Effects of HC1 acid and lime amendments on soil ph and extractable Ca and Mg in a sandy soil


Shuman, L. M.; Boswell, F. C.; Ohki, K.; Parker, M. B.; Wilson, D. O.

Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 14(6): 481-495

1983


COMMUN.
IN
SOIL
SCI.
PLANT
ANAL.,
14(6),
481-495
(1983)
EFFECTS
OF
HC1
ACID
AND
LIME
AMENDMENTS
ON
SOIL
pH
AND
EXTRACTABLE
Ca
AND
Mg
IN
A
SANDY
SOIL
KEY
WORDS:
Dolomitic
lime,
soil
depth,
high
water
table
soil
L.
M.
Shuman
i
,
F.
C.
Boswell
i
,
K.
0hki
1
,
M.
B.
Parker
2
,
and
D.
0.
Wilson
University
of
Georgia
Georgia
Station
Experiment,
Georgia
30212
and
Coastal
Plain
Station
Tifton,
Georgia
31793
ABSTRACT
High
water
table
sandy
soils
present
special
problems
when
establishing
soil
pH
variables
under
field
conditions.
In
order
to
examine
the
response
of
a
coarse-textured
soil
to
lime
and
HC1
acid
treatments,
data
are
reported
for
soil
pH
and
extractable
Ca
and
Mg
for
a
field
experiment
where
Mn
treatments
on
soybeans
was
the
primary
objective.
Three
treatments
included
HC1
acid,
control,
and
lime.
Acid
(742
liters/ha
3N
HC1)
was
added
only
at
the
beginning
of
the
experiment
but
dolomitic
lime
treatments
were
added
each
year
(2240,
2740,
and
2900
kg/ha).
The
lime
and
acid
were
applied
to
the
soil
surface
and
incorporated
to
a
depth
of
10
to
13
cm.
Soil
samples
were
taken
every
2
to
3
months
at
3
depths
(0
to
15,
15
to
30,
and
30
to
45
cm)
and
analyzed
for
pH
and
extractable
Ca
and
Mg.
Acid
treatment
decreased
the
pH
by
0.2
units
below
the
untreated
soil
at
the
0
to
30
cm
depth
and
the
effect
lasted
the
entire
3
years
of
the
study.
Calcium
481
Copyright
01983
by
Marcel
Dekker,
Inc.
0010-3624/83/1406-0481$3.50/0
482
SHUMAN
ET
AL.
values
were
lowered
only
slightly
by
the
acid
treatment.
Lime
additions
caused
steady
increases
in
soil
Ca.
Magnesium
values
increased
several
months
after
each
of
the
first
and
second
lime
applications.
Lime
raised
the
subsoil
(30
to
45
cm)
pH
after
4
to
6
months.
Seasonal
variations
in
pH
were
very
wide
with
the
untreated
soil
pH
varying
from
6.1
to
6.8.
The
high
pH
level
of
7.0
was
not
maintained
for
an
entire
season
until
the
third
year
of
the
experiment.
Soil
pH
as
well
as
extractable
Ca
and
Mg
showed
fluctuations
that
were
the
result
of
seasonal
variations
and
soil
moisture
content
at
the
time
of
sampling.
Soil
pH
varia-
bles
on
a
sandy
soil
should
be
established
at
least
a
year
in
advance
of
starting
an
experiment
and
must
be
closely
monitored
in
order
to
maintain
the
desired
pH
levels.
INTRODUCTION
Soil
pH
values
fluctuate
during
the
season
and
generally
decline
over
longer
time
periods
due
to
leaching
of
bases,
organ-
ic
acid
production,
and
addition
of
acid-forming
fertilizers.
Hester
and
Shelton
3
recognized
that'soils
were
more
acid
in
the
summer
and
early
fall
than
in
winter
and
early
spring
especially
for
low
buffer
capacity
soils.
They
reported
pH
variations
of
0.2
to
2.0
pH
units
which
were
influenced
by
rainfall,
fertiliza-
tion,
and
nitrification.
Similar
variations
in
pH
values
of
0.5
units
were
observed
in
a
Cecil
soil
in
Georgia
4
.
