ACID whey concentrated by ultrafiltration a tool for modeling bread properties


Wronkowska, Młgorzata; Jadacka, M; Soral-Śmietana, M; Zander, L; Dajnowiec, F; Banaszczyk, Pł; Jeliński, T; Szmatowicz, B

Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und -Technologie 61(1): 172-176

2015


LWT
-
Food
Science
and
Technology
61
(2015)
172-176
LWT-
Food
Science
and
Technology
Contents
lists
available
at
ScienceDirect
LWT
-
Food
Science
and
Technology
journal
homepage:
www.elsevier.com/locate/Iwt
ELSEVIER
ACID
whey
concentrated
by
ultrafiltration
a
tool
for
modeling
bread
properties
Malgorzata
Wronkowska
a
'
*,
Monika
Jadacka
,
Maria
Soral-Smietana
,
Lidia
Zander
,
Fabian
Dajnowiec
,
Pawel
Banaszczyk
,
Tomasz
Jelinski
,
Beata
Szmatowicz
a
Department
of
Chemistry
and
Biodynamics
of
Food,
Division
of
Food
Science,
Institute
of
Animal
Reproduction
and
Food
Research
of
the
Polish
Academy
of
Sciences,
10
Tuwima
Str.,
10-748
Olsztyn,
Poland
b
Department
of
Process
Engineering
and
Equipment,
Faculty
of
Food
Sciences,
University
of
Warmia
and
Mazury,
7
Oczapowskiego
Str.,
10-957
Olsztyn,
Poland
Department
of
Chemical
and
Physical
Properties
of
Food,
Division
of
Food
Science,
Institute
of
Animal
Reproduction
and
Food
Research
of
the
Polish
Academy
of
Sciences,
10
Tuwima
Str.,
10-748
Olsztyn,
Poland
d
Sensory
Laboratory,
Division
of
Food
Science,
Institute
of
Animal
Reproduction
and
Food
Research
of
the
Polish
Academy
of
Sciences,
10
Tuwima
Str.,
10-748
Olsztyn,
Poland
CrossMark
ARTICLE INFO
ABSTRACT
Article
history:
Received
1
August
2013
Received
in
revised
form
4
November
2014
Accepted
9
November
2014
Available
online
15
November
2014
Experimental
dried
acid
whey
concentrates
obtained
after
ultrafiltration
was
used
as
a
tool
modeling
properties
of
wheat
or
wheat-rye
dough
and
breads.
The
changes
in
the
technological
properties
and
sensory
parameters
of
dough
and
baking
products
were
determined.
A
significant
increase
was
observed
in
the
yield
of
wheat
breads
under
the
influence
of
acid
whey
concentrate.
In
comparison
to
the
control
samples
the
volume
of
experimental
bread
loaves
was
decreased.
The
breads
with
concentrates
were
characterized
by
a
statistically
significant
increase
in
contents
of
total
minerals,
lactose,
lactic
acid,
cal-
cium,
magnesium,
phosphorus,
potassium
and
zinc
contents.
The
dry
acid
whey
positively
affected
on
crust
color,
sweet
and
yeast
odor,
sweet,
bitter
and
acidulous
taste
or
mastication
of
experimental
bread.
0
2014
Elsevier
Ltd.
All
rights
reserved.
Keywords:
Acid
whey
Ultrafiltration
Wheat
bread
Wheat-rye
bread
1.
Introduction
The
consumption
of
bread
has
declined
by
13.8%
during
the
period
of
1999-2003
due
to
such
factors
as
changing
nutritional
habits
and
increasing
use
of
substitutes
e.g.
breakfast
cereals
and
fast
foods
(Dewettinck
et
al.,
2008).
New
varieties
of
baked
goods
are
becoming
increasingly
popular
worldwide.
Generally,
in
con-
sumers
opinion,
bread
should
have
a
low
glycemic
index,
be
a
source
of
protein
and
dietary
fiber,
vitamins,
magnesium,
calcium,
trace
elements,
and
antioxidants.
Basic
components
for
bread
production
are
cereal
flour,
water,
yeast
and
salt,
but
some
optional
ingredients
can
be
added
to
improve
processing
or
to
produce
specialty
and
novelty
breads
which
often
have
an
increased
nutri-
tive
value.
Dairy
ingredients
are
widely
used
in
the
baking
industry
because
of
their
beneficial
effect
on
the
nutritional,
organoleptic,
and
some
functional
properties
of
baking
products
(Kenny,
Wehrle,
*
Corresponding
author.
