Effects of phosphate fertilization, lime amendments and inoculation with VA-mycorrhizal fungi on soybeans in an acid soil
Maddox, J.; Soileau, J.
Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences 134(1): 83-93
Soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Essex] were grown in nonsterile acid (pH. 5.2) infertile Wynnville silt loam (Glossic Fragiudult) in a glasshouse. The effects of P fertilization and lime were determined by inoculation with two VAM-fungi (VAMF): Glomus fasciculatum (Gf) and Glomus etunicatum (Ge). An important factor affected by the interaction between applied lime (soil acidity), applied P, and VAMF inoculation was the soil Al. Five application rates of P as KH2PO4 and three rates of lime were tested. Potassium was equalized with KCl (muriate of potash). P-efficiency (g seed/mg P kg-1 soil) by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) was maximal at 20 mg P kg-1 soil at all lime and VAMF treatments. VAMF inoculation increased plant survival and protected the soybeans from leaf scorch, thereby substituting for the effects of lime and P. The Ge inoculum was superior in ameliorating leaf scorch in the nonlimed soil. The Gf inoculum required more lime and P than the Ge inoculum to increase seed yield relative to the noninoculated controls containing only native VAMF. Both inocula increased root Al uptake and extractable soil Al in the acid soil without apparent adverse effects on root or shoot. The ability of the VAMF inocula to enhance the efficiency of applied P and decrease seed Cl concentration was increased by lime. Seed yield (Y) was negatively related to seed Cl concentration (X) where Y = aX-b. Both VAMF inoculation and lime application reduced this negative relationship and may have increased the tolerance to both Cl and soil Al.