Collins
et
al.
5
found that
field-moist
samples
showed
a
maximum
seasonal
varia-
bility
of
1.6
pH
units
and
an
average
variation
of
0.8
pH
unit
when
measured
for
one
growing
season
at
19
sites.
Monitoring
soil
pH
and
extractable
or
exchangeable
Ca
and
Mg
for
one
season
following
the
application
of
dolomitic
lime
usually
has
shown
an
increase
in
all
three
variables
6
'
7
'
8
.
Several
reports
have
shown
data
for
fluctuations
in
pH,
Ca
and
Mg
on
limed
soils
when
moni-
tored
for
several
seasons.
In
a
five-year
experiment
Parker
et
al.
9
found
that
2240
to
4480
kg/ha
lime
amendments
maintained
the
soil
pH
between
6.0
and
HCl
ACID
AND
LIME
AMENDMENTS
483
6.5
on
a
Greenville
soil
in
the
Coastal
Plain
region
of
Georgia.
Liebhardt
10
warned
that
high
rates
of a
dolomitic
limestone
can
cause
an
upset
of
the
Ca
to
Mg
ratio
and
cause
decreased
yields
on
low
CEC
Coastal
Plain
soils.
Lime
caused
a
drastic
increase
in
pH
from
5.5
to
6.7
the
first
few
months
but
decreased
through
the
winter
and
increased
again
the
next
summer
in
a
Florida
soill
l
.
The
pH
increased
again
the
next
season
and
continued
to
rise
the
next
year
showing
that
sandy
soils
can
show
considerable
pH
fluctuations.
Where
no
lime
was
applied,
pH
values
remained
steady
or
dropped
slightly
during
the
2
1/2-year
period.
In
Canada,
soils
limed
to
pH
6.5
to
7.0
declined
by
0.48
units
over
an
8-year
period
12
.
In
that
study
the
average
loss
of
lime
was
equivalent
to
495
kg
of
CaCO
3
/ha
annually.
In
England,
soil
pH
for
limed
soils
increased
for
six
years
in
a
sandy
clay
loam
and
for
three
years
in
a
loamy
sand
followed
by
a
steady
decline
when
pH
was
monitored
for
a
total
of
12
years
13
.
Rates
of
CaCO
3
losses
from
the
top
23
cm
of
soil
ranged
from
225
to
852
kg/ha
per
year.
Besides
influencing
pH,
Ca
and
Mg
in
the
surface
layer,
lime
can
also
cause
changes
in
the
subsoil,
especially
on
porous,
sandy
soils.
Even
on
fine-textured
soils
liming
caused
substan-
tial
increases
in
subsoil
pH
for
3
of
6
soils
studied
12
.
Calci-
tic
limestone
increased
Ca
in
the
30-46
cm
depth
in
a
loamy
sand
and
Mg
ia
the
30-46
cm
depth
in
two
sandy
soils
at
all
rates
of
dolomitic
lime
applied
to
the
surface
14
.
The
Ca
and
Mg
added
to
sandy
soils
leached
considerably,
the
amount
of
which
was
general-
ly
related
to
the
CEC
or
the
original
levels
of
extractable
elements
in
the
soi1
15
.
Few
experiments
have
been
reported
where
the
effects
of
acid
added
directly
to
soils
in
the
field
have
been
studied.
The
usual
approach
is
to
use
sulfur
or
acid-forming
fertilizers
such
as
ammonium
sources
of
nitrogen.
Little
information
is
available
on
the
influences
of
acid
treatments
on
soil
Ca
and
Mg
values.
Since
many
experiments
in
soil
fertility
deal
with
pH
vari-
ables
usually
imposed
with
other
treatments,
it
is
important
to
484
SHUMAN
ET
AL.
know
what
can
be
expected
in
the
way
of
seasonal
variation
in
pH
values
due
not
only
to
lime
treatments
but
also
due
to
natural
causes
on
unlimed
soils
and
on
soils
that
have
been
acidified.