Tel.:
+48
89
5234618.
E
-
mail
address:
(M.
Wronkowska).
http://dx.doLorg/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.11.019
0023-6438/©
2014
Elsevier
Ltd.
All
rights
reserved.
Stanton,
&
Arendt,
2000).
Higher
taste,
odor
and
overall
accept-
ability
scores
for
bread
with
whey
protein
concentrate
powder
and
buttermilk
powder
compared
to
control
samples
was
observed
by
Madenci
and
Bilgicli
(2014).
Dairy
products
are
a
rich
source
of
vitamins
(such
as
A
and
B12)
and
minerals
(like
calcium),
whereas
cereal
grains
fail
to
provide
their
sufficient
quantities
with
diet.
Whey
proteins
represent
about
20%
of
milk
proteins
and
constitute
a
rich
source
of
complete
and
bio-available
amino
acids
(Dec
&
Chojnowski,
2006).
Lysine
(9.1
g/
100
g
of
whey
protein)
is
a
crucial
amino
acid
that
is
lacking
in
a
diet
limited
to
direct
consumption
of
cereal
grains
(1.6
g/100
g
of
wheat
protein).
Denaturated
whey
proteins
were
shown
to
have
a
higher
value
of
protein
efficiency
ratio
(PER)
than
wheat
proteins
).
Moreover,
the
retention
of
milk
proteins
in
the
human
body
(about
74%)
is
higher
than
the
retention
of
wheat
proteins
(about
66%)
(Morens
et
al.,
2003).
Acid
whey
is
a
by-product
in
the
manufacture
of
white
cheese
(tvarog).
It
is
obtained
by
lactic
acid
fermentation
and
acidic
coagulation
of
milk
proteins.
It
retains
45-50%
of
milk
solid
nu-
trients
and
typically
contains
44-46
g/L
of
lactose
and
6-8
g/L
of
M.
Wronkowska
et
at
/
LWT
-
Food
Science
and
Technology
61
(2015)
172-176
173
proteins
(Jelen,
2003).
The
limiting
factors
of
acid
whey
alimenta-
tion
usability
include
low
pH
(4.5-4.7),
acidic
flavor
and
high
salt
content
(Roman,
Wang,
Csanadi,
Hodur,
&
Vatai,
2009).
Solid
components
of
whey
could
be
recovered
from
the
liquid
whey
by
using
different
membrane
separation
processes,
such
as:
reverse
osmosis,
nanofiltration,
ultrafiltration
or
microfiltration.
Most
of
these
processes
enable
the
separation
of
milk
constituents
by
molecular
sieving
or
size
separation.
Membrane
separation
pro-
cesses
are
characterized
by
pore
size
from
>0.1
gm
to
<0.1
nm
and
by
operating
pressures
from
0.01
to
5
MPa
(Pouliot,
2008).
Mem-
brane
processes
are
now
viewed
as
efficient
tools
for
the
devel-
opment
of
new
value-added
products
by
separating
minor
compounds
such
as
bioactive
peptides,
growth
factors
and
oligo-
saccharides
from
milk,
whey
or
other
dairy-based
media.
Ultrafil-
tration
and
reverse
osmosis
have
been
extensively
used
in
whey
concentration
and
have
allowed
the
development
of
a
broad
array
of
whey
protein
concentrates.
Ultrafiltration
involves
the
use
of
membranes
with
a
molecular
weight
cutoff
in
the
range
of
1-200
kDa
and
pore
size
of
about
0.01
gm,
and
is
performed
at
a
pressure
<1000
kPa.
The
aim
of
this
study
was
to
determine
the
effect
of
dried
acid
whey
obtained
upon
ultrafiltration
process
on
wheat
and
wheat-
rye
dough
and
bread
properties.
2.
Materials
and
methods
2.1.
Materials
Acid
whey
obtained
in
the
industrial
process
during
white
cheese
(tvarog)
production
was
used
as
a
raw
material
in
this
experiment.
Laboratory
experimental
membrane
station
was
used
for
selective
separation
of
acid
whey
by
membrane
separation
-
ultrafiltration.
The
experiments
were
performed
using:
single
B1
(PCI)
module
with
18
tubular
membranes
type
EM006
(6
kD)
in
series.
The
separation
area
was
0.85
m
2
.
The
flow
capacity
through
the
module
was
maintained
from
26.1
L/min
to
27.7
L/min.
