Effects of lime and fertilizer application on soil solution composition in an acid sandy forest soil


Marschner, B.; Renger, M.; Stahr, K.

Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 154(5): 343-348

1991


In a 40 year old pine stand, soil solution was collected continuously with suction cups from 50 and 200 cm depth over a 42-month period following the surface application of lime and K/Mg-fertilizer. K and Mg showed a much higher mobility than Ca, which hardly increased in 200 cm depth even after 42 months. After an initial nitrate peak, concentrations decreased but remained elevated throughout the entire study period. In 200 cm, Al-, Mn, and Cd-concentrations increased due to exchange processes in the top-soil. Continuously elevated sulfate concentrations in 200 cm indicate S-mineralisation from human decomposition.

343
Effects
of
Lime
and
Fertilizer
Application
on
Soil
Solution
Composition
in
an
Acid
Sandy
Forest
Soil
Bernd
Marschner,
Manfred
Renger,
and
Karl
Stahr
11J
Berlin,
Institut
fiir
Okologie,
FG
Bodenkunde,
Salzufer
11-12,
1000
Berlin
10,
FRG
Angenommen:
13.
April
1991
Summary
-
Zusammenfassung
In
a
40
year
old
pine
stand,
soil
solution
was
collected
continuously
with
suction
cups
from
50
and
200
cm
depth
over
a
42-month
period
following
the
surface
application
of
lime
and
K/Mg-fertilizer.
K
and
Mg
showed
a
much
higher
mobility
than
Ca,
which
hardly
increased
in
200
cm
depth
even
after
42
months.
After
an
initial
nitrate
peak,
concentra-
tions
decreased
but
remained
elevated
throughout
the
entire
study
period.
In
200
Cm,
Al-,
Mn,
and
Cd-concentrations
increased
due
to
exchange
processes
in
the
top-soil.
Continuously
elevated
sulfate
concentrations
in
200
cm
indicate
S-mineralisation
from
humus
decomposition.
Einflun
einer
Kalkung/Diingung
auf
die
chemische
Zusammensetzung
der
Bodenlosung
einer
sandigen
Rostbraunerde
unter
Kiefer
Nach
einer
Kalkung
und
K/Mg-DUngung
in
einem
40-jahrigen
Kiefem-
bestand
auf
Rostbraunerde
wurden
BodenlOsungen
Ober
einen
Zeitraum
von
42
Monaten
aus
50
und
200
cm
Tiefe
mit
Hilfe
von
Saugkerzen
gewonnen.
K
und
Mg
wurden
wesentlich
rascher
verlagert
als
Ca,
das
auch
nach
42
Monaten
in
200
cm
Tiefe
noch
nicht
erhoht
war.
Nach
einem
anfAnglichen
Nitratschub
nahmen
die
Konzentrationen
rasch
wieder
ab,
blieben
aber
wahrend
des
gesamten
MeBzeitraums
gegenilber
der
Kontrol-
le
erhOht.
AI,
Mn
und
Cd
wurden
im
Oberboden
durch
Austauschprozesse
mobilisiert.
Erhohte
Sulfat-Konzentrationen
in
200
cm
Tiefe
werden
mit
der
verstarkten
Mineralisierung
organischer
Substanz
in
Zusammenhang
gebracht.
Introduction
In
recent
years,
lime
application
to
forest
soils
has
become
a
widespread
practice
in
Central
and
Northern
Europe
in
order
to
counteract
soil
acidification
from
anthropogenic
in-
puts
(Ulrich,
1986;
Andersson
and
Persson,
1988;
Hofmann
et
al.,
1988).
While
lime
effects
on
the
solid
soil
phase
are
slow
and
initially
restricted
to
the
surface
horizons,
soil
solu-
tion
composition
is
a
more
sensitive
indicator
for
changes
in
the
soil's
chemical
status
and
the
involved
processes
(Ul-
rich,
1988).
Most
long
term
field
studies
with
continuous
sampling
of
soil
solution
have
been
conducted
in
loamy
soils
under
spruce
(Matzner
et
al.,
1983;
Kreutzer,
1986;
Hantschel,
1987).
