Psychological profile of Turkish rock climbers: an examination of climbing experience and route difficulty


Aşçi, F.Hülya.; Demirhan, G.; Dinç, S.Cem.

Perceptual and Motor Skills 104(3 Part 1): 892-900

2007


The purpose of this study was to examine sensation seeking, physical self-perception, and intrinsic and extrinsic motives of rock climbers and to compare these psychological constructs with respect to their years of climbing experience and the difficulty of their climbing routes. 64 climbers (M age=29.1 yr., SD=6.4) voluntarily participated in this study. The Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS), Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ), and Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) were administered to the rock climbers. Analysis indicated that the mean score of rock climbers on the Novelty subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale was 33.9 (SD= 3.6) and mean value on the Intensity subscale was 29.2 (SD=5.2). The mean scores of rock climbers on the PSDQ ranged between 3.9 (SD= 1.0, Physical Activity) and 5.1 (SD= 1.1, Body Fat). Descriptive analysis indicated that the highest mean score of rock climbers on the SMS was obtained in Intrinsic motivation to Experience Stimulation (5.7, SD= 0.9). The independent sample t test showed no significant differences in sensation seeking, physical self-perception, and sport motivation with regard to years of climbing experience and route difficulty (p>.05). It may be concluded that sensation seeking in climbers is high, and they have internal motivational orientation and positive physical self-perception; their competence in climbing has no obvious relationship to these variables.

