Viburnum cassinoides, a recent substitute for Viburnum prunifolium


Heber, W. Youngken

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 17(4): 330-335

1928


SCIENTIFIC
SECTION
VIBURNUM
CASSINOIDES,
A
RECENT
SUBSTITUTE
FOR
VIBURNUM
PRUNIFOLIUM.*
BY
HEBER
W.
YOUNGICEN.
About
two
years
ago,
while
examining
a
commercial
sample
of
a
bark
labeled
"Black
Haw,"
the
writer's
attention
was
attracted
to
the
rather
dark
colored
peculiarity
of
the
specimen
which
in
many
other
respects
resembled
what
he
had
been
accustomed
to
recognizing
as
the
root
bark
of
Black
Haw
or Viburnum
prunifolium
L.
He
had
heard
of
the
adulteration
and
the
substitution
of
Black
Haw
with
the
bark
of
Shawnee
Haw,
as
first
reported
by
McManus,
and
determined
to
obtain
some
of
the
sub-
stitute
bark
with
a
view
toward
acquainting
himself
with
its
characteristics.
A
short
time
before
re-
ceiving
the
first
lot
of
ma-
terials,
news
came
to
the
writer
of
the
use
of
consider-
able
quantities
of
Shawnee
Haw
or
Viburnum
nudum
L.
bark
by
certain
pharmaceu-
tical
manufacturing
houses
who
regarded
it
as
superior
to
Black
Haw
in
their
prepa-
rations.
A
problem
which
at
first
appeared
rather
small
grad-
ually
developed,
because
of
the
close
natural
relationship
existing
between
several
species
of
the
genus
Viburnum,
into
an
investigation
upon
which
I
have
continually
worked
for
more
than
a
year.
Two
sets
of
samples
were
obtained
from
different
sources
for
purposes
of
investigation.
The
first
of
these
sets
comprised
about
2
oz.
of
a
root
bark
and
2
oz.
of
a
stem
bark
labeled
respectively,
"Shawnee
Haw
Root
Bark
(Viburnum
nudum
L.)
and
Shawnee
Haw
Tree
Bark
(Viburnum
nudum
L.).
The
second
set
included
about
2
pounds
each
of
(1)
"A
variety
of
Shonny
Haw
Root
Bark,"
(2)
"A
variety
of
Shonny
Haw
Tree
Bark,"
(3)
True
North
Carolina
Black
Haw
Root
Bark,"
and
(4)
"True
North
Carolina
Black
Haw
Tree
Bark."
The
"Shonny
Haw"
barks
in
this
set
were
collected
in
North
Carolina.
Not
satisfied
with
the
barks,
alone,
the
writer
obtained
from
the
collector
of
this
second
set
representative
portions
of
the
root
systems,
stems
and
leafy
branches
of
the
plants
from
which
the
bark
had
been
gathered.
*
Scientific
Section,
A.
PH.
A.,
St.
Louis
meeting,
1928.
330
Viburnum
prunifolium
Fig.
1.—Branches
of
Black
Haw
Rod
(V.
cassinoides)
showing
Viburnum
cassinoides
(
V.
prunifolium)
and
Withe
leaves
and
inflorescences.
M,
Li•
0.111:5"
`
L.
f
it
,4
1q/
1
4
J
PPriactL.
e
lf
e
;i
d
.
t
.6
I
L
S;
5.
;
"
.4
or.
4:-
„.
ki
i
It
A
' '
-
g
y
,
•%,•00!
1'114/4d-
s
AMERICAN
PHARMACEUTICAL
ASSOCIATION
331
Upon
sectioning
and
studying
representative
specimens
of
each
of
the
barks
in
the
two
sets,
I
found
both
sets
of
root
bark
which
were
labeled
"Shawnee
Haw"
and
"Shonny
Haw"
identical
structurally.
This
was
also
the
case
for
the
tree
or
stem
barks
labeled
"Shawnee
Haw"
and
"Shonny
Haw"
respectively.
The
Black
Haw
root
and
tree
barks
proved
to
be
authentic
specimens.
A
comparative
examination
of
the
"Shawnee
Haw"
and
"Shonny
Haw"
root
barks
with
the
commercial
sample
labeled
Black
Haw
showed
that
these
three
barks
were
identical
histologically.
