The effects of lime-pelleting and lime-superphosphate fertilizer on the growth of three annual legumes in an acid sandy soil


Cordero, S.; Blair, G.J.

Plant and Soil 50(2): 257-268

1978


3 pioneer pasture legume spp., Trifolium subterraneum, T. glomeratum and Ornithopus compressus, were grown at Armidale, New South Wales in a sandy soil of pH 5.0. The growth and nodulation of each sp. was examined in the presence and absence of lime pelleting and with superphosphate and lime-superphosphate fertilizer. In each sp. tested, plant yield, nodule number and N recovery was max. where lime pelleting and lime-superphosphate were applied together. Plant Ca content indicated that the response to lime was due to changes in soil pH rather than to a Ca response. T. glomeratum was the sp. most responsive to lime application but its growth was at best only 50% of that of T. subterraneum and O. compressus, which produced equally under both favourable (pH 5.9) and unfavourable (pH 4.4) conditions created by fertilizer applications.

Plant
and
Soil
50,
257-268
(1978)
Ms.
3534
THE
EFFECTS
OF
LIME-PELLETING
AND
LIME-SUPERPHOSPHATE
FERTILIZER
ON
THE
GROWTH
OF
THREE
ANNUAL
LEGUMES
IN
AN
ACID
SANDY
SOIL
by
SANTOS
CORDERO*
and
GRAEME
J.
BLAIR
Department
of
Agronomy
and
Soil
Science,
University
of
New
England,
Armidale,
N.S.W.
2351,
Australia
SUMMARY
Three
pioneer
pasture
legume
species,
Tritohum
subterraneum,
Trifolium
glonteratunt
and
Ornithopus
compressus,
were
grown
in
a
sandy
soil
of
pH
5.0.
The
growth
and
nodulation
of
each
species
was
examined
in
the
presence
and
absence
of
lime
pelleting
and
with
superphosphate
and
lime-superphos-
phate
fertilizer.
In
each
species
tested,
plant
yield,
nodule
number
and
ni-
trogen
recovery
as
maximal
where
lime
pelleting
and
lime-super
were
applied
together.
Plant
calcium
indicated
that
the
response
to
lime
was
due
to
changes
in
soil
pH
rather
than
to
a
calcium
response.
T.
glonieraturn
was
the
species
most
responsive
to
lime
application
but
its
growth
was
at
best
only
half
that
of
T.
subterranean
and
0.
compressus,
which
produced
equally
under
both
favourable
(pH
5.9)
and
unfavourable
(pH
4.4)
conditions
created
by
fertilizer
applications.
INTRODUCTION
The
increasing
cost
of
pasture
development
has
brought
about
a
renewed
interest
in
species
of
plants
that
are
able
to
produce
and
persist
under
low
fertility
conditions.
There
are
large
areas
of
the
world
with
acid
sandy
soils
that
remain
undeveloped
and
the
estab-
lishment
of
productive
legumes
is
of
prime
importance
in
their
development.
With
conventional
pasture
improvement
techniques
these
soils
require
high
initial
fertilizer
applications,
which
often
adversely
affect
the
survival
of
the
introduced
rhizobia
and
the
prompt
nodulation
of
pasture
legumes.
*
Present
address:
Institute
Nacional
de
Investigaciones
Agraris,
General
Mola,
41-1°,
Salamanca,
Spain.
258
SANTOS
CORDERO
AND
GRAEME
J.
BLAIR
Early
experiments
6
demonstrated
the detrimental
effect
of
super-
phosphate
on
the
nodulation
of
legumes
when
sown
in
contact
with
the
seed.
The
use
of
neutralized
fertilizer
helped
to
overcome
the
problem
in
most
cases.
A
common
practice
with
temperate
legumes
has
been
the
use
of
neutralized
superphosphate
(50:50
lime-super),
rock
phosphate,
and
more
recently,
lime
pelleting
of
seeds
1
5
8
16
.
It
is
known
that
the
need
for
lime
application
to
modify
soil
pH
varies
widely
in
different
situations.
Lon
er
ag
a
n
et
al.
1
-
6
found
that
very
small
amounts
of
lime
placed
around
the
seed
by
lime
pelleting
was
a
cheap
and
satisfactory
way
of
improving
nodulation
in
some
circumstances.