However,
no
comparable
investigations
on
sandy
soils
are
documented,
although
such
sites
are
widespread
in
Central
and
Northern
Europe.
Since
the
dynamics
of
lime
effects
are
highly
dependent
on
soil
properties,
an
interdisci-
plinary
research
project
was
initiated
in
Berlin
in
1985
in
order
to
investigate
the
effects
of
lime
and
fertilizer
applica-
tion
on
a
pine
forest
ecosystem on
a
sandy
soil.
In
the
forest
floor,
the
pH-increase
and
strong
stimulation
of
biological
activity
(Kratz
et
al.,
1989)
has
been
shown
to
increase
nitrification
and
heavy
metal
retention
(Marschner,
1990).
In
the
Ah-horizon,
Ca-saturation
increased
from
13
to
58
%
within
two
years
and
pH
rose
by
one
unit
(Marsch-
ner,
1990).
In
this
paper,
the
lime
and
fertilizer
effects
on
soil
solution
composition
over
a
42
month
period
following
the
treatment
are
presented.
Materials
and
Methods
Study
Site
The
study
site
is
located
in
the
Grunewald-forest
in
Berlin,
30
m
a.s.l.
The
40-year
old
pine
trees
(P.
sylvestris)
display
needle
loss,
but
foliar
analyses
do
not
indicate
any
nutrient
disorders.
The
Cambic
Arenosol
("Rostbraunerde")
developed
on
glacial
outwash
from
the
late
pleistocene
is
characterized
by
deep
decalcification
(>
3
m),
with
occasional
calcareous
loamy
or
gravelly
pockets
below
1.3
m,
a
very
low
clay
content
(<
2
%)
and
pH-values
(0.01
N
CaCl
2
)
between
3.3
in
the
Ah
and
4.8
in
2
m
depth.
Forty
years
ago
the
site
was
clear-cut
and
ploughed,
resulting
in
a
microre-
lief
of
ridges
and
furrows
with
up
to
20
cm
difference
in
height.
The
forest
floor
is
a
mor-moder
with
a
C:N
ratio
of
28-32,
varying
in
thickness
be-
tween
I
and
6
cm.
In
April
1986,
6.1
t/ha
of
lime
(finely
ground
chalk-lime
pressed
to
pellets
with
granular
dolomite)
were
applied
to
a
30
x
80
m
subplot,
adja-
cent
to
a
control
plot
of
the
same
size.
The
liming
was
supplemented
by
a
K
and
Mg
fertilization
(as
sulfates).
Total
amounts
introduced
were
(in
kg/ha)
2450
Ca,
144
Mg,
34
K,
20
S,
9
Al,
6.9
Fe,
6.1
CI,
4.9
Na
and
traces
of
other
elements.
Methods
In
each
study
plot,
12
ceramic
suction
cups
were
installed
in
50
cm
and
200
cm
depth,
respectively.
The
spatial
distribution
in
the
plots
was
selec-
Z.
Pflanzenerniihr.
Bodenk.,
154,343-348
(1991)
OVCH
Verlagsgesellschaft
mbH,
W-6940
Weinheim,
1991
0044-3263/91/0510-0343
$
3.50
+
.25/0
344
Marschner,
Renger,
and
Stahr
ted
to
represent
the
variability
in
microsites,
which
included
ridges,
furrows
and
different
tree
distances.
Vacuum
was
applied
weekly
to
each
suction
cup
individually
after
sam-
pling
and
adjusted
to
about
150
hPa
above
the
parallel
tensiometer
rea-
dings.
The
collected
soil
solutions
were
combined
to
form
4
composite
sam-
ples
for
each
depth
and
plot
and
stored
at
-30
°C.
Chemical
analysis
was
performed
on
monthly
samples
and
included
pH
(glass
electrode)
Ca,
Mg,
K,
Al,
Mn,
and
Na
(atomic
absorption
spectroscopy),
Fe
(colorimetrically)
and
CI,
NO
3
,
SO
4
(ion
chromatography).
Heavy
metals
(Pb,
Zn,
Cd)
were
measured
in
3-months
samples
that
had
been
acidified
to
0.65
%
HNO
3
for
storage.