Tem-
perature
of
whey
separation
was
43
°C
and
the
transmembrane
pressure
varied
over
the
range
of
1.21-1.32
MPa.
The
liquid
acid
whey
after
ultrafiltration
was
dehydrated
by
spray
drying:
inlet/
outlet
temperature
190/86
°C
(A/S
Niro
Atomizer
Type
P-63,
Copenhagen,
Denmark).
Commercial
wheat
flours:
type
500
and
type
750
and
rye
flour
type
720
(Mlynomag,
Reszel,
Poland)
were
used
in
the
study.
The
characteristics
of
wheat
flour
type
500
and
type
750
were
as
fol-
lows
(g/100
g):
moisture
13.58
±
0.06
and
13.16
±
037
(PN-EN
ISO
712,
2009);
wet
gluten
27.1
±
0.7
and
26.1
±
0.4
(PN-EN
ISO
21415-
2,
2008);
protein
(N
x
5.70)
13.67
±
7.89
and
15.18
±
0.03
dry
matter
(d.m.)
(AOAC,
2005);
and
ash
0.55
±
0.00
and
0.82
±
0.01
d.m.
(PN-EN
ISO
2171,
2010),
respectively.
The
rye
flour
had
the
following
characteristics
(g/100
g):
moisture
12.87
±
0.02;
protein
(Nx6.25)
7.44
±
0.01
d.m.
and
ash
0.70
±
0.01
d.m.
Fresh
yeast
(Lesaffre
S.A.,
Poland)
(3
g/100
g
of
flour),
salt
(1
g/100
g
of
flour)
and
tap
water
were
used
as
well.
2.2.
Breadmaking
process
The
baking
formula
was
prepared
according
to
the
procedure
described
in
Polish
Patent
Specification
(Soral-Smietana,
Zander,
Wronkowska,
Dajnowiec,
&
Banaszczyk,
2011).
Wheat
bread
was
prepared
from
wheat
flour
type
500
or
wheat
flour
type
750.
Mixed
wheat-rye
bread
was
made
from
a
mixture
of
wheat
flour
type
750
and
rye
flour
type
720
(3:2,
respectively).
Baking
products
without
acid
whey
concentrates
were
used
as
control
samples.
Acid
whey
was
diluted
in
tap
water
and
introduced
at
the
stage
of
dough
preparation
as
a
20%
addition
in
relation
to
the
weight
of
flour.
Fresh
yeast
and
salt
were
also
diluted
in
tap
water
before
being
added
to
the
flour.
The
amount
of
water
added
was
for
control
samples
about
62
g
per
100
g
of
used
flour,
and
about
46
g
per
100
g
for
experimental
breads.
All
ingredients
were
mixed
for
3
min
in
a
GM-2
type
mixer
(ZBPP,
Bydgoszcz,
Poland).
The
dough
was
proo-
fed
at
37
°C
and
80%
relative
humidity
for
60
min
with
puncture
after
30
min.
Once
divided
into
250
g
portions
the
dough
was
proofed
up
to
optimum
volume
increase
(about
30
min,
37
°C,
80%
relative
humidity)
and
baked
at
210
°C
for
20
min.
The
baking
test
was
carried
out
in
an
electric
oven
DC-21
model
(Sveba
Dahlen
AB,
Fristad,
Sweden)
with
an
incorporated
proofing
chamber.
The
following
sample
abbreviations
were
used:
T500
(bread
from
wheat
flour
type
500),
T750
(bread
from
wheat
flour
type
750),
WR
(bread
from
mixture
of
wheat
flour
type
750
and
rye
flour
type
720,
as
3:2),
T500
+
20%U,
T750
+
20%U,
WR
+
20%U
(bread
from
wheat
flour
type
500,
type
750
and
from
mixture
of
wheat
flour
type
750
and
rye
flour
type
720
with
20%
addition
of
acid
whey
concentrated
by
ultrafiltration
and
dehydrated
by
spray
drying).
2.3.
Technological
characteristics
of
bread
On
the
basis
of
breads
weight,
determined
immediately
after
baking
and
weigh
of
the
dough
used
for
baking
the
baking
loss
was
analyzed.
Dough
yield
loss
also
was
determined
by
comparing
dough
weight
at
dividing
with
the
dough
weight
before
placing
in
the
oven
and
with
the
final
bread
weight.
Bread
yield
losses
re-
ported
in
this
study
include
the
entire
baking
process
from
the
weight
of
the
dough
at
mixing
to
final
bread
weight.