N
orris
20
has
come
out
against
the
general
use
of
lime
pelleting
as
a
principle,
especially
for
species
with
acid
tolerant
Rhizobium,
like
the
majority
of
the
tropical
legumes.
Detrimental
effects
of
lime
pelleting
on
the
nodulation
of
serradella
(Ornithopus
compressus
L.)
have
also
been
reported
21
.
In
later
experiments
23
lime
pelleting
depressed
the
nodulation
of
serradella
in
three
out
of
seven
trials
where
agar
culture
was
used
and
two
out
of
four
trials
where
peat
culture
was
used.
From
these
experiments
it
was
con-
cluded
that
in
some
cases
nodulation
of
serradella
may
be
improved
by
using
lime
pelleting
while
in
others
a
depression
in
nodulation
may
occur.
The
experiment
reported
in
this
paper
was
conducted
to
examine
the
effect
of
lime
pelleting
and
lime-superphosphate
fertilizer
on
on
the
nodulation
and
growth
of
three
acid
tolerant
legume
species,
namely
subterranean
clover,
Trifolium
subterraneum
L.
cluster
clover,
Trifoliurn
glomeratum
L.
and
serradella,
Ornithopus
com-
pressus
L.
when
these
legumes
were
grown
on
a
sandy
soil
of
low
pH
typical
of
large
areas
of
unimproved
land
in
Southern
Australia.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
The
soil
used
in
this
pot
experiment
was
a
surface
soil
(0-15
cm)
of
coarse
texture,
derived
from
granite,
which
came
from
Yooroonah,
45
km
east
of
Armidale,
on
the
Northern
Tablelands
of
N.S.W.,
Australia.
The
surface
soil
is
a
grey-brown
gravelly
sand,
changing
to
a
gritty
sandy
loam
with
depth,
and
weathering
granite
may
occur
at
less
than
60
cm
from
the
surface.
In
some
places
there
is
a
faint
horizon
of
iron
accumulation
about
30
cm
from
the
surface
18
.
Chemical
analysis
of
the
soil
is
shown
in
Table
I.
The
soil
was
sieved
through
a
10
mm
screen
and
1510
g
of
dry
soil
put
in
each
round
cross-section
plastic
pot
lined
with
a
plastic
bag
to
prevent
drain-
(
3
)
T.
subterraneuul
T.
glameratum
0.
cornpressus
(2)
Rhizobium
Rhizobium
lime
pellet
(2)
Superphosphate
(
3
)
4
weeks
7
weeks
50:50
lime-super
10
weeks
LIME
AND
ANNUAL
LEGUME
GROWTH
259
TABLE
1
Chemical
analysis
of
the
experimental
soil
pH
(soil:water
1:5)
NO3
-
-N
water
extract)
504—S
(Ca(H2PO4)s
extract)
P(Olsen's
bicarbonate)
O.M.
(ignition)
Cl
(water
extract)
Salt
conductivity
5.0
1.0
ppm
8.5
ppm
6.0
ppm
1.38%
20.0
ppm
0.045
mhos/cm
Exchangeable
Ca
0.90
meq/100g
Mg
0.55
meg/100g
Ii
0.18
meg/100g
Na
0.15
meg/100g
Base
Saturation
23%
D.P.T.A.
extractable
Fe
47
ppm
Cu
1.1
ppm
Mn
23
ppm
Zn
1.2
ppm
TABLE
2
Nutrients
applied
as
a
basal
dressing
to
each
pot
Salt
Rate
(mg/pot)
ZnSO4.7H20
CuSO4.5H20
Na2Mo04.2H20
Na2B407.
10H20
K
2
504
MgSO4
.71
-
120
10
6
4
1
260
10
age.
All
pots
received
a
basal
fertilizer
dressing
to
minimize
any
effect
of
lime
in
correcting
or
inducing
deficiencies
of
any
of
these
elements,
and
in
parti-
cular,
to
minimize
any
differential
effects
of
such
deficiencies
between
species.
The
fertilizer
was
mixed
with
the
total
quantity
of
soil
and
the
amounts
ap-
plied
are
shown
in
Table
2.
A
factorial
design
with
three
replications
of
the
following
combination
of
treatments
was
used:
Species
X
Seed
pelleting
x
Fertilizer
x
Harvests
Single
superphosphate
(9%
P)
was
mixed
with
the
soil
in
all
pots
at
a
rate
of
40
ppm
P
as
a
very
fine
powder.