Further,
it
is
important
to
know
how
surface
applied
and
incor-
porated
materials
affect
sub-surface
layers
to
depths
where
plant
roots
generally
penetrate.
In
order
to
help
answer
some
of
these
questions,
an
experiment
was
monitored
where
lime
and
acid
treat-
ments
were
applied
with
the
objective
of
determining
changes
in
soil
pH
along
with
extractable
Ca
and
Mg
at
3
depths
for
a
period
of
3
years.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
The
experimental
area
was
located
in
the
Atlantic
Coast
flatwood
region
near
Tifton,
Georgia.
The
soil,
an
Olustee-
Leefield
sand
(sandy,
siliceous,
thermic
Ultic
Haplaquod-loamy,.
siliceous,
thermic
Arenic
Plinthaquic
Paleudult),
has
a
high
water
table
with
88%
sand,
2%
clay,
1.0%
organic
matter
and
a
cation
exchange
capacity
of
5.7
meq./
100
g.
The
3
pH
level
plots
were
large
blocks
(88
m
by
7.3
m)
replicated
4
times
as
part
of
a
Mn
experiment.
To
minimize
tillage
mixing
between
plots
2
border
rows
without
any
treatment
were
planted
on
each
side
of
the
plot
and
3m
at
each
end
of
the
plot
was
fallowed.
Included
within
these
blocks
were
5
Mn
rates
split
with
initial
and
annual
applications.
The
pH
levels
were
prepared
using
acid,
no
treatment,
or
dolomitic
lime.
The
acid
rate
was
371
liters/
ha
of
3N
HC1
applied
with
a
gravity
flow,
all
plastic
applicator
on
5
November,
1974,
and
again
at
the
same
rate
on
21
April,
1975.
The
high
pH
plots
were
treated
with
2240
kg/ha
of
dolomitic
lime-
stone
on
5
November,
1974.
The
limestone
contained
29.3%
Ca
and
5.1%
Mg.
In
order
to
maintain
the
high
pH
level,
further
lime
applications
of
2740
kg/ha
and
2900
kg/ha
were
made
on
20
Novem-
ber,
1975,
and
on
10
February,
1977,
respectively.
Fertilizer
was
uniformly
added
as
207.
superphosphate
and
60%
muriate
of
potash
at
the
rates
of
750,
760
and
600
kg/ha
of
0-4.3-25
in
May
of
each
year,
respectively,
before
soybeans
were
planted.
Imme-
HCl
ACID
AND
LIME
AMENDMENTS
485
diately
after
the
acid
or
lime
was
added,
the
field
was
disked
one
or
two
times
at
a
depth
of
10-13
cm.
Before
the
May
soybean
planting
the
soil
was
moldboard
plowed
25
cm
deep
and
then
roto-
tilled
8
cm
deep
to
incorporate
'Vernam'
and
the
Mn
treatments.
Soybeans
were
cultivated
2
or
3
times
8
cm
deep
as
needed.
Soy-
beans
were
harvested
in
October
and
the
straw
was
left
on
the
plots.
All
plots
were
fallowed
in
the
winter.
Soil
samples
were
taken
approximately
every
2
to
3
months
(Figs.
1
to
3)
throughout
the
year.
Ten
cores
were
collected
from
each
pH
block
and
combined
in
plastic
bags.
Three
depths
were
taken
with
successive
probes
at
0
to
15
cm,
15
to
30
cm,
and
30
to
45
cm.
The
sample
at
the
final
depth
was
a
yellowish,
loamy
sand
subsoil
with
the
middle
sample
showing
the
plow
layer-
subsoil
line
very
distinctly.
Samples
were
mixed
and
air-dried
in
a
greenhouse.
Following
drying,
they
were
mixed
again
and
subsamples
taken
for
pH
analyses
(1:1
aqueous
suspension)
and
extraction
with
double
acid
16
using
a
1:4
soil
to
solution
ratio
and
a
15
minute
shaking
time
(no
charcoal).
The
solutions
were
analyzed
for
Ca
and
Mg
by
atomic
absorption
spectrophotometry.
Rainfall
measurements
were
taken
at
the
field
site
for
four
years
(Table
1).