The
loaves
were
weighed
1
h
after
removal
from
the
oven,
and
loaf
volume
was
determined
by
the
rapeseed
displacement
method.
Acidity
and
pH
of
dough
and
breads
were
determined
as
well.
The
texture
profiles
(TPA
tests)
of
fresh
and
24-h-stored
breads
were
evaluated
using
a
TA.HDplus
texture
analyzer
with
TPA
Exponent
Software
(Stable
Micro
Systems
Ltd.,
Godalming,
UK)
equipped
with
a
30-kg
load
cell
(Bourne,
1978).
The
middle
bread
slices
of
25-mm
thickness
underwent
a
double
compression
cycle
up
to
40%
deformation
of
its
original
height
with
a
35-mm
flat-end
aluminum
compression
disc
(probe
P/35).
The
selected
settings
were
as
follows:
2.0
mm/s
of
pretest/test/posttest
speed;
5
s
of
relaxation
time;
10
g
of
trigger
force;
trigger
mode
-
auto.
The
bread
was
compressed
twice
to
give
a
two-bite
texture
profile
curve,
from
which
four
textural
parameters
were
obtained:
hard-
ness,
springiness,
cohesiveness
and
chewiness
as
calculated
by
the
software
of
the
texturometer.
2.4.
Chemical
characteristics
of
bread
The
content
of
protein
(N
x
5.70)
was
determined
according
to
Kjeldahl
method
(AOAC,
2005).
Contents
of
lactose
and
lactic
acid
were
determined
by
enzymatic
methods,
using
Lactose/D-Glucose
(Cat.
No.10
986
119
035,
R-BIOPHARM,
Darmstadt,
Germany)
and
D-
Lactic
acid/L-Lactic
acid
(Cat.
No.
11
112
821
035,
R-BIOPHARM,
Darmstadt,
Germany)
reagents.
Total
minerals
content
was
deter-
mined
according
to
AOAC
(2005).
The
content
of:
Ca,
Mg,
P,
K,
Na,
Zn
and
Fe
in
breads
was
determined
using
atomic
absorption
spec-
troscopy
according
to
Soral-Smietana,
Zduriczyk,
Wronkowska,
JuSkiewicz,
and
Zander
(2013).
2.5.
Sensory
evaluation
of
baking
products
The
sensory
profile
of
breads
was
evaluated
with
the
Quanti-
tative
Descriptive
Analysis
(QDA)
by
a
panel
consisting
of
six
fe-
males
and
two
men
(aged
28-46
years)
previously
selected
and
trained
according
to
ISO
guidelines
(ISO
8586-1,
1993).
Vocabu-
laries
of
the
sensory
attributes
were
developed
in
a
preliminary
174
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172-176
procedure
by
the
panel
in
a
round-table
session,
using
a
stan-
dardized
procedure
(ISO/DIS
13299,
1998).
Twenty
attributes
(de-
scriptors)
describing
appearance,
odor,
taste
and
texture
of
breads
were
selected
and
thoroughly
defined
for
profiling.
The
intensity
of
each
sensory
attribute
was
evaluated
on
a
10-cm
linear
scale
and
verbally
anchored
on
both
sides
"none"
and
"very
intensive".
The
results
were
converted
to
numerical
values
(from
0
to
10
units).
2.6.
Statistical
analysis
All
types
of
breads
were
baked
in
two
replications
(5
loaves
in
each).
Results
of
the
chemical
analyses
are
given
as
the
means
and
the
standard
deviation
of
three
independent
measurements.
Re-
sults
were
analyzed
by
one-way
ANOVA.
Fisher
Test
at
a
signifi-
cance
level
of
p
<
0.05
was
performed
for
post-hoc
comparison.
3.
Results
and
discussion
The
effect
of
dried
acid
whey
concentrates
on
technological
properties
of
wheat
and
wheat-rye
dough
and
bread
was
presented
in
Table
1.
The
acidity
of
dough
and
breads
with
dried
concentrate
was
higher
compared
to
the
control
samples.
The
decrease
in
pH
of
dough
and
breads
with
whey
concentrate
was
noticed.
The
signif-
icantly
increased
of
the
yield
of
breads
was
observed
for
the
experimental
breads.
The
baking
loss
was
significantly
lower
for
wheat
and
wheat-rye
breads
with
the
dried
concentrate
in
com-
parison
to
the
control
samples.
The
control
breads
were
charac-
terized
by
the
highest
loaf
volume
compared
to
experimental
breads.