An
equivalent
weight
of
agricultural
lime
was
added
with
the
superphosphate
in
half
of
the
pots.
260
SANTOS
CORDERO
AND
GRAEME
J.
BLAIR
Inoculation
with
the
appropriate
Rhizobium
culture
was
done
in
the
labo-
ratory
by
wetting
seeds
with
adhesive
plus
Rhizobium
peat
culture
(4
parts
cellofas
'A'
glue:
1
part
peat:
60
parts
seeds).
Half
of
the
pots
were
sown
with
seed
that
was
inoculated
in
the
same
way
and
that
was
subsequently
lime
coated.
Plants
were
thinned
to
six
per
pot
at
the
one
leaf
stage
and
the
pots
watered
to
field
capacity
twice
weekly.
Plants
were
harvested
at
different
stages
of
growth
(4,
7
and
10
weeks)
and
examined
for
nodulation.
Nodules
were
recorded
as
(a)
number
occurring
with-
in
2.5
cm
of
the
crown
of
the
plant
(crown)
and
(b)
number
elsewhere
in
the
roots
(non-crown).
Plant
leaf
area
measurements
were
made
by
two
different
methods
during
the
early
stages
of
growth
by
the
graphic
method
26
and
at
the
later
stages
(7
and
10
weeks)
by
the
air
flow
planimeter.
The
fractions
of
the
harvested
plant
(tops
and
roots)
were
oven
dried
at
80°C
for
24
hours
and
weighed
before
grinding
for
chemical
analysis.
Nitrogen
and
phosphorus
content
in
the
plant
tissues
were
analyzed
in
a
Technicon
Autoanalyzer
using
samples
from
a
single
digestion
with
sulphuric
acid
and
hydrogen
peroxide
24
.
Calcium
was
analyzed
by
Atomic
Absorption
Spectro-
metry
on
the
same
digest.
In
order
to
clarify
the
tables
and
figures
presented
in
the
results,
a
short
expression
of
the
treatments
has
been
adopted
as
follows:
lime
pelleting
superphosphate
mixed
with
lime
(P/LS);
lime
pelleting
-I-
superphosphate
alone
(P/S);
no
lime
pelleting
+
superphosphate
mixed
with
lime
(
/LS)
and
no
lime
pelleting
+
superphosphate
alone
(—
IS).
RESULTS
Leal
area
and
dry
matter
yields
The
presence
of
lime,
either
as
a
seed
coating
or
as
a
lime-super-
phosphate
mixture
resulted
in
a
significant
increase
in
leaf
area
of
all
species
after
10
weeks
(Fig.
1).
T.
subterraneum.
Differences
were
evident
after
4
weeks
with
the
treatment
receiving
both
lime
pelleting
and
lime-super
fertilizer
having
the
greatest
leaf
area
(Fig.
1).
This
difference
was
not
sig-
nificant
in
top
yield
at
this
time
(Table
3)
although
root
growth
was
greatly
enhanced
by
lime
pelleting
and
lime-super
fertilizer.
At
7
and
10
weeks
the
leaf
area
of
T.
subterraneum
plants
was
greatest
in
the
pelleted
lime-super
(P/LS)
and
least
in
the
unpelleted
treat-
ment
with
superhosphate
(—/S).
Dry
matter
yield
of
tops
at
10
weeks
was
greatest
where
pelleting
or
lime-super
was
applied
and
least
where
super
was
applied
alone.
Root
yields
were
significantly
higher
where
either
pelleting
or
lime-super
was
applied.
T.
GLOMERATUM
a
b
b
P/
LS
P/5
be
/
o
/LS
a
—/S
a
b
N
5
LIME
AND
A
NN
UAL
LE
GUM
E
G
RO
WTH
P/LS
o
—/
LS
P/S
O.COMPRESSUS
N
/
/
o
/
/
/
/
/
1
1
;
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
//
NS
//
NS
/
1
N
350
300
a
b
P/
LS
P/S
250
T.
SUBTERRANEUM
/LS
Cs
.>
bc
a.
0
200
bc
I
—/S
.4
150
1
U-
Lu
1
r
ob
ob
NS
NS
100
50
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
TIME
(weeks after
sowing)
Fig.