The
writer
next
visited
the
Arnold
Arboretum
at
three
different
seasons
of
the
year
and
there
collected
authentic
material
including
portions
of
root
systems,
o
p
.
no4t.:
I
t
EP
4,4
4
'
r
Fig.
2.—Photomicrograph
of
a
cross-section
of
the
root
bark
of
North
Carolina
Black
Haw
(
Viburnum
prunifolium
L.)
k,
cork;
c,
second-
ary
cortex;
s,
group
of
stone
cells;
m,
medul-
lary
ray;
p,
phloem.
Fig.
3.—Photomicrograph
of
a
cross-section
of
the
root
bark
of
a
so-called
"variety
of
Shonny
Haw"
and
identified
as
Viburnum
cassinoides
L.)
k,
cork;
c,
secondary
cortex;
p,
phloem;
s,
stone-cell
group;
m,
medullary
ray.
stems
and
leaves,
flowers
and
fruits
from
a
series
of
living
Viburnum
species
in-
cluding
V.
prunifolium,
V.
Lentago,
V.
nudum
and
V.
cassinoides.
A
comparative
macroscopic
and
microscopic
study
of
the
leaves,
stems,
bark
and
roots
of
the
material
from
North
Carolina
with
the
authentic
material
gathered
in
the
Arnold
Arboretum
showed
that
the
"Shonny
Haw
plant"
was
structurally
identical
with
Viburnum
cassinoides
L.
of
the
Arnold
Arboretum.
The
Shawnee
Haw
root
and
tree
barks
of
the
first
set
were
also
identical
structurally
with
similar
barks
gathered
from
V.
cassinoides
L.
in
the
Arnold
Arboretum,
but
differed
structurally
from
authentic
samples
of
root
and
stem
barks
taken
from
Viburnum
nudum
L.
growing
in
the
Arnold
Arboretum.
332
JOURNAL
OF
THE
Vol.
XVII,
No.
4
To
further
confirm
that
the
substitute
labeled
"Shonny
Haw"
was
derived
from
V.
cassinoides
L.,
the
writer
next
visited
the
Gray
Herbarium
of
Harvard
University
and
compared
the
dried
leaves
in
the
material
labeled
"Shonny
Haw
from
North
Carolina"
with
the
leaves
on
herbarium
sheets
of
Viburnum
cassinoides
L.
gathered
at
Pinehurst,
N.
C.
by
Otto
Katzenstein
and
of
Viburnum
nudum
L.
collected
in
a
swamp
at
Parksville,
N.
C.
by
L.
F.
and
Fannie
R.
Randolph
and
found
the
leaf
material
designated
as
"Shonny
Haw
from
N.
C."
structurally
identical
with
that
of
Viburnum
cassinoides
L.
The
dried
leaf
material
was
further
compared
as
to
its
structural
characters
with
the
leaves
found
on
a
living
plant
of
Viburnum
cassinoides
growing
in
the
Harvard
University
Gardens
at
Cambridge,
Mass.
and
found
to
be
similar
in
morphologic
details.
DESCRIPTION
OP
VIBURNUM
CASSINOIDES
L.
Viburnum
cassinoides
L.
is
a
shrub
or
small
tree
rising
to
the
height
of
from
1
to
4
meters.
It
is
found
in
swamps
and
wet
thickets
from
Newfoundland
to
North
Carolina
and
west
as
far
as
Minnesota
and
Manitoba.
Its
leaves
are
subcoriaceous,
elliptic,
ovate,
oblong
or
ovate-lanceolate,
up
to
10
cm.
in
length,
acute
or
bluntly
acuminate
at
the
apex,
irregularly
dentate
to
denticulate
and
undulate
along-
the
margin,
dull
green
on
the
upper
surface
which
is
glabrous
or
glabrate,
paler
green
on
the
lower
surface,
the
veins
on
this
surface
being
scurfy-
punctate.
Its
petioles,
twigs
and
inflorescences
are
very
scurfy.
Its
inflores-
ences
consist
of
cymes,
5
to
12
cm.
in
breadth
which
are
usually
longer
than
the
peduncles.
The
flowers
are
perfect
and
white.