The
dried
whey
concentrate
tended
to
lower
the
specific
weight
of
bread
crumb
as
compared
to
the
control.
The
decreasing
bread
volume
caused
by
the
addition
of
whey
concentrates
may
be
due
to
the
interaction
between
whey
proteins
and
gluten
complex
(Lupano,
2000).
Kenny
et
al.
(2000)
showed
that
the
whey
protein
concentrates
decreased
loaf
volume,
but
contrary
sodium
caseinate
and
hydrolyzed
casein
increased
its
value.
Kadharmestan,
Bajk,
and
Czuchajowska
(1998)
explains
that
the
whey
proteins
are
soluble
in
water
and
have
emulsifying
and
foaming
properties
which
reduce
the
volume
of
bread.
Our
suggestions
for
the
technological
prop-
erties
and
the
reduction
of
loaves
volume
as
a
result
of
whey
pro-
tein
concentrate
addition
are
as
follows:
soluble
whey
proteins
in
the
protein-protein
interaction
within
the
gluten
complex
could
weaken
both
the
elasticity
of
a
gluten
network
and
the
barrier
for
fermentation
gases,
the
gluten
matrix
structure
as
a
continuous
phase
of
dough
adsorbs/absorbs
elements,
particularly
calcium
and
potassium,
which
increases
the
rigidity
of
this
structure;
the
rigid
structure
is
also
due
to
lactose
that
is
present
in
the
concentrate
in
a
high
concentration.
The
dried
concentrate
was
characterized
by
a
higher
content
of
proteins
(17.7
g/100
g
d.m.),
total
minerals
(6
g/100
g
d.m.),
and
lactose
(63.3
g/100
g)
what
was
presented
by
Jadacka
et
al.
(2011)
in
our
previous
study.
A
statistically
significant
increase
in
total
minerals,
lactose
and
lactic
acid
contents
was
found
in
experi-
mental
breads,
which
was
attributable
to
the
acid
whey
concen-
trates
addition
(Table
2).
In
our
previous
investigations
(Jadacka
et
al.,
2011;
Soral-
Smietana
et
al.,
2013),
the
dried
acid
whey
concentrates
was
characterized
by
high
contents
of
calcium
(14.4
mg/g),
magnesium
(1.4
mg/g),
phosphorus
(7.4
mg/g),
potassium
(9.2
mg/g),
sodium
(3.1
mg/g),
zinc
(47.9
µg/g),
and
iron
(20.9
µg/g).
In
the
experi-
mental
breads
a
statistically
significant
increase
was
observed
in
calcium,
magnesium,
phosphorus,
potassium
and
zinc
content
in
comparison
to
the
control
samples
(Table
2).
Different
types
of
foods
are
now
fortified
with
minerals,
which
are
important
for
human
health.
The
minerals
can
be
added
as
salts
or
in
combination
with
metal-binding
peptides,
while
milk-derived
components
are
deemed
as
acceptable
ingredients
for
food
when
compared
with
some
artificial
additives
(Morris
&
FitzGerald,
2008).
Milk
and
dairy
products
are
a
valuable
source
of
calcium
and
phosphorus,
in
particular.
Due
to
their
high
assimilability,
these
elements
are
required
in
the
human
diet.
Almost
90%
of
the
calcium,
phosphorus
and
magnesium
contained
in
milk
is
transferred
into
whey
or
permeate
after
protein
coagulation
in
the
production
of
white
cheese
(tvarog).
The
recommended
dietary
reference
intake
of
elements
for
adults
(19-50
years)
is
1000
mg
for
calcium
per
day
(NAS,
2004).
Taking
into
consideration
the
World
Health
Organization's
recom-
mendation
of
a
daily
intake
of
250
g
of
bread
per
person,
the
control
wheat
and
wheat-rye
breads
contribute
about
8%
of
the
calcium
recommended
for
adults,
whereas
the
breads
containing
dried
acid
whey
concentrates
could
increase
intakes
of
this
mineral
to
60
or
75%,
respectively.
Moreover,
incorporation
of
whey
concentrate
to
the
breads
formulations
could
nearly
cover
the
daily
requirements
for
phosphorus
for
adults.
Approximately
30%
of
recommended
magnesium
for
women
and
40%
for
men
could
be
covered
by
the
inclusion
of
whey
concentrate
to
the
wheat
bread
from
flour
type
750
or
to
the
wheat-rye
bread.