1.
The
effect
of
lime
pelleting
and
fertilizer
on
the
leaf
area
of
legume
species
over
a
ten
week
period
262
SANTOS
CORDERO
AND
GRAEME
J.
BLAIR
TABLE
3
The
effect
of
fertilizer
and
lime
pelleting
of
seed
on
the
dry
matter
yield
of
tops
and
roots
at
4,
7
and
10
weeks
Species
Tops
yield
(mg
D.M./pot)
Roots
yield
(mg
D.M./pot)
PALS
P/S
-BLS
-/S
PALS
P/S
-
/LS
-/S
4
week
harvest
1'.
sublerraneum
158.
141.
1160
5
113."
131"
1011..
85"
87.0
T.
glomeralum
79
5
e
60e
26e"
19"
530
42Ps
30Pq
225
0.
compressus
153.
159. 165.
157.
89..
99m.
92.
7
week
harvest
T.
sublerrancunt
1346.
781
5
e"
848
5
"
5070"e
1308..
624.0
878m.
496..
T.
glomeratum
435der
218.'5
142"5
11"
564.0
182..
177..
11"
0.
compressus
1153."
977.b
1122.
5
756"ed
767.
638.0
707"
535.0
10
week
harvest
T.
sublerraneum
4197.
13
.
372050"
3453
Inde
2381er
3992m.
3095"o
3118..
1762.5
T.
glomeratum
2846der
1840'5
12115
52
5
4579.
1472.5
7305r
59r
0.
comPressus
5224"
4567."
4607"
5
3124e(ie
3070.0
2104..
2371..
1432PC
Roots
and
tops
means
within
harvest
sharving
the
same
letter
are
not
significantly
dif-
ferent
at
5%
by
the
studentized
range
test
T.
glomeralum.
This
species
recorded
the
lowest
tops
and
root
yield
of
the
three
species
tested
at
each
of
the
three
harvests.
There
was
a
marked
response
in
dry
matter
yield
and
leaf
area
to
lime
pel-
leting
at
4
weeks
both
in
the
presence
of
straight
superphosphate
or
lime-super
fertilizers.
The
response
from
unpelleted/superphos-
phate
to
pelleted/lime-super
(P/LS)
was
significant
in
both
tops
and
roots
at
7
weeks
and
pelleting
and
the
addition
of
super
or
lime-
super
(P/S,
P/LS)
gave
significantly
greater
yields
at
10
weeks
than
straight
superphosphate
(Table
3).
In
the
treatments
in
which
no
seed
pelleting
was
used,
symptoms
of
nitrogen
deficiency
appeared
in
both
clover
species
in
the
4th
week,
but
these
symptoms
diminished
with
time
where
lime-super
was
applied.
In
the
7th
week,
the
older
leaves
of
both
clovers
showed
leaf
scorch
in
the
same
non-pelleting
pots,
suggesting
a
possible
phosphorus
toxicity
9
22
.
0.
combressus.
No
significant
response
in
leaf
area
or
dry
matter
yield
was
recorded
at
the
harvests
made
at
4
and
7
weeks.
After
10
weeks
leaf
area
was
reduced
significantly
in
the
treatment
receiving
superphosphate
alone
(-/S)
and
the
pelleted
or
lime-super
treat-
LIME
AND
ANNUAL
LEGUME
GROWTH
263
ment
(P/LS,
-
/LS,
P/S)
yielded
significantly
more
than
the
un-
pelleted
one
with
superphosphate
(-/S)
(Table
3).
Plant
calcium
The
calcium
concentration
in
the
tops
and
roots
of
both
T.
glomeratum
and
0.
compressus
was
unaffected
by
the
application
of
lime
either
as
a
seed
pellet
or
a
in
a
fertilizer
(lime
:super).
The
mean
Ca
concentration
in
these
species
was
1.58%
in
tops
and
0.5%
in
roots.
In
T.
subterraneum
the
application
of
lime
either
as
a
seed
pellet
or
in
a
fertilizer
increased
the
tops
Ca
concentration
from
1.05%
to
1.60%
but
had
no
effect
on
the
calcium
concentration
of
the
roots.
Plant
phosphorus
The
chemical
analysis
of
plants
harvested
at
10
weeks
showed
no
significant
effect
of
lime
on
the
P
concentration
in
either
roots
or
tops.