The
standard
error
vertical
lines
in
the
figures
are
pooled
over
dates
since
individual
errors
did
not
vary
significantly
according
to
F
tests.
Table
1.
Monthly
rainfall
for
4
years.
Year
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
TOM
1974
81
158
79
124
117
118
218
96
164
18
35
81
1975
192
73
165
262
88
105
177
119
56
90
36
114
1976
79
27
60
42
312
71
62
36
174
135 145
99
1977
89
68
140
25
94
66
119
154
80
17
86•
78
486
SHUMAN
ET
AL.
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
Since
the
0
to
15
cm
and
15
to
30
cm
depth
samples
were
mixed
in
the
plowing
process
to
a
depth
of
25
cm,
the
values
were
similar
and
are
reported
as
one
depth
(0
to
30
cm).
Soil
pH
changed
immediately
due
to
acid
application
at
the
0
to
30
cm
depth
dropping
lower
than
the
values
for
the
control
plots
(Fig.
1).
After
adding
additional
acid
and
turning
the
soil,
the
pH
rose
slightly
but
remained
about
0.2
pH
units
lower
than
the
control
until
mid
1976
when
these
plots
were
within
0.1
pH
unit
of
the
control
plots.
At
the
end
of
the
3
years
the
acid-treated
plots
were
nearly
the
same
as
that
for
the
untreated
plots.
The
effects
of
acid
treatment
on
soil
pH
were
significant
and
were
fairly
long
lasting
considering
that
a
liquid
was
added
and
not
a
solid
that
dissolves
over
a
long
time
period.
In
the
early
spring
of
1976
the
acid-treated
soil
pH
detreased
while
the
untreated
soil
pH
increased.
The
acid
may
have
had
some
residual
effect
during
the
wet
spring
season
when
the
water
table
was
high.
The
following
spring
both
the
acid-treated
and
untreated
plot
pH
values
decreased.
Additional
acid
was
not
applied
since
pH
values
were
sufficiently
low
in
the
acid-created
plots
to
result
in
near
maximum
soybean
yields
without
added
Mn
17
.
The
soil
pH
values
changed
slowly
due
to
lime
treatment
and
were
similar
to
the
untreated
plots
the
first
year.
The
second
lime
treatment,
however,
increased
pH
values
to
a
peak
of
7.2
in
March
of
the
second
year
and
then
receded
rapidly
with
spring
tillage
to
the
previous
level
of
6.8.
The
limed
plots
remained
about
0.2
pH
units
above
the
untreated
plots
throughout
1976
until
the
third
lime
treatment
when
the
pH
values
steadily
in-
creased
until
the
end
of
the
experiment.
The
untreated
plots
decreased
in
pH
values
during
the
final
year
separating
the
un-
treated
and
limed
plots
even
further.
There
was
little
response
to
Mn
in
1976
even
though
the
applied
lime
increased
the
soil
pH
to
7.2.
By
the
time
the
beans
were
planted,
the
pH
level
had
decreased
to
6.8
and
increased
very
little
during
the
growing
season.
By
contrast
the
dramatic
soybean
yield
response
to
Mn
in
7.1
--
Limed
Control
Acid
Treated
\
...""
..-----\
/
x
0--.
6.9
I
/
\
1-4
C7
6.7
......................
....
...........
6.5
0
to
30
cm
6.3
6.1
5.9
t]
5.7
6.5
6.3
6.1
................
5.9
1
11
*
Lime
5.7
30
to
45
cm
5.5
Lime
1141416d
241
4-21,
....
....
8.30
Acid
10.28
Li
me
t20
2.24
5-4
7.19
915
2
Ill
It
5.11
7-19
9-12
11-9
III
I
..
.................
II
2
I
2
2
I
2
N
DJ
FMAMJJ
ASON
DJ
FMAMJJ
A
SON
D
J
FMAMJJ
ASON
1975
1976
1977
CO
Fig.
1.
Soil
pH
values
for
control,
acid
treated,
and
limed
plots
at
2
depths
for
3
years.
Vertical
lines
are
pooled
standard
errors.
CO
488
SHUMAN
ET
AL.