Perceptual
and
Motor
Skills,
2007,
104,
892-900.
©
Perceptual
and
Motor
Skills
2007
PSYCHOLOGICAL
PROFILE
OF
TURKISH
ROCK
CLIMBERS:
AN
EXAMINATION
OF
CLIMBING
EXPERIENCE
AND
ROUTE
DIFFICULTY'
F.
HULYA
AScI
GIYASETTIN
DEMIRHAN,
S.
CEM
DING
Sport
Sciences
Department
School
of
Sport
Sciences
and
Technology
Bafkent
University
Hacettepe
University
Summary.—The
purpose
of
this
study
was
to
examine
sensation
seeking,
physical
self-perception,
and
intrinsic
and
extrinsic
motives
of
rock
climbers
and
to
compare
these
psychological
constructs
with
respect
to
their
years
of
climbing
experience
and
the
difficulty
of
their
climbing
routes.
64
climbers
(M
age
=29.1
yr.,
SD=
6.4)
volun-
tarily
participated
in
this
study.
The
Arnett
Inventory
of
Sensation
Seeking
(AISS),
Physical
Self-Description
Questionnaire
(PSDQ),
and
Sport
Motivation
Scale
(SMS)
were
administered
to
the
rock
climbers.
Analysis
indicated
that
the
mean
score
of
rock
climbers
on
the
Novelty
subscale
of
the
Sensation
Seeking
Scale
was
33.9
(SD=
3.6)
and
mean
value
on
the
Intensity
subscale
was
29.2
(SD=
5.2).
The
mean
scores
of
rock
climbers
on
the
PSDQ
ranged
between
3.9
(SD
=
1.0,
Physical
Activity)
and
5.1
(SD
=
1.1,
Body
Fat).
Descriptive
analysis
indicated
that
the
highest
mean
score
of
rock
climbers
on
the
SMS
was
obtained
in
Intrinsic
motivation
to
Experience
Stimu-
lation
(5.7,
SD=
0.9).
The
independent
sample
t
test
showed
no
significant
differences
in
sensation
seeking,
physical
self-perception,
and
sport
motivation
with
regard
to
years
of
climbing
experience
and
route
difficulty
(p
>
.05).
It
may
be
concluded
that
sensation
seeking
in
climbers
is
high,
and
they
have
internal
motivational
orientation
and
positive
physical
self-perception;
their
competence
in
climbing
has
no
obvious
re-
lationship
to
these
variables.
Risk
is
an
important
dimension
of
all
sports,
and
athletes
confront
some
risk
of
personal
injury
or
death.
Especially
in
sports
such
as
skydiving,
hang
gliding,
rock
climbing,
and
scuba
diving,
participants
are
at
the
high
end
of
the
risk
dimension.
The
markedly
increased
popularity
of
these
risk
and
ad-
venture
sports
(Pedersen,
1997)
has
prompted
a
number
of
research
studies
examining
the
psychological
and
social
aspects
of
risk
sports.
From
psychological
perspectives,
studies
have
indicated
that
the
person-
ality
profile
of
high
risk
athletes
is
characterized
by
extroversion,
emotional
stability,
conformity
to
social
norms,
search
for
thrill
and
experience
via
a
socialized
means,
and
boredom
susceptibility
(Gomai
Freixanet,
1991;
Brei-
vik,
1996;
Egan
&
Stelmack,
2003).
In
his
review
of
the
literature,
Zucker-
man
(1983)
noted
that
those
who
engaged
in
high
risk
sports
such
as
hang
gliding
and
auto
racing
have
higher
sensation
seeking.
The
higher
sensation
'Address
correspondence
to
F.
Hulya
Asci,
Sport
Sciences
Department,
Baskent
University,
Eskisehir
Yolu
20
km.
06530
Ankara/Turkey
or
e-mail
(fhasci@baskent.edu.tr
).
This
paper
was
presented
at
the
3rd
Adventure
Sport
and
Science
Symposium
in
Ankara
on
26-27
November
2005.
DOI
10.2466/PMS.104.3.892-900
TURKISH
CLIMBERS'
PSYCHOLOGICAL
PROFILES
893
seeking
scores
of
high
risk
sport
athletes
were
also
confirmed
in
the
studies
of
Rossi
and
Cereatti
(1993),
Breivik
(1996),
and
Slanger
&
Rudestam
(1997).
With
respect
to
Farley's
Big
T
personality
theory,
athletes
in
high
risk
sports
such
as
parachuting
and
hang
gliding
have
a
type
T
or
thrill
seeking
person-
ality
profile
and
they
seek
excitement
and
stimulation
(Munsey,
2006).
2
In
addition,
previous
research
has
shown
that
athletes
participating
in
high
risk
sports
are
paratelic
dominant
athletes
and
tend
to
be
arousal
seekers,
delib-
erately
seeking
out
a
situation
where
they
can
experience
high
arousal
in
the
form
of
pleasant
feelings
of
excitement
(Apter,
1997;
3
Cogan
&
Brown,
1998;
Kerr,
2005).
Although
studies
on
the
personality
characteristics
and
sensation
seek-
ing
of
high
risk
sport
athletes
have
provided
some
clues
about
the
reasons
or
motives
behind
participation
in
high
risk
sports,
they
have
not
provided
in-
formation
about
the
intrinsic
and
extrinsic
motives.
This
area
of
research
has
been
based
predominantly
on
the
Self-determination
Theory,
in
which
Deci
and
Ryan
distinguish
between
different
types
of
motivation
based
on
the
dif-
ferent
reasons
or
goals
that
give
rise
to
an
action
and
propose
a
continuum
to
describe
motivational
variables
with
different
degrees
of
self-determina-
tion.
From
higher
to
lower
self-determination,
these
are
intrinsic
motivation,
extrinsic
motivation,
and
amotivation
(Ryan
&
Deci,
2000a,
2000b).
The
most
basic
distinction
is
between
intrinsic
motivation,
which
refers
to
doing
something
because
it
is
inherently
interesting
or
enjoyable,
and
extrinsic
mo-
tivation,
which
refers
to
doing
something
because
it
leads
to
a
separable
out-
come.
Amotivation
is
the
state
of
lacking
an
intention
to
act
which
results
from
not
valuing
an
activity,
not
feeling
competent
to
do
it,
or
not
believing
it
will