Differences
in
monthly
element
concentrations
between
the
plots
were
tested
for
statistical
significance
with
Student's
t-test
at
p
<
0.05.
Results
and
Discussion
Spatial
variability
In
order
to
evaluate
the
spatial
variability
of
element
con-
centrations,
the
soil
solutions
from
each
suction
cup
were
analyzed
individually
in
April
1987.
With
a
sample
size
of
12
for
each
depth
and
plot,
normal
distribution
could
not
be
verified
for
all
elements.
Still,
coefficients
of
variation
(standard
deviation:mean)
were
calculated
for
all
data
(Tab.
1)
to
give
a
relative
measure
for
spatial
variability.
Table
1:
Spatial
variability
of
element
concentrations
in
the
soil
solutions
from
50
and
200
cm
depth
of
the
lime/fertilizer
and
the
control
plot
in
April
1987,
expressed
as
coefficients
of
variation
(SD/mean).
N
=
12;
for
values
in
parentheses
N
=
9
(see
text).
Tabelle
1:
Raumliche
Variabilitat
der
Elementkonzentrationen
in
der
Bo-
denlOsung
aus
50
und
200
cm
Tiefe
der
Kalk/Dtinger-
und
der
Kontroll-
parzelle
im
April
1987,
ausgedrtickt
als
Variationskoeffizienten
(SD/Mittel-
wert).
N
=
12;
fiir
Werte
in
Klammern
N
=
9
(s.
Text).
pH
Ca
Mg
K
Na
Al
Mn
SD/mean
control
50
cm
4
127
140
75
66
124
94
200
cm
25
85
61
8
28
84
75
(5)
(69)
(31)
(51) (44)
lime/fertilizer
50
cm
19
43
45
63
126
170
103
200
cm
2
53
41
77
48
48
50
In
both
plots,
variation
of
most
elements
is
higher
in
50
cm
than
in
200
cm,
reflecting
the
influence
of
inhomogene-
ities
in
the
topsoil,
root
uptake
and
effects
from
variations
in
throughfall
amounts
and
composition.
The
high
pH-vari-
ability
in
200
cm
of
the
control
plot
is
caused
by
three
outliers
with
pH
>
6,
while
the
others
were
between
4.2
and
4.3.
Apparently,
these
suction
cups
are
located
within
or
below
a
calcareous
lens
or
layer.
For
the
further
routine
analysis,
the
solutions
from
these
outliers
were
combined
to
form
a
new
composite
sample
of
which
pH,
Ca,
Mg,
Al,
Mn,
Pb,
Zn,
and
Cd
were
excluded
for
calculation
of
month-
ly
means.
The
coefficients
of
variation
of
the
remaining
9
samples
are
much
lower
and
similar
to
those
in
the
limed
plot
(Tab.
1,
values
in
parentheses).
In
the
limed
plot,
spatial
variability
of
K
and
Ca
is
higher
in
200
cm
than
in
50
cm.
This
is
caused
by
outliers
with
higher
concentrations
where
K
could
stem
from
the
applied
fertilizer.
High
Ca-concentrations
occurred
in
different
sam-
ples
and
were
not
associated
with
increased
pH
and
there-
fore
were
not
excluded
from
the
composite
samples.
The
comparison
of
the
two
plots
shows,
that
in
April
1987
the
spatial
variation
of
Ca,
Mg,
and
K
in
50
cm
is
lower,
that
of
pH
and
Al
is
higher
in
the
limed
plot
(Tab.
1).
The
influx
of
dissolved
lime
and
fertilizer
components
raises
their
concentrations
in
the
soil
solution
to
more
homogene-
ous
levels
than
in
the
highly
heterogeneous
control
plot.
However,
elevated
pH-values
only
occurred
in
some
sam-
ples,
which
in
turn
was
responsible
for
the
elevated
Al-vari-
ation.
Soil
solution
from
50
cm
Unfortunately,
soil
solution
sampling
only
started
in
July
1986,
10
weeks
after
liming.
Therefore,
the
original
simi-
larity
of
the
two
plots
could
not
be
verified
and
initial
lim-
ing
effects
were
not
monitored.
However,
soil
inventory
data
from
Jan.
1986
does
not
indicate
any
differences
be-
tween
the
plots
(Marschner,
1990).