Overall
P
concentrations
varied
from
0.17%
to
0.25%
P
with
no
significant
difference
between
tops
and
roots.
Nodulation
and
plant
nitrogen
Nodule
number
was
counted
at
4
and
7
weeks.
A
significant
(P
<
0.01)
difference
in
nodule
number
was
found
between
species
both
in
the
crown
and
non-crown
parts
of
the
roots
(Table
4).
The
nodules
TABLE
4
Nodule
number
per
plant
at
4
and
7
weeks
Nodule
location
Harvest
4
weeks
Harvest
7
weeks
P/LS
P/S
-
/LS
-/S
P/LS
P/S
-
/LS
-/S
Trilotium
subterraneum
Crown
14.1"
8.0"""
9.3"
2.9"cd
26.0"
23.2"
10.8"
9.3"
Non-crown
7.6
4
".
2.3."
3.8"""
0.8"
27.2"
12.0"
25.9"
7.1"
Trilotium
glomeratuin
Crown
3
.
3a"
3
.
410
0
.
7"
0
.
3"
10.1"
7.3"c
0.1"
Non-crown
7.3.
1.7"
2.0"
0.3"
33.7"
10.0"
6.7""
0.4.d
Ornithopus
compressus
Crown
7.6"
5.4."
7.0."
7.3a
7.1
b
a
5.6"
8.7.""
2.0a
Non-crown
0.5"
0.5"
0.9"
0.1aa
11.1""
7.2".
12.7"
6.8"c
Within
species
and
harvests
numbers
followed
by
the
same
letter
are
not
significantly
different
by
the
studentized
range
test.
264
SANTOS
CORDER()
AND
GRAEME
J.
BLAIR
of
0.
compressus
were
generally
larger
in
size
and
fewer
in
number
than
in
T.
subterraneuni,
while
in
T.
glomeratum
there
was
a
large
number
of
small
nodules.
No
significant
effect
of
treatment
on
crown
nodule
number
was
measured
in
T.
subterraneum
at
4
weeks,
but
a
trend
towards
higher
nodule
numbers
where
pelleting
and
lime-super
(P/LS)
was
applied
was
evident.
Significantly
lower
non-crown
nodulation
was
found
where
lime
was
omitted
(—/S)
(Table
4).
At
7
weeks
pelleted
treat-
ments
(P/S,
P/LS)
had
a
greater
number
of
crown
nodules
than
non-
pelleted
treatments
(—/S,
—/LS).
A
higher
noncrown
number
was
found
in
the
treatments
receiving
lime-super
(—/LS,
P/LS)
at
this
time.
In
T.
glomeratum
the
nodule
number
in
the
crown
was
increased
significantly
be
seed
pelleting
(P
<0.05)
at
7
weeks.
Where
both
seed
pelleting
and
lime-super
were
applied
together,
the
nodulation
in
the
non-crown
parts
of
the
root
was
increased
at
4
and
7
weeks,
with
greater
differences
evident
at
7
weeks.
Crown
nodulation
in
0.
compressus
was
reduced
significantly
at
7
weeks
where
no
lime
was
applied
(—/S).
Non-crown
nodules
were
unaffected
by
pelleting
or
fertilizer
in
this
species.
Nodulation
and
total
plant
N
varied
markedly
between
species
and
between
treatments
for
each
species.
The
differences
in
plant
N
contents
reflect
the
differences
in
nodulation
between
the
species
and
the
effect
of
the
applied
fertilizer.
The
application
of
lime
either
as
a
pellet
or
added
with
the
super-
phosphate
(P/S,
P/LS,
—/LS)
resulted
in
a
significantly
higher
N
recovery
in
both
T.
subterraneuni
and
0.
compressus
when
compared
to
superphosphate
alone
(Table
5).
There
was
a
ten-fold
increase
in
TABLE
5
Total
plant
N
per pot
(mg)
at
10
weeks
Species
Total
plant
N
(mg/pot)
P/LS
P/S
—/LS
—/S
T.
subterraneunt
177.1
6
158.0
8
145.8ab
89.7e
T.
glonteration
163.88
74.0
00
45.1
0
4.18
0.
compressus
199.0
8
162.8
6
165.1
8
107.2e.
