheese
quality
is
not
sacrificed
to
obtain
the
improved
yields
produced
by
this
procedure,
and
whey
disposal
becomes
a
profitable
operation.
Use
of
this
process
would
require
strict
attention
to
the
starter
program
because
it
is
unlikely
that
all
bacteriophage
in
the
whey
protein
concentrate
would
be
inactivated
by
heat
to
75
°
C
for
30
min.
REFERENCES
1
Abrahamsen,
R.
K.
1979.
Cheesemaking
from
milk
fortified
with
ultrafiltrated
whey
protein
con-
centrate.
Milchwissenschaft
34:65.
2
Association
of
Official
Analytical
Chemists.
1965.
Official
methods
of
analysis.
10th
ed.
Washington,
DC.
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
65,
No.
12,
1982
TECHNICAL
NOTE
2395
3
Association
of
Official
Analytical
Chemists.
1980.
Official
methods
of
analysis.
11th
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