The
period
between
the
treatment
and
the
first
sampling
(April
17
-
July
1,
1986)
was
characterized
by
high
rainfall
(180
mm)
with
unusually
high
intensities.
This
explains
the
rapid
translocation
of
the
easily
soluble
fertilizer
compo-
nents
K,
Mg,
and
SO
4
(Fig.
1).
For
both
K
and
Mg
the
differences
between
the
plots
are
significant
during
most
months
until
May
1988.
In
June
1988
heavy
rainfall
(80
mm)
after
a
long
dry
period
appar-
ently
leached
the
last
remainders
of
fertilizer-borne
K
and
Mg
below
50
cm.
However,
in
spring
1989
concentrations
increased
again.
While
Mg
can
originate
from
the
slowly
soluble
dolomite,
all
the
applied
K
had
been
leached
from
the
forest
floor
by
spring
1987
(Marschner
et
al.,
1991b).
The
source
of
this
K
must
therefore
be
the
solid
soil
phase
(cation
exchange)
or
internal
cycling
from
the
decomposi-
tion
of
K-richer
litter
on
the
limed
plot.
Sulfate
concentrations
in
the
limed
plot
remained
slightly
elevated
at
40-60
mg
S/1
compared
to
30-50
mg
S/1
in
the
control
throughout
the
whole
study
period,
but
the
differen-
ces
were
significant
only
until
May
1987.
Since
fertilizer-
sulfate
was
leached
from
the
forest
floor
within
three
months
(Marschner
et
al.,
1991b)
it
is
unlikely
that
the
con-
tinually
elevated
S0
4
2-
-levels
in
the
limed
plot
originate
from
the
introduced
amounts.
Instead,
other
soil
chemical
processes
that
lead
to
the
release
of
S0
4
2
"
from
the
solid
soil
phase
appear
to
be
responsible,
which
will
be
discussed
below.
Ca-concentrations
did
not
rise
in
the
soil
solution
of
the
limed
plot
until
August
1986,
4
months
after
liming
(Fig.
1),
which
can
be
attributed
to
the
lower
solubility
of
CaCO
3
compared
to
K2SO4
and
MgSO
4
and
to
the
Ca-selectivity
of
organic
exchange
sites
(Ulrich,
1966).
A
preference
of
Ca-
Al
exchange
reactions
in
comparison
to
Mg-Al
or
K-Al
exchange
was
also
deducted
from
the
determination
of
Gapon-coefficients
from
field
data
(Marschner,
1990).
8-
Cd
6
-
4
-
2
-
I
I
"
12-
Pb
9-
6
-
3-
0
1986
I
1987
I
1988
I
1989
0
I
'
1
'
I
pg/I
3000
-
Zn
2000
-
1000-
0
control
Ilms
.........
m9/
1
20
15
10
5
0
m9/I
8
6
4
2
0
m9/I
80
60
40
20
0
m9/I
25
20
15
10
5
0
pH
5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
mg/
15
12
9
6
0
345
Effect
of
lime
on
soil
solution
-
-
'...
......
K
.
.-
•.
control
••
Ilm•
--......
1.1.111-1-1-1-.
I
-
I
Mg
I
I
I
Ca
.-.
:
........
I
......••••.,........
1
I
Al
I
I
-
_
_
I
pH
•••
I
..•.,
..
...
.
l
I
I
-
....•••••••...,,
I
NO3—N
.
I
..•
1986
I
1987
I
1988
I
1989
Figure
1:
Element
concentrations
(mg/I)
and
pH
in
the
soil
solution
from
50
cm
depth
in
the
lime/fertilizer
and
the
control
plots
between
July
1986
and
Dec.
1989.
Abbildung
1:
Verlauf
der
Elementkonzentrationen
(mg/I)
und
des
pH-Wer-
tes
in
der
Bodenldsung
aus
50
cm
Tiefe
auf
der
Kallc/Diinger-
("lime")
und
der
Kontrollparzelle
zwischen
Juli
1986
und
Dez.
1989.
In
the
control
plot,
Al
is
the
dominant
cation
in
the
soil
solution
(45
%
of
the
average
cation-sum).