Numbers
followed
by
the
same
letter
are
not
significantly
different
at
5%
by
the
student-
ized
range
test.
LIME
AND
ANNUAL
LEGUME
GROWTH
265
N
recovery
in
T.
glomeratum
when
lime-super
was
used
(—/LS)
in-
stead
of
straight
super
(—/S).
A
further
doubling
in
N
recovery
was
obtained
when
pelleting
was
used
(P/S)
and
a
further
doubling
when
pelleting
and
lime-super
were
applied
together
(P/LS).
Soil
pH
Because
of
the
sandy
nature
and
the
low
CEC
of
the
soil
used
in
this
experiment,
the
application
of
both
superphosphate
and
lime
produced
changes
in
the
soil
pH
(1
part
soil
:
5
parts
water).
The
mean
values
of
4
bulk
soil
samples
for
each
treatment
were
as
fol-
lows:
—/S
4.4;
P/S
4.6;
/LS
5.4;
P/LS
5.9.
The
pH
values
recorded
were
for
the
bulk
of
the
soil
and
it
would
be
anticipated
that
the
local
pH
around
the
seed
would
be
higher
than
the
value
shown
where
lime
pelleting
was
used
(P/—,
P/LS).
DISCUSSION
The
pattern
of
response
to
lime
pelleting
and
lime-super
in
T.
subterraneum
in
this
experiment
is
similar
to
those
reported
ear-
li
er
3
4
7
11
13
16
25.
There
is
a
considerable
improvement
in
growth
when
lime
is
applied
as
a
pellet
or
as
lime-super
fertilizer.
The
addi-
tion
of
lime
as
a
pellet
and
lime-super
fertilizer
resulted
in
a
specta-
cular
growth
response
in
T.
glomeratum.
The
addition
of
lime
to
0.
compressus,
either
as
a
pellet
or
a
fertilizer,
did
not
result
in
any
depression
of
yield
or
nodulation
such
as
reported
by
Parker
and
Oakley
21
.
The
yield
and
N
recovery
increases
produced
by
lime
in
the
pre-
sent
experiment
may
be
attributable
mainly
to
the
effects
on
the
soil
acidity
rather
than
calcium.
This
conclusion
is
supported
by
(a)
the
relatively
high
Ca
level
in
plants
in
all
the
treatments
showing
that
the
Ca
contained
in
the
superphosphate
was
sufficient
to
main-
tain
plant
levels
above
the
1%
considered
critical
9
17
12
and
(b)
the
non-proportional
increase
in
yield
corresponding
to
increasing
amounts
of
Ca
applied.
The
higher
soil
pH
measured
in
this
experiment
as
a
consequence
of
lime
application
was
associated
with
higher
crown
nodulation
in
the
clovers
and
an
overall
increase
in
nodule
number
for
all
species.
There
is
a
general
belief
that
rhizobia
are
more
sentitive
to
acidity
than
the
host
plant,
particularly
Trifolium
spp.
2
15
.
There
are
strain
266
SANTOS
CORDERO
AND
GRAEME
J.
BLAIR
differences
in
tolerance
to
acid
soils,
R.
meliloti
being
the
least
tole-
rant
(tolerates
pH
5.5),
R.
Oil
olii
tolerates
pH
4.5,
and
the
slow
growing
rhizobia,
such
as
R.
lupini
and
R.
japonicum
being
the
most
tolerant,
with
limits
of
pH
3.2
to
4.2
10
.
On
the
other
hand
some
workers
have
reported
nodulation
within
the
full
range
of
pH
suit-
able
for
plant
growth,
and
Jense
ri
12
found
that
the
N
fixing
function
of
already
formed
nodules
on
clover
plants
does
not
cease
at
a
pH
too
acid
for
the
formation
of
nodules.
The
range
of
pH
values
of
the
soil
obtained
by
treatments
in
this
experiment
varied
from
4.4
to
5.9,
thus
the
differences
in
plant
growth
may
be
attributable
to
both
rhizobium
survival
and
to
the
plant's
ability
to
grow
at
these
lower
pH
levels.
The
small
amount
of
lime
around
the
inoculum
provides
a
micro-environment
favour-
able
for
Rhizobium
survival
and
growth,
but
the
quantity
applied
is
insufficient
to
prevent
the
harmful
effect
of
low
pH
on
the
growth
of
the
host
plant.