Its
fruits
are
bluish,
ovoid
or
subglobose
drupes
containing
a
flattened stone.
DESCRIPTION
OP
ROOT
BARK
OP
VIBURNUM
CASSINOIDES
L.
In
irregular,
transversely
curved
or
quilled
pieces
from
0.5
to
3
mm.
in
thick-
ness
and
1.5
to
14
cm.
in
length,
outer
surface
grayish
brown
to
dark
brown
or
blackish
brown,
or,
where
the
cork
has
been
scraped
off,
brownish
red,
longi-
tudinally
wrinkled,
inner
surface
pinkish
brown
to
reddish
brown
and
yellowish
in
areas,
longitudinally
striated,
fracture
short
and
uneven,
the
cut
or
fractured
surface
showing
in
bark
of
medium
thickness,
a
thin,
blackish
or
dark
brown
cork,
a
brownish
red
or
pinkish
middle
bark,
and
a
whitish
or
brownish
red
or
pale
yellowish
inner
bark
in
which
pale
yellow
groups
of
cells
may
be
seen
with
a
hand
lens;
odor
slightly
valeric
acid-like,
becoming
more
pronounced
when
the
bark
is
ground
and
very
strongly
valeric
acid-like,
when
it
is
triturated
in
a
mortar
with
phosphoric
acid;
taste
bitter
and
astringent.
A
1-100
solution
of
ferric
chloride
gave
a
greenish
black
coloration
to
the
inner
surface
of
the
whole
bark.
HISTOLOGY
OP
THE
ROOT
BARK
OP
VIBURNUM
CASSINOIDES
Under
the
microscope,
this
bark
exhibits
a
somewhat
lignified
cork,
a
cork
cambium,
a
secondary
cortex
and
a
broad
phloem.
The
latter
being
the
broadest
region.
Scattered
throughout
the
cortex
and
phloem
are
numerous
circular
to
oval
groups
of
stone
cells
with
somewhat
scalloped
and
toothed
margins
as
seen
in
cross-sections.
The
stone-cell
groups
vary
in
size,
but
the
larger
groups
predomi-
a.
5
-
April
1928
AMERICAN
PHARMACEUTICAL
ASSOCIATION
333
nate.
They
appear
for
the
greater
part
less
deeply
indented
along
the
margin
than
the
stone-cell
groups
in
the
root
bark
of
Viburnum
prunifolium.
The
indi-
vidual
stone
cells
examined
varied
in
size
from
20
to
79.2
microns
in
width
to
from
40
to
96.56
microns
in
length.
Numerous
rosette
aggregates
of
crystals
of
calcium
oxalate
as
well
as
crystal
fibers
containing
rosette
aggregates
are
scattered
through
the
cortex
and
phloem.
Monoclinic
prisms
of
calcium
oxalate
also
occur
but
are
relatively
few.
The
rosette
1
s
;
'K
I
-
Mk
A
••
- -
'
.
•‘'""'•
-
F
•.•
tw
-.‘
4
'
.11
Fig.
4.—Photomicrograph
of
a
cross-section
of
North
Carolina
Black
Haw
stem
bark
(Viburnum
prunifolium
L.).
k,
cork;
c,
cortex;
k
1
and
k
2
,
cork
layers
formed
at
successive
depths
in
cortex,
and
k
3
in
pericycle
(per)
as
result
of
activity
of
cork
cambia
of
secondary
origin;
p,
phloem;
s,
group
of
stone
cells.
The
margins
of
the
stone-cell
groups
tend
to
become
more
deeply
notched
in
both
the
root
and
stem
barks
of
this
species
than
in
corre-
sponding
barks
of
V.
cassinoides.
Fig.
5.—Photomicrograph
of
a
cross-section
of
the
stem
bark
of
a
variety
of
the
so-called
"Shonny
Haw"
and
determined
as
Viburnum
cassinoides
L.
k,
cork;
c,
cortex;
p,
phloem;
s,
stone-cell
group.
The
black
objects
in
the
thin-walled
cells
of
this
and
other
sections
figured
in
this
article
represent
rosette
crystals
of
calcium
oxalate.
aggregates
are
mostly
under
40
microns
in
diameter.
The
largest
one
found
meas-
ured
51.76
microns.