In
the
limed
plot,
Al-concentrations
are
not
significantly different
(Fig.
1),
but
amount
to
only
33
%
of
the
cation-sum
due
to
higher
Ca-
concentrations.
As
a
consequence,
molar
Ca:Al-ratios
are
significantly
higher,
fluctuating
between
1.0
and
5.5
corn-
pared
to
0.7
to
2.3
in
the
control.
However,
due
to
the
high
Ca-inputs
(Marschner
et
al.,
1991a)
Al-toxicity
to
roots
is
unlikely
in
the
control
plot,
since
this
can
only
be
expected
at
Ca:Al-ratios
below
0.1
(Ebben,
1989).
This
is
confirmed
by
the
lack
of
Al-specific
damage
symptoms
in
the
root's
ultrastructures
(Hecht-Buchholz,
pers.
comm.).
The
high
temporal
variability
of
Al-concentrations
in
the
limed
plot
can
partly
be
attributed
to
precipitation
and
dissolution
reac-
tions
in
response
to
pH,
which
showed
short-term
peaks
of
over
5.0
and
minima
below
4.0
(Fig.
1).
However,
spatial
variability
was
also
extremely
high.
In
single
suction
cups,
pH-peaks
over
6.5
occurred
after
the
prolonged
dry
periods
in
summer
1987
and
1989.
Apparent-
ly,
dissolved
lime
can
locally
percolate
down
to
50
cm,
without
reacting
with
the
acid
solid
phase.
Although
the
sandy
soil
is
not
aggregated
and
there
are
no
deep-burrow-
ing
earthworms
on
the
site,
old
root
channels
could
provide
for
deep-reaching
macropores.
In
addition,
reduced
wetta-
bility
from
organic
matter
(Barret
and
Slaymaker,
1989)
and
textural
differences
between
horizons
can
lead
to
a
high
instability
of
the
wetting
front
(Baker
and
Hillel,
1990),
which
can
be
enhanced
by
differential
water
infiltration
on
the
microrelief.
Nitrate
concentrations
in
the
limed
plot
rose
sharply
in
summer
1986
(Fig.
1)
in
response
to
the
stimulation
of
nitri-
fication
in
the
forest
floor
(Marschner
et
al.,
1991b).
Short-
term
nitrate
peaks
are
commonly
observed
after
liming
Figure
2:
Heavy
metal
concentrations
(µg/I)
in
the
soil
solution
from
50
cm
depth
in
the
lime/fertilizer
and
the
control
plots
between
July
1986
and
Dec.
1989
(for
Cd
and
Pb
Oct.
1986
-
Dec.
1989).
Abbildung
2:
Verlauf
der
Schwermetallkonzentrationen
(gg/1)
in
der
BodenlOsung
aus
50
cm
Tiefe
auf
der
Kalk/Diinger-
("lime")
und
der
Kon-
trollparzelle
zwischen
Juli
1986
und
Dez.
1989
(fair
Cd
und
Pb
ab
Okt.
1986).
346
Marschner,
Renger,
and
Stahr
(Matzner
et
al.,
1983;
Andersson
and
Persson,
1988)
since
easily
decomposable
organic
matter
rich
in
N
is
rapidly
ex-
hausted
after
the
pH-limitation
is
lifted
by
liming
(Zottl,
1960).
In
our
plot,
the
elevated
NO
3
-concentrations
even
after
4
years
indicate
that
either
the
microorganisms
are
not
N-limited
(Zan!,
1960),
or
the
pines
prefer
NH
4
as
N-source
(Carter,
1987).
Initially
Cd-concentrations
were
higher
in
the
limed
plot
(Fig.
2),
probably
because
of
exchange
reactions
with
Ca
(Christensen,
1984).
The
distinct
minimum
in
fall
1987
corresponds
with
a
pH-peak
(Fig.
1).
Zn-concentrations
also
rose
slightly
in
the
first
half
of
1987,
but
decreased
below
control
values
in
1989
(Fig.
1).
This
different
behaviour
of
Zn
and
Cd
is
not
fully
understood,
since
the
solubility
of
both
elements
is
governed
by
pH
(Briimmer
and
Herms,
1983).