The
bioavailability
of
calcium
and
magnesium
could
be
increased
by
lactose,
which
is
present
in
the
experimental
concentrates
(Buchowski
&
Miller,
1991).
Considering
zinc
the
breads
with
dried
concentrate
met
above
70%
of
the
daily
requirement
for
this
element
in
women.
The
increase
in
hardness
of
the
bread
is
associated
with
the
staling
process,
during
which
the
starch
molecules
return
to
the
crystalline
structure.
It
manifests
itself
in
an
increase
in
hardness
and
a
decrease
in
elasticity
of
the
crumb.
The
texture
profiles
of
fresh
(2
h)
and
stored
(24
h)
breads
with
dried
acid
whey
concentrate
were
presented
in
Table
3.
The
crumb
hardness
Table
7
Technological
parameters
of
experimental
dough
and
breads.
Materials
Acidity
pH
Yield
Volume
of
Specific
weight
Baking
loss
[%]
bread
[cm
3
/
1
00g]
of
bread
crumb
[g/cm
3
]
Of
dough
acidity]
Of
bread
Of
Of
Of
dough
[%]
[`'
acidity]
dough
bread
Of
bread
[%]
T500
434
±
0.07
0.98
±
0.05
5.64
5.83
175.08
±
032b
15636
±
0.81e
300.90
±
13.49a
053
±
0.07a
10.69
±
057a
T500
+
20%U
855
±
0.07
4.68
±
0.05
5.17
5.06
172.88
±
3.60c
16135
±4.11c
261.06
±
3.10b
0.46
±
0.08b
6.68
±
0.57de
7750
4.17
±
0.4
150
±
0.14
5.77
6.04
175.84
±
030b
159.25
±
2.03d
294.26
±
15.23a
053
±
0.07a
9.44
±
1.03b
7750
+
20%U
9.45
±
0.07
5.25
±
0.00
5.02
458
175.92
±
0.06b
165.04
±
1.09b
250.41
±
7.75b
0.45
±
0.06b
6.18
±
0.60e
WR
4.79
±
0.0
1.65
±
0.07
5.61
5.79
175.40
±
0.73b
16055
±
2.34cd
304.06
±
15.13a
055
±
0.07a
8.47
±
1.05c
WR
+
20%U
9.43
±
0.21
5.05
±
0.07
5.09
451
181.87
±
358a
16937
±
3.80a
258.85
±
1351b
053
±
0.04a
6.74
±
051d
7300
-
bread
from
wheat
flour
type
500;
7750
-
bread
from
wheat
flour
type
750;
WR
-
bread
from
mixture
of
wheat
flour
type
750
and
rye
flour
type
720
(3:2);
T500
+
20%
U,
T750
+
20%U,
WR
+
20%U
-
bread
from
wheat
flour
type
500,
type
750
and
from
mixture
of
wheat
flour
type
750
and
rye
flour
type
720
with
20%
addition
of
acid
whey
concentrated
by
ultrafiltration
and
dehydrated
by
spray
drying
(+20%U).
Data
expressed
as
mean
±
standard
deviation
(n
=
5).
Different
letters
within
the
same
column
indicate statistically
significant
differences
at
p
<
0.05
in
Fisher
test.
M.
Wronlcowska
et
al.
/
LWT
-
Food
Science
and
Technology
61
(2015)
172-176
175
Table
2
Chemical
characteristics
of
experimental
breads.
T500
T500
+
20%U
7750
7750
+
20%U
WR
WR
+
20%U
Protein
[g/100
g
d.m.]
13.05
±
0.41c
13.88
±
0.21b
13.84
±
037b
1451
±
0.15a
11.66
±
0.23e
12.17
±
0.07d
Ash
[g/100
g
d.m.]