T.
subterraneum
will
grow
satisfactorily
in
soils
with
extremely
low
pH.
Such
soils
are
sufficiently
acid
to
reduce
the
survival
and
growth
of
Rhizobium,
but
once
infection
has
taken
place
the
Rhizobium
is
protected
from
the
acid
conditions
14
The
difference
in
response
between
the
two
clovers,
using
the
same
inoculum,
may
be
explained
by
their
ability
to
grow
at
a
low
pH,
or
by
their
different
affinity
with
the
inoculum
used,
or
both.
As
T.
glonieratum
has
been
found
growing
only
in
soils
with
pH
between
5
and
7
in
South
Australia
27
probably
the
additive
effects
of
pH
and
rhizobia
pH
tolerance
should
be
considered
in
this
species.
Despite
the
better
adaptation
of
R.
lupini
to
low
soil
pH,
the
application
of
lime
increased
the
nodulation,
plant
nitrogen
content
and
plant
yield
in
0.
compressus.
Seed
pelleting
with
lime
does
not
consistently
enhance
serradella
nodulation,
according
to
the
observations
made
by
Shipton
and
Parker
23
in
Western
Australia.
In
the
present
experiment
the
soil
pH
was
lower
than
that
used
by
Shipton
and
Parker
23
,
and
this
may
explain
the
apparent
difference
in
results.
The
increase
in
yield
in
0.
compressus
resulting
from
the
application
of
lime
reported
in
this
paper
contrasts
with
the
yield
depression
reported
earlier
21
.
It
could
be
that
at
the
low
pH
in
the
present
experiment
the
peat
culture
protected
the
Rhizobium
better
than
the
agar
culture
used
in
the
earlier
work
21
.
The
additive
effects
of
lime
and
superphosphate
on
the
nodulation
in
the
lower
parts
of
the
roots
may
be
explained
by
a
better
growth
LIME
AND
ANNUAL
LEGUME
GROWTH
267
of
the
rhizobia
with
the
lime
pelleting
during
the
first
stages
of
plant
growth,
and
afterwards
the
added
effect
of
the
bigger
root
development
and
more
favourable
soil
pH
conditions
for
rhizobial
survival
and
infection
in
the
lower
parts
of
the
pot.
The
marked
responses
in
nodulation
resulting
from
fertilizer
ad-
ditions
reported
in
this
paper
indicates
that
this
aspect
of
establish-
ment
should
be
carefully
considered
before
comparisons
are
made
be-
tween
species
on
a
broad
scale.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The
final
support
of
the
Australian
Meat
Research
Committee
(Project
UNE
3S)
and
the
comments
and
suggestions
of
our
colleagues
at
the
Univer-
sity
of
New
England
are
gratefully
acknowledged.
Received
19
July
1977
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12
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E.
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24
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469-477
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16
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17
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18
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19
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C.
R.,
Relative
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sub-
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164-77
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20
Norris,
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The
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107-121
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21
Parker,
C.
A.
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A.
E.,
Reduced
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serradella
due
to
the
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Husb.
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144-146
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22
Rossi
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R.
C.,
P
toxicity
in
subclover
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oats
and
modifying
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and
N.
Austr.
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Agric.
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6,
1-8
(1952).
23
Shi
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W.
A.
and
Parker,
C.
A.,
Nodulation
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serradella
when
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with
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and
agar
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Austr.
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Exp.
Agric.
Anim.
Husb.
7,
259-62
(1967).
24
Thomas,
R.
L.,
Sheard,
R.
W.
and
Moyer,
J.,
Comparison
of
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and
automated
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for
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P
and
K
analysis
of
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a
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gestion.
Agron.
J.
59,
240-43
(1967).
25
Thompson,
J.
A.,
Studies
on
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to
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of
sub-clover.
Austr.
J.
Agric.
Res.
12,
578-92
(1961).
26
Williams,
R.
F.,
Evans,
L.
T.
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Ludwig,
L.
J.,
(1964).
Estimation
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231-233
(1964).
27
Woodward,
R.
G.
and
Morley,
F.
H.
W.,
Variation
in
Australian
and
European
T.
glomeratum
and
the
provisional
distribution
of
the
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J.
Agric.
Res.
25,
73-88
(1974).