Pb-concentrations
were
lower
during
the
first
year
after
liming
and
again
in
1989
(Fig.
2).
Apparently,
an
increased
Pb-mobilisation
by
organic
compounds
as
it
was
found
by
Schierl
and
Kreutzer
(1989)
five
years
after
liming
is
not
effective
(yet)
on
this
plot.
Soil
solution
from
200
cm
Similar
to
50
cm
depth,
concentrations
of
K,
Mg,
and
SO
4
were
already
elevated
in
the
first
soil
solution
samples
drawn
from
the
limed
plot
in
July
1986
(Fig.
3).
They
were
identified
as
fertilizer
components due
to
the
high
coeffi-
cients
of
correlation
between
these
elements
in
comparison
to
the
control.
The
rapid
translocation
from
the
soil
surface
tp
200
cm
depth
must
have
occurred
along
preferential
path-
ways
in
the
soil,
since
the
calculated
water
infiltration
amounted
to
less
than
50
cm
during
the
period
between
liming
and
the
first
measurements
(Wessolek,
pers.
comm.).
The
phenomena
of
heterogeneous
water
movement
in
this
soil
are
presently
being
investigated.
While
Mg-concentrations
approached
similar
levels
in
both
plots
by
the
end
of
1988,
K-
and
Sa
t
-concentrations
remained
elevated
(Fig.
3).
For
K
this
can
be
explained
by
sorption
and
desorption
processes
of
applied
K
with
the
solid
soil
phase,
as
it
was
also
observed
by
Matzner
et
al.
(1985).
Increased
SO
4
-effluxes
from
the
soil
profile
have
been
observed
in
numerous
liming
experiments
in
the
field
and
lab
(Korentajer
et
al.,
1983;
Andersson
and
Persson,
1988;
Hantschel,
1987)
and
were
mainly
explained
by
desorption
processes
from
hydrous
oxides.
However,
lower
organic
C-
pools
in
the
limed
plot
after
three
years
(Marschner
and
Wilczynski,
1991)
also
point
to
Sa
t
-mobilization
by
min-
eralisation
of
organic
S
by
increased
microbial
activity
or
chemical
hydrolysis
(Bolan
et
al.,
1988).
Another
source
could
be
the
dissolution
of
AlOHSO
4
(see
below).
Ca-concentrations
in
200
cm
were
not
significantly
differ-
ent
between
the
two
plots
during
the
entire
study
period.
Apparently,
Ca
is
immobilized
to
a
high
degree
below
50
cm,
as
it
was
also
observed
by
Matzner
et
al.
(1983).
The
increased
nitrate
concentrations
in
200
cm
(Fig.
3)
correspond
with
the
observations
from
50
cm,
where
the
:..
K
control
-•
Ilrno
...
:
I
.....-•....
..
..............-............,..
1
1
Mg
.
I
...
_.........;••••.....
.....
.....
I
1
SO4
-S
..
.
-•
"
I
-
I
\
.••"-%
......
••-•....-.............•-•..
I
1
NO
3
—N
,.....--...........
I
-
...
.
....:
............,...
I
1
Al
.•...
1986
I
1987
I
1988
1
1959
Figure
3:
Element
concentrations
(mg/I)
in
the
soil
solution
from
200
cm
depth
in
the
lime/fertilizer
and
the
control
plots
between
July
1986
and
Dec.
1989.
Abbildung
3:
Verlauf
der
Elementkonzentrationen
(mg/I)
in
der
BodenIO-
sung
aus
200
cm
Tiefe
auf
der
Kalic/Diinger-
("lime")
und
der
Kontrollpar-
zelle
zwischen
Juli
1986
und
Dez.
1989.
peaks
occurred
3-4
months
earlier
(Fig.
1).
In
general,
con-
centrations
are
lower
and
the
peaks
broader
in
200
cm
due
to
dispersion.
An
exception
is
found
in
the
distinct
peak
from
August
1986
that
has
no
parallel
in
50
cm.
If
artefacts
are
excluded,
this
can
only
be
explained
by
breakthrough
events
in
the
wetting
front.
The
mobilisation
of
NO
3
together
with
SO
4
,
leads
to
an
increase
in
anion
concentrations
from
an
average
of
2.9
mmoljl
in
the
control
to
4.6
mmoljl
in
the
limed
plot.