1977
17
was
a
result
of
the
higher
pH
level
near
7.0
that
except
for
the
March
sampling,
was
well
maintained
throughout
the
growing
season.
The
interesting
feature
of
the
pH
values
for
the
0
to
30
cm
depth
is
a
wave-like
pattern
where
generally
the
pH
decreased
in
the
summer
and
increased
in
the
winter.
All
the
values
followed
this
pattern
with
the
treated
plots
paralleling
the
untreated.
One
possible
reason
for
the
decrease
in
the
spring
is
tillage
which
would
mix
unlimed
and
limed
soil.
However,
the
pattern
is
also
evident
in
the
30
to
45
cm
depth
samples,
well
below
the
plow
layer
in
a
different
colored
B
horizon
(Fig.
1).
There
the
acid
had
little
effect except
to
decrease
the
pH
in
relation
to
the
untreated
plots
in
the
summer
of
1975
and
in
the
spring
of
1976.
The
lime
eventually
leached
to
this
level
and
increased
pH
values
in
the
spring
of
1976
after
the
second
lime
application
and
in
the
fall
of
the
final
year.
The
lime
moved
downward
in
the
profile
slowly
with
the
effects
at
this
depth
becoming
evident
4
to
6
months
after
liming.
Acid
treatment
had
little
effect
on
Ca
values
in
the
0
to
30
cm
depth
the
first
year
but
by
October,
1975,
the
Ca
in
the
acid-
treated
plots
was
about
100
kg/ha
lower
than
for
the
untreated
plots
and
maintained
some
difference
until
the
spring
of
1977
(Fig.
2).
In
the
last
year
of
the
experiment,
the
Ca
values
for
the
acid-treated
and
untreated
plots
were
similar.
It
is
interest-
ing
to
note
that
the
Ca
values
in
the
untreated
plots
fluctuated
from
a
low
of
about
650
kg/ha
at
the
beginning
of
the
experiment
to
a
high
of
1100
kg/ha
in
January,
1976
and
February,
1977.
The
third
lime
application
did
not
influence
the
acid-treated
or
untreated
plots
since
their
Ca
values
continued
to
decline
during
1977.
However,
at
the
end
of
the
experiment
these
plots
had
around
800
kg/ha
Ca
or
about
150
kg/ha
higher
than
at
the
begin-
ning
(a
significant
difference).
The
limed
plot
Ca
values
rose
steadily
except
for
peaks
immediately
following
the
first
two
lime
applications.
The
decline
in
the
spring
of
1975
and
1976
Lime
Acid
lime
Lime
11
II
Acid
2
1
11
4
1
3
i
8-:0
10-28
+
la
1-20
3
.
24
5-4
7-19
9-15
11-8
2-101
5-11
7-19
9
.
12
11-9
IV
l
I
I
t I
l)
I
t
II
1
I
I
I
I
1
II
II
I
l'ffl BIB IRE
I
I
NDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASON
1600
1400
1200
1000
--
--
800
z"--
600
C.)
600
co
400
200
0
--Limed
Control
—Acid
Treated
/\
••
..............
....
.
.....
0
to
30
cm
30
to
45
cm
'7
717.711.11:
•••••md•
1975
1976
1977
Fig.
2.
Soil
Ca
values
for
control,
acid
treated,
and
limed
plots
at
2
depths
for
3
years.
Vertical
lines
are
pooled
standard
errors.
490
SHUMAN
ET
AL.
was
probably
partly
due
to
soil
mixing
when
the
soil
was
plowed
and
disked
for
planting.
Calcium
values
at
the
lower
depth
(30
to
45
cm)
were
changed
only
slightly
by
the
treatments
(Fig.
2).
Allowing
for
normal
fluctuations
the
three
treatments
paralleled
each
other
until
after
the
third
lime
treatment
where
the
limed
plots
did
exhibit
Ca
values
higher
than
for
the
other
two
treatments.
Movement
of
Ca
to
this
depth
was
minimal
but
did
raise
the
values
by
200
kg/ha
after
the
third
lime
application.