The
medullary
rays
are
1
to
3
cells
in
width.
The
parenchyma
of
the
cortex
and
phloem
and
the
medullary
ray
cells
contain
starch
grains
and
a
tannin
giving
a
greenish
to
greenish
black
coloration
with
1-100
solution
of
ferric
chloride.
The
starch
grains
are
mostly
simple,
more
or
less
circular,
the
larger
ones
being
mostly
up
to
12
microns,
a
few
up
to
15
microns
in
diameter.
A
few
2
to
3
compound
starch
grains
also
occur.
334
JOURNAL
OF
THE
Vol.
XVII.
No.
4
DESCRIPTION
OP
THE
STEM
BARK
OF
VIBURNUM
CASSINOIDES
L.
In
transversely
curved
pieces,
quills
or
irregular
oblong
chips,
1.5
to
20
cm.
long
and
from
0.5
to
3
mm.
thick,
outer
surface
gray
on
young
stems
and
showing
circular
to
elliptic
lenticels,
to
grayish
brown,
blackish
brown
or
black
and
rough
on
older
stems,
reddish
brown
where
the
cork
is
abraded,
showing
occasional
moss
and
foliaceous
lichens,
inner
surface
pale
yellowish
brown
to
pinkish
or
reddish
brown,
longitudinally
striate,
fracture
short,
irregular,
showing
a
grayish
to
black
cork,
a
greenish
phelloderm
on
young
bark,
and
a
yellowish
white
to
pinkish
white
or
yellow
inner
bark,
odor
strongly
valeric
acid-like,
taste
bitter
and
astringent.
A
1:
100
solution
of
ferric
chloride,
when
applied
to
the
inner
surface
of
this
bark,
gave
a
greenish
black
coloration.
HISTOLOGY
OP
THE
STEM
BARK
OP
VIBURNUM
CASSINOIDES.
Under
the
microscope,
this
bark
exhibits
a
broad,
more
or
less
lignified
cork,
a
cork
cambium,
a
narrow
secondary
cortex,
a
broader
primary
cortex
and
a
phloem.
A
few
scattered
groups
of
stone
cells
occur
in
the
secondary
cortex.
Numerous
groups
of
stone
cells
occur
in
the
primary
cortex
while
smaller
and
larger
groups
of
stone
cells
and
bast
fibers
occur
in
the
broad
phloem
region.
While
the
stone-
cell
groups
are
frequently
indented
along
the
margin,
they
are
not
as
deeply
lobed
and
cleft
as
are
many
of
these
groups
in
the
stem
bark
of
Viburnum
prunifolium.
The
individual
stone
cells
measured
were
up
to
85
microns
in
breadth
and
146
microns
in
length.
The
medullary
rays
were
mostly
1
to
2
cells
in
width,
but
a
few
were
seen
from
1
to
3
cells
wide.
Numerous
rosette
crystals
of
calcium
oxalate
and
crystal
fibers
occur
in
the
cortex
and
phloem
parenchyma.
A
few
monoclinic
prisms
are
also
present
in
these
regions.
Tannin,
giving
a
greenish
to
greenish
black
coloration
with
a
1:
100
solution
of
ferric
chloride,
and
a
greenish
brown
resinous
substance
also
occurred
in
many
of
the
parenchyma
cells
of
this
bark.
DISTINCTIONS
BETWEEN
THE
ROOT
BARKS.
Viburnum
prunifolium:
Outer
surface
grayish
brown
to
brown,
or
where
cork
has
scaled
off,
pinkish
brown.
Inner
surface
reddish
brown
to
yellowish.
Odor
valeric
acid-like,
becoming
more
pro-
nounced
when
triturated
with
phosphoric
acid.
Larger
stone-cell
groups
irregularly
oblong
to
ovate
and
usually
with
very
irregular
mar-
gins,
as
seen
in
cross-sections.
More
deeply
indented.
Medullary
rays
1
to
2
cells
in
width,
very
rarely,
1
to
3
cells
wide.
Viburnum
cassinoides:
Outer
surface
grayish
brown
to
dark
brown
to
blackish
brown,
or,
where
cork
has
scaled
off,
brownish
red.
Inner
surface
pinkish
brown
to
reddish
brown
and
yellowish,
in
area.