0.97
±
0.10d
1.76
±
0.08b
1.23
±
0.10c
1.94
±
0.08a
1.22
±
0.15c
1.79
±
0.03b
Lactose
[g/100
g]
9.78
±
0.26
9.72
±
0.23
9.73
±
035
lactic
acid
[g/100
g]
0.06
±
0.00b
0.88
±
0.04a
0.05
±
0.02b
0.84
±
0.04a
0.02
±
0.01b
0.84
±
0.07a
Ca
[mg/g]
031
±
0.01c
3.06
±
0.04a
034
±
0.03c
3.08
±
0.06a
033
±
0.03c
2.99
±
0.01b
Mg
[mg/g]
0.20
±
0.00e
0.41
±
0.00c
0.29
±
0.08d
052
±
0.01a
030
±
0.03d
050
±
0.00b
P
[mg/g]
1.16
±
0.06e
234
±
0.01c
1.69
±
0.04d
2.73
±
0.03a
1.65
±
0.15d
258
±
0.04b
K
[mg/g]
1.76
±
038d
2.75
±
0.01b
232
±
031c
3.27
±
0.03a
2.16
±
0.03c
3.43
±
0.01a
Na
[mg/g]
3.45
±
0.16
3.43
±
0.00
3.44
±
0.27
339
±
0.00
3.67
±
0.03
336
±
0.03
Zn
[1.1g/g]
11.04
±
053d
18.46
±
0.87b
15.94
±
2.42c
2339
±
0.25a
17.99
±
0.57b
22.45
±
0.20a
Fe
[1.1g/g]
14.83
±
1.97c
16.49
±
0.98c
20.81
±
1.88a
20.78
±
0.87a
20.72
±
1.98ab
18.89
±
0.73b
Abbreviations
as
in
Data
expressed
as
mean
±
standard
deviation
(n
=
5).
Different
letters
within
the
same
row
indicate
statistically
significant
differences
at
p
<
0.05
in
Fisher
test.
increased
significantly
in
fresh
breads
with
dried
acid
whey
concentrate
compared
to
the
control.
The
addition
of
whey
decreased
the
springiness
and
cohesiveness
values
in
the
fresh
wheat
and
wheat-rye
breads.
The
use
of
dried
concentrate
in
wheat
and
wheat-rye
breads
resulted
in
a
significant
increase
in
chewi-
ness
of
fresh
breads.
After
24
h
of
storage
the
crumb
of
all
breads
was
much
harder
in
comparison
to
fresh
bread
crumbs
(Table
3).
Springiness
parameters
of
all
investigated
breads
after
storage
did
not
differ
significantly
compared
to
the
fresh
experimental
baking
products.
The
stored
breads
were
generally
less
cohesive
than
the
fresh
ones.
The
chewiness
of
all
investigated
breads
increased
after
storage.
To
find
attributes
which
influenced
the
sensory
quality
of
breads
quantitative
descriptive
analysis
(QDA)
was
used.
Descriptive
analysis
are
the
most
sophisticated
tools
in
of
sensory
evaluation
and
involve
the
discrimination
and
description
of
both
the
quali-
tative
and
quantitative
sensory
attributes
of
product
by
trained
panels
(Lawless
&
Heymann,
1999;
Murray,
Delahunty,
&
Baxter
2001).
The
mean
sensory
ratings
for
the
samples
and
the
analysis
of
variance
are
presented
in
Table
4.
The
results
showed
that
there
were
significant
differences
in
the
intensity
of
some
attributes.
The
dry
acid
whey
in
both
type
of
breads,
wheat
and
wheat-rye,
posi-
tively
affected
on
crust
color,
sweet
and
yeast
odor,
sweet,
bitter
and
acidulous
taste
or
mastication
of
experimental
bread.
Only
"bread
taste"
was
negative
attribute
in
both
experimental
breads.
Compared
to
the
control
samples
bread
with
acid
whey
had
the
significantly
lower
overall
quality
values.
Sady,
Jaworska,
Grega,
Bernas,
and
Domagala
(2013)
found
that
the
overall
sensory
Table
3
Texture
profile
of
experimental
breads.
Materials
Hardness
[N]
Springiness
Cohesiveness
Chewiness
[N]
2h
T500
8.08
±
1.22c
1.13
±
0.01a
0.84
±
0.02a
7.89
±
1.28c
T500
+
20%U
17.41
±
2.42a
0.95
±
0.01b
0.74
±
0.01d
12.13
±
1.60a
7750
7.46
±
1.71c
1.10
±
0.01a
0.82
±
0.03b
7.41
±
2.16cd
7750
+
20%U
15.56
±
1.05b
0.92
±
0.01b
0.71
±
0.01e
10.24
±
0.61b
WR
836
±
1.20c
0.99
±
0.02b
0.78
±
0.03c
6.45
±
1.04d
WR
+
20%U
15.26
±
1.41b
0.93
±
0.02b
0.73
±
0.01de
10.28
±
0.89b
24
h
T500
12.89
±
1.71c
1.00
±
0.02a
0.75
±
0.04a
10.94
±
352c
T500
+
20%U
33.56
±
4.03a
0.91
±
0.01b
052
±
0.02c
15.95
±
2.08a
7750
12.13
±
1.88c
1.02
±
0.09a
0.74
±
0.02a
9.16
±
1.78d
7750
+
20%U
30.45
±
2.81b
0.90
±
0.01b
056
±
0.01b
15.42
±
1.62ab
WR
8.87
±
1.22d
1.01
±
0.06a
0.74
±
0.04a
6.60
±
0.89e
WR
+
20%U
28.69
±
4.28b
0.88
±
0.02b
057
±
0.03b
1435
±
1.93b
Abbreviations
as
in
Table
1.