Fluctuations
in
Ca
values
were
not
as
great
as
for
the
0
to
30
cm
depth.
The
initial
lime
application
greatly
increased
the
soil
Mg
values
in
the
0
to
30
cm
depth
(Fig.
3).
The
Mg
values
for
the
acid-treated
plots
increased
at
the
second
sampling
but
declined
thereafter
to
a
level
below
the
untreated
plot
values
until
the
second
lime
application.
One
or
more
of
the
January,
1976
sample.s
for
the
acid-treated
plots
were
probably
contaminated
by
lime
and
did
not
reflect
the
true
Mg
values
in
these
plots.
On
the
next
sampling
the
Mg
value
declined
significantly
below
the
control
values
dropping
as
much
as
20
kg/ha
lower
than
untreated
areas
during
the
fall
and
winter
of
1976-1977.
The
1977
samples
show
that
the
Mg
values
in
the
acid-treated
plots
were
similar
to
the
untreated
plot
values.
The
soil
Mg
values
for
the
limed
plots.
reached
a
peak
after
each
lime
addition
but
this
peak
was
delayed
by
one
sampling
after
the
second
and
third
additions.
The
Mg
values
did
not
increase
until
the
lime
had
several
months
to
react
with
the
soil.
The
Mg
values
were
considerably
higher
for
the
limed
plots
than
for
the
untreated
plots
the
entire
time
that
'the
study
was
conducted.
No
obvious
seasonal
variations
were
observed
in
the
Mg
values
as
were
observed
for
the
pH
values.
In
general,
the
trend
for
the
values
of
the
untreated
plots
and
even
those
of
the
treated
plots
was
to
increase
at
the
beginning
of
the
experiment
and
gradually
decline
thereafter.
Even
the
limed
plot
values
dropped
sharply
the
last
two
samplings
paralleling
drops
in
the
values
for
acid-treated
and
untreated
plots.
--
Limed
Control
160
—Acid
Treated
A
140
\
/
120
100
\.//
R
0
to
30
cm
80
.....................
..........
..............
2
cn
60
30
to
45
cm
/-**
.......
..
..
.....
....
.....
..
..-•
.....
40
....
.........
........
20
Limo
Acid
Lime
Lime
0
wiTs
illAcidI
22414A1
6-30
1
AT
...
..
10-29
1
140
ST,
2
124
54
7.19
9-15
WS
2401
5-11
7.19
912
11-9
211122122222 211212221122
NOJ JASON
A
SONDJ FMAMJJ
ASONDJ FMAMJ
JASON
1975
1976
1977
Fig.
3.
Soil
Mg
values
for
control,
acid
treated,
and
limed
plots
at
2
depths
for
3
years.
Vertical
lines
are
pooled
standard
errors.
492
SHUMAN
ET
AL.
Table
2.
Seasonal
Effect
on
pH,
Ca,
and
Mg
Values
of
the
Control
Treatment
(0
to
30
cm).
Season
of
sampling
1975
1976
1977
Soil
pH
'
Winter
6.73a
+
6.63a
6.79a
Fall
6.10b
6.46b 6.53b
-Soil
Ca
(kg/ha)
Winter
1027a
1106a
1111a
Fall
970a
968b
829b
Soil
Mg
(kg/ha)
Winter
128a 109a
89a
Fall
91b
88b
67b
+
Values
followed
by
the
same
letter
within
a
variable
and
year
are
not
significantly
different
at
the
5%
level
according
to
an
LSD
test.
Subsoil
Mg
values
(30
to
45
cm)
were
all
lower
than
for
the
top
two
depths
(Fig.
3).
All
plots
had
similar
Mg
values
until
October,
1975,
when
the
untreated
plot
values
increased.
The
Mg
values
of
the
acid-treated
plots
remained
below
the
untreated
plots
for
the
summer
of
1976
and
the
spring
of
1977.
The
values
were
somewhat
erratic
for
both
acid-treated
and
limed
plots
at
this
depth.
Possibly
some
sampling
error
may
have been
the
cause
as
these
cores
were
removed
through
the
top
two
depths.