yield
a
desired
outcome
(Ryan
&
Deci,
2000a).
Perceived
physical
self
is
another
psychological
construct
to
understand
motivated
behavior
of
athletes
and
predict
involvement.
In
line
with
theories
such
as
Competence
Motivation
(Harter,
1978),
the
individual's
perception
of
himself
in
the
psychomotor
domain
and
physical
fitness
parameters
is
as-
sociated
with
choice
of
physical
activity
and
health-related
behaviors
such
as
involvement
in
or
avoidance
of
competitive
sport,
recreational
pursuits,
and
health-related
exercise
(Fox
&
Corbin,
1989).
Indeed,
a
highly
valued
per-
ception
of
the
physical
self
has
emerged
as
particularly
important
to
global
self-esteem
development
(Heine,
Lehman,
Markus,
&
Kitayama,
1990)
and
is
potentially
an
influential
factor
on
physical
activity
behavior
patterns
(Hag-
ger,
Ashford,
&
Stambulova,
1998).
2
cf.
description
of
F.
Farley's
work
in
the
newspaper,
USA
Today,
118(2530),
60-61.
Also,
see
Munsey,
C.
(2006)
Frisky,
but
more
risky.
Monitor
on
Psychology
(on-line),
37,
7,
July/August.
Available:
http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug06/frisky.hunl.
'Apter,
M.
(1997)
Reversal
theory:
what
is
it?
The
Psychologist
(on-line),
10,
5.
Available:
http://www.reversaltheory.org/RT.
894
F.
H.
ASO,
ET
AL.
Despite
availability
of
an
abundance
of
literature
on
sensation
seeking
and
personality
characteristics
of
high
risk
sport
athletes,
there
is
a
limited
amount
of
data
describing
physical
self-perception
and
intrinsic
and
extrinsic
motives
of
these
nontraditional
athletes.
With
the
growing
interest
and
rise
in
alpine,
traditional
rock
climbing,
and
sport
climbing
in
Turkey,
this
study
focused
on
traditional
rock
climbers.
Traditional
rock
climbing
employing
ropes,
specialized
techniques,
and
various
equipment
to
safeguard
a
climber
is
a
very
natural
activity.
During
a
climb,
climbers
use
their
arms
and
feet
for
balance
and
step
up;
leader
climbers
should
preset
their
routes
and
use
protective
equipment
and
belaying
systems
in
open
environments
for
added
safety.
This
study
also
considered
two
climbing
experience
parameters—
years
of
experience
and
route
difficulty—that
may
have
a
possible
effect
on
the
sensation
seeking,
physical
self-perception,
and
intrinsic
and
extrinsic
motives
of
rock
climbers.
Thus,
the
purpose
of
this
study
was
to
compare
these
psychological
constructs
with
respect
to
years
of
climbing
experience
and
the
most
difficult
route
climbed.
It
was
hypothesized
that
less
experi-
enced
rock
climbers
would
have
higher
scores
on
sensation
seeking
and
in-
trinsic
motivation
but
lower
scores
on
physical
self-perception
than
more
ex-
perienced
rock
climbers.
It
was
also
hypothesized
that
rock
climbers
who
climbed
more
difficult
routes
would
score
higher
on
physical
self
but
lower
on
sensation
seeking
and
intrinsic
motivation
than
rock
climbers
who
at-
tempted
less
difficult
routes.
METHOD
Participants
Sixty-four
Turkish
rock
climbers
(53
men,
M
age
=29.1
yr.,
SD
=
6.5
and
11
women,
M
age
=28.8
yr.,
SD
=
5.6;
age
range
19
to
44
years)
volun-
tarily
participated
in
this
study.
The
small
number
of
women
participants
reflects
the
national
interest
of
women
in
climbing.
The
mean
years
of
sport
experience
was
6.8
(SD
=
5.3).
The
mean
number
of
routes
climbed
was
73.8
(SD
=
86.9)
and
84.5
(SD
=
110.6)
for
outdoor
and
indoor
climbing,
respec-
tively.
All
climbers
in
this
study
had
experience
at
an
advanced
level
in
traditional
rock
climbing.
In
addition,
most
had
participated
in
a
climbing
party
on
a
rock
wall
as
a
leader,
guide,
or
facilitator.
Some
had
climbed
al-
pine
style
in
the
winter.
With
the
growing
popularity
of
sport
climbing
and
preparation
of
new
routes
in
outdoor
and
indoor
settings,
particularly
in
the
last
decade,
traditional
climbers
have
become
widely
interested
in
sport
climbing
to
increase
their
climbing
performance.
There
is
a
growing
interest
in
sport
climbing
as
a
means
of
entertainment
and
for
recognition
of
their
climbing
performance.
Questionnaires
Three
different
psychological
measures
and
a
self-report
questionnaire
regarding
sociodemographic
characteristics
were
used
in
the
present
study.
TURKISH
CLIMBERS'
PSYCHOLOGICAL
PROFILES
895
Arnett
Inventory
of
Sensation
Seeking
(AISS;
Arnett,
1994).—The
inven-
tory
assessed
sensation
seeking
in
rock
climbers.
The
AISS
contains
20
items,
with
subscales
of
Intensity
and
Novelty.
Each
item
is
rated
on
a
4-point
Lik-
ert
scale
anchored
by
1:
Describes
me
very
well
and
4:
Does
not
describe
me
at
all,
resulting
in
scores
ranging
from
4
to
40
for
each
subscale
(Arnett,
1994).
The
Turkish
version
of
the
AISS
comprises
22
items
(19
original
items,
excluding
"I
don't
like
extremely
hot
and
spicy
foods"
and
3
items
taken
from
Persing
and
Schick's
Multidimensional
Self-Destructiveness
Scale:
"I
like
an
exciting
job,"
"I
make
quick
decisions,"
and
"I
like
to
try
new
things
even
if
they
are
highly
risky").
Each
subscale
consists
of
11
items
and
is
rated
on
a
4-point
Likert
scale.
The
internal
consistencies
of
the