Odor
slightly
valeric
acid-like,
becoming
strongly
pronounced,
when
triturated
with
phosphoric
acid.
Larger
stone-cell
groups
circular
to
oval
with
somewhat
scalloped
and
toothed
margins,
as
seen
in
cross-sections.
Less
deeply
indented.
Medullary
rays
frequently
1
to
3
cells
wide,
although
the
1-
to
2-celled
type
is
also
found.
"r
.
vo.
.
4
13604i-(
'4
1
L
am`•
Fig.
6.—The
true
Shonny
Haw
or
Shawnee
Haw,
(
Viburnum
nudum
L.),
photographed
as
growing
in
the
Arnold
Arboretum.
April
1928
AMERICAN
PHARMACEUTICAL
ASSOCIATION
335
DISTINCTIONS
BETWEEN
THE
STEM
BARKS.
Viburnum
prunifolium:
Outer
surface
silvery
gray
on
young
bark,
grayish
brown
on
older
bark,
or
reddish
brown
where
cork
has
scaled
off.
Inner
surface
yellowish
or
reddish
brown
or,
yellowish
with
reddish
brown
blotches
and
streaks.
Odor
faint
to
faintly
valeric
acid-like
and
only
slightly
more
pronounced,
when
treated
with
phosphoric
acid.
Stone-cell
groups
indented
along
the
margin,
in
many
cases,
deeply
lobed
and
cleft.
Medullary
rays
1
to
2
cells
wide.
Viburnum
cassinoides:
Outer
surface
gray
on
young
stems
to
gray-
ish
brown,
blackish
brown
or
black,
or,
reddish
brown
where
cork
is
abraded.
Inner
surface
pale
yellowish
brown
to
pink-
ish
or
reddish
brown.
Odor
strongly
valeric
acid-like
and
very
strongly
pronounced
on
triturating
with
phos-
phoric
acid.
Stone-cell
groups
frequently
with
irregular
margins,
but
not
as
deeply
lobed
and
cleft.
Medullary
rays
mostly
1
to
2
cells
wide,
occasionally
1
to
3
cells
wide.
When
a
1:
100
solution
of
ferric
chloride
was
applied
to
-the
inner
surface
of
each
of
the
barks
studied,
a
greenish
black
coloration
resulted,
indicating
the
presence
of
a
tannin,
responding
in
a
similar
way
to
that
previously
found
in
other
Viburnum
species.
A
comparison
of
the
leaf
material
of
the
true
Shawnee
Haw
or
Shonny
Haw
(Viburnum
nudum
L.)
with
that
of
the
Withe
Rod
(Viburnum
cassinoides
L.)
showed
that
those
of
the
former
are
elliptic
to
ovate
to
obovate
to
elliptic
lanceolate,
5
to
12
cm.
long,
entire
or
obscurely
crenulate
or
undulate
with
an
occasional
tooth,
broadly
cuneate
at
the
base,
whereas
those
of
the
latter
species
are
elliptic
ovate,
oblong,
or
ovate
lan-
ceolate,
3
to
10
cm.
long,
with
an
ir-
regularly
dentate
to
denticulate
and
undulate
margin
and
more
narrowly
cu-
neate
at
the
base.
The
cymes
of
V.
nudum
were
found
to
be
usually
shorter
than
the
peduncles
whereas
those
of
V.
cassinoides
were
usually
longer
than
the
peduncles.
MASSACHUSETTS
COLLEGE
OF
PHARMACY.
CASCARA.
*
BY
T.
J.
STARKER.'
For
the
last
four
years
the
cascara
tree
has
been
under
the
observation
of
the
faculty
and
senior
students
at
the
Oregon
State
College,
and
it
is
the
purpose
of
this
paper
to
summarize
briefly
the
general
methods
of
the
industry
and
the
results
we
have
obtained.
Cascara,
(Rhamnus
Purshiana,
De
Candolle)
was
discovered
on
the
banks
of
a
tributary
of
the
Columbia
about
1805
by
members
of
the
exploring
party
*
Section
on
Historical
Pharmacy,
A.
PH.
A.,
Philadelphia
meeting,
1926.
1
Professor
of
Forestry,
Oregon
State
College,
Corvallis,
Oregon.