The
limed
plot
samples
showed
increases
in
Mg
after
the
first
two
lime
treatments
but
none
after
the
third.
The
increase
in
Novem-
ber,
1976
is
unusual
since
it
occurred
before
lime
was
applied
the
third
time,
but
it
also
was
evident
in
the
0
to
30
cm
depth.
Possibly
moisture
conditions
caused
Mg
in
the
previously
added
lime
to
become
more
soluble
for
that
particular
sampling
period.
Soil
P
and
K
values
were
also
monitored
during
the
entire
time
period
at
three
depths.
Neither
the
acid
nor
lime
treatments
significantly
affected
double
acid
extractable
P
or
K
at
any
time
during
the
experiments.
HC1
ACID
AND
LIME
AMENDMENTS
493
Liming
or
adding
acid
to
obtain
field
pH
variables
in
a
research
setting
may
seem
like
a
routine
procedure,
but
the
data
presented
show
that
it
is
not
a
simple
matter.
The
predictability
for
final
soil
pH
values
is
low
when
adding
lime
or
acid
to
a
coarse-textured,
high
water
table
soil.
The
pH
values
are
subject
to
changes
in
the environment.
The
acid
treatment
did
not
effect
a
great
pH
change
(0.2
pH
units)
but
it
did
influence
certain
soil
parameters
for
nearly
the
entire
3
years.
Seasonal
fluctua-
tions
are
emphasized
by
the
data
in
Table
2.
Not
only
was
soil
pH
higher
in
the
winter
but
extractable
Ca
and
Mg
were
higher
as
well.
The
decrease
in
Ca
and
Mg
during
the
summer
and
fall
could
be
due
to
plant
uptake.
However,
calculations
using
seed
yields
and
percent
Ca
and
Mg
of
the
seed
indicate
that
only
6.7
kg/ha
Ca
and
6.4
kg/ha
Mg
were
removed
each
year
as
an
average
over
years.
Therefore
the
variations
shown
in
Table
2
cannot
be
accounted
for
by
crop
removal.
Since
the
straw
was
left
on
the
plots,
decompo-
sition
of
plant
residues
may
have
contributed
to
the
increase
in
soil
Ca
and
Mg
during
the
winter
by
recycling.
Seasonal
variation
should
be
considered
when
taking
research
samples.
Sampling
should
be
timed
so
that
it
occurs
during
the
same
season
of
the
year
each
year
in
order
to
have
comparable
results.
Another
reason
for
the
fluctuations
shown
in
the
figures
is
the
moisture
content
of
the
soil
at
the
time
of
sampling.
Initial
soil
samples
in
November,
1974,
were
taken
in
dry
soil
(Table
1).
The
lowest
pH
values
(October,
1975,
and
May,
1977)
both
occurred
when
the
soil
was
dry.
The
soil
was
very
wet
at
the
time
samples
were
taken
in
November,
1976,
and
September,
1977,
and
pH
levels
both
times
were
above
those
immediately
preceding.
Therefore,
moisture
conditions
at
sampling
time
as well
as
seasonal
fluctuations
can
influence
soil
pH
values.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The
authors
express
grateful
appreciation
to
E.
V.
Berryman
for
chemical
analyses,
C.
W.
Daniels,
Jr.
for
graphic
art,
and
R.
T.
Bozeman,
D.
Brooks,
S.
G.
Brooks,
J.
R.
Connell,
L.
O.
Crawley,
494
SHUMAN
ET
AL.
J.
L.
Day,
B.
A.
Garner,
R.
B.
Pitts,
L.
E.
Robicheaux,
C.
O.
Weldon,
and
H.
R.
Wiley
for
technical
assistance.
Supported
by
State
and
Hatch
funds
allocated
to
the
Georgia
Agric.
Exp.
Stns.
and
by
funds
from
Goldkist,
Inc.,
International
Minerals
&
Chem.
Corp.,
and
Eagle-Picher
Industries,
Inc.
REFERENCES
1.
Associate
Professor,
Professors,
and
Associate
Professor,
respectively,
Georgia
Station.
2.
Assistant
Professor,
Coastal
Plain
Station.
3.