Data
expressed
as
mean
±
standard
deviation
(n
=
3).
Different
letters
within
the
same
column
indicate statistically
significant
differences
at
p
<
0.05
in
Fisher
test.
evaluation
of
orange
beverages
with
acid
whey
was
2-10%
lower
than
of
other
orange
beverages.
In
the
case
of
sweet
whey
the
sensory
evaluation
indicates
improvement
of
overall
quality.
Bilgin,
Daglioglu,
and
Konyali
(2006)
reported
increase
the
overall
acceptability
after
the
supplementation
of
bread
with
whey
protein
concentrated
powder.
Also
Jooyandeh
(2009)
observed
that
whey
protein
increased
acceptability
and
taste
of
Iranian
lavash
flat
bread.
The
experimental
bakery
products
may
be
deemed
health-
promoting
in
an
everyday
diet
through
its
supplementation
with
important
elements,
stimulation
of
low
molecular
milk
proteins
accessibility
and
possibility
of
utilizing
lactose
as
a
substrate
for
the
growth
of
microbiota
beneficial
for
human
health.
4.
Conclusion
The
results
obtained
in
this
study
indicate
that
acid
whey
concentrated
by
ultrafiltration
could
be
used
as
a
functional
ingredient
of
wheat
and
wheat-rye
baking
products,
especially
due
to
high
concentrations
of
elements
significant
for
well-being.
However,
the
portion
of
dried
whey
concentrate
less
than
20%
Table
4
Mean
descriptive
analysis
ratings
of
bread.
Attributes
7750 7750
+
20%U
WR
WR
+
20%U
Crust
color
239b
6.41a
234b
6.73a
Crumb
color
3.70a 3.02a
4.23a
354a
Porosity
3.15a 3.28a
2.55a
2.87a
0-cereal
333ab
2.23b
4.84a
3.63ab
0-sweet
152b
3.16a
1.14b
1.86ab
0-yeast
2.76b
453a
2.24b
339ab
0-bread
4.60ab
3.62b
5.88a
4.73ab
0-acidulous
138a
2.03a
2.00a
258a
F-sweet
1.45ab
252a
1.12b
2.63a
F-cereal
3.98ab
235b
4.69a
3.19ab
F-bitter
0.18b
158a
0.2b
1.24a
F-bread
5.05a
3.51bc
5.83a
4.22b
F-acidulous
1.26b
3.41a
136b
3.08a
F-yeast
252a
35a
2.49a
3.46a
Aftertaste
2.49a
355a
239a
3.15a
T-springiness
5.94a
535a
5.88a
5.26a
T-elasticity
3.26a
2.98a
331a
2.86a
T-mastication
3.28b
4.71a
3.27b
454a
T-adhesiveness
351a
458a
3.56a
458a
T-moistness
3.42a
358a
3.74a
3.8a
Overall
quality
6.10a
451b
639a
4.92b
Abbreviations
as
in
Table
1.
0
=
odor,
T
=
texture,
F
=
taste.
Data
expressed
as
mean
±
standard
deviation
(n
=
3).
Range
of
sensory
scores:
0
-
none,
10
-
very
intensive.
a
Different
letters
within
the
same
row
indicate
statistically
significant
differences
at
p
<
0.05
in
Fisher
test.
176
M.
Wronkowska
et
at
/
LWT
-
Food
Science
and
Technology
61
(2015)
172-176
w/w
in
the
baking
formula
is
suggested
for
better
sensory
profile.
Moreover,
the
technological
process
in
the
stages
of
fermentation
and
bread
making
should
be
improved.
Currently,
in
vivo
studies
are
undertaken
to
confirm
the
health-beneficial
effect
of
these
breads.
Acknowledgments
This
research
was
partly
supported
by
the
Grant
No
N
R12
0086
06
from
the
National
Centre
for
Research
and
Development
in
Poland
and
could
be
used
as
a
part
of
the
PhD
thesis
of
Monika
Jadacka.
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