This
is
not
only
balanced
by
higher
K,
Mg,
and
Ca
concentra-
tions,
but
also
by
elevated
Al
and
Mn
concentrations
(Fig.
3),
which
must
originate
from
exchange
reactions
in
the
topsoil
(Matzner
et
al.,
1983).
Al
could
also
stem
from
the
dissolution
of
A1OHSO
4
(Prenzel,
1983)
since
pH
was
mg/I
6
4
2
0
6
4
2
0
100
BO
60
40
20
0
12
9
6
3
0
30
20
10
0
347
Effect
of
lime
on
soil
solution
p9/1
10-
8
5
4
2
Cd
control
Urns
CI
1985
I
1987
I
1988
1989
Figure
4:
Cadmium
concentrations
(pg/1)
in
the
soil
solution
from
200
cm
depth
in
the
lime/fertilizer
and
the
control
plots
between
July
1986
and
Dec.
1989.
Abbildung
4:
Verlauf
der
Cadmiumkonzentrationen
(µg/I)
in
der
Bodenliti-
sung
aus
200
cm
Tiefe
auf
der
Kalk/Diinger-
("lime")
und
der
Kontrollpar-
zelle
zwischen
Juli
1986
und
Dez.
1989.
slightly
reduced
in
the
limed
plot.
Towards
the
end
of
1988,
Al-
and
Mn-concentrations
merge
on
the
two
plots,
indicat-
ing
that
exchange
reactions
in
the
topsoil
subside.
Among
the
three
analyzed
heavy
metals,
only
Cd
concen-
trations
were
affected
by
liming
(Fig.
4).
Similarly
to
Al
and
Mn,
it
can
be
displaced
from
exchange
sites
by
Ca
(Christ-
ensen,
1984).
But
in
contrast
to
these
elements,
Cd-concen-
trations
are
still
significantly
higher
in
the
limed
plot
in
1989.
In
the
long
run,
concentrations
are
expected
to
de-
crease
below
the
control
values
(Lamersdorf
and
Konig,
1985).
Conclusions
1.
Spatial
variability
of
element
concentrations
in
the
soil
solution
from
50
cm
depth
is
very
high.
Apart
from
dif-
ferences
in
rooting
density,
the
main
cause
is
probably
heterogeneous
water
infiltration
with
its
effects
on
min-
eralisation
and
element
translocation.
This
is
favored
by
the
microrelief
and
low
wettability
of
organic
matter
in
the
topsoil.
2.
In
spite
of
Al-concentrations
of
up
to
50
mg/1
in
the
soil
solution,
the
risk
of
Al-toxicity
is
low
on
this
site
due
to
high
Ca-concentrations.
3.
Nitrate
mobilisation
after
liming
poses
no
direct
threat
for
groundwater
quality
on
this
site,
since
maximum
le-
vels
do
not
exceed
current
German
limits
for
drinking
water
(12
mg
NO
3
-N/1).
But
any
increase
of
N-loads
to
ground-
or
surface
waters
must
be
viewed
critically.
This
is
also
true
for
Al
and
Cd.
4.
The
mobilisation
of
SO
4
in
conjunction
with
NO
3
is
asso-
ciated
with
the
continuous
decomposition
of
soil
organic
matter,
indicating
substantial
losses
in
nutrient
and
water
storage
capacity
of
the
poor
sandy
soil
which
can
reduce
site
quality.
5.
Unless
tree
vitality
and
productivity
were
greatly
im-
proved
by
liming,
for
which
there
are
no
signs
so
far,
the
described
potential
negative
effects
on
groundwater
quality
and
ecosystem
stability
make
the
merits
of
this
measure
questionable
for
this
or
comparable
sites.
Acknowledgements
This
is
publication
No.
60
from
the
interdisciplinary
project
"Forest
Eco-
systems
Close
to
Conurbations",
a
research
project
financed
by
the
Federal
Environmental
Agency
of
Germany
and
the
Senate
for
Urban
Planning
and
Environmental
Protection,
Berlin
(FE-No.
108
03
046/30).
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[P4778B]