Hester,
J.B.
and
F.A.
Shelton.
1933.
Seasonal
variation
of
pH
in
field
soils
a
factor
in
making
lime
recommend-
ations.
J.
Amer.
Soc.
Agron.
25:299-300.
4.
Olson,
L.C.
1942.
Seasonal
variation
in
soil
reaction
and
the
availability
of
nutrients
in
Cecil
sandy
loam.
Soil
Sci.
Soc.
Amer.
Proc.
7:162-166.
5.
Collins,
J.B.,
E.P.
Whiteside,
and
C.E.
Cress.
1970.
Seasonal
variability
of
pH
and
lime
requirements
in
several
southern
Michigan
soils
when
measured
in
dif-
ferent
ways.
Soil
Sci.
Soc.
Am.
Proc.
34:56-61.
6.
Anderson,
C.A.
1968.
Effect
of
calcitic
and
dolomitic
limestones
on
rate
of
reaction
in
Lakeland
fine
sand.
Soil
and
Crop
Sci.
Soc.
Fla.
Proc.
28:63-69.
7.
Alley,
M.M.
1981.
Short-term
soil
chemical
and
crop
yield
response
to
limestone
applications.
Agron.
J.
73:687-689.
8.
Bertsch,
P.M.
and
M.M.
Alley.
1981.
Conventional
and
suspension
limestone
influence
on
soil
chemical
pro-
perties
and
corn
and
soybean
yields.
Agron.
J.
73:
1075-1078.
9.
Parker,
M.B.,
C.O.
Plank,
J.E.
Ethredge,
and
R.B.
Moss.
1980.
Long-term
effects
of
lime
and
micronutrients
on
soil
and
leaf
analysis
and
yield
of
soybeans
on
a
Greenville
soil.
Comm.
in
Soil
Sci.
and
Plant
Anal.
11:297-316.
10.
Liebhardt,
W.C.
1979.
Corn
yield
as
affected
by
lime
rate
and
type
on
a
coastal
plain
soil.
Soil
Sci. Soc.
Am.
J.
43:985-988.
11.
Yuan,
T.L.,
M.C.
Luiick,
and
W.K.
Robertson.
1979.
Response
of
soybeans
and
oats
to
lime,
phosphorus,
and
potassium
HC1
ACID
AND
LIME
AMENDMENTS
495
on
a
paleudult.
Soil
and
Crop
Sci.
Soc.
Fla.
Proc.
38:116-121.
12.
Hoyt,
P.B.
and
A.M.F.
Henning.
1982.
Soil
acidification
by
fertilizers
and
longevity
of
lime
applications
in
the
Peace
River
region.
Can.
J.
Soil
Sci.
62:155-163.
13.
Bolton,
J.
1977.
Changes
in
soil
pH
and
exchangeable
calcium
in
two
liming
experiments
on
contrasting
soils
over
12
years.
J.
Agric.
Sci.
89:81-86.
14.
Haby,
V.A.,
W.B.
Anderson,
and
C.O.
Welch.
1979.
Effect
of
limestone
variables
on
amendment
of
acid
soils
and
production
of
corn
and
coastal
bermudagrass.
Soil
Sci.
Soc.
Am.
J.
43:343-347.
15.
Chaiwanakupt,
P.
and
W.K.
Robertson.
1976.
Leaching
of
phosphate
and
selected
cations
from
sandy
soils
as
affected
by
lime.
Agron.
J.
68:507-511.
16.
Southern
Cooperative
Series.
1965.
Procedures
used
by
state
soil-testing
laboratories
in
the
southern
region
of
the
United
States.
p.
49.
Compiled
by
W.R.
Page.
Bull.
102,
S.C.
Agric.
Exp.
Stn.,
Clemson,
S.C.
17.
Wilson,
D.O.,
F.C.
Boswell,
K.
Ohki,
M.B.
Parker,
and
L.M.
Shuman.
1981.
Soil
distribution
and
soybean
plant
accumulation
of
manganese
in
manganese-deficient
and
manganese-fertilized
field
plots.
Soil
Sci.
Soc.
Am.
J.
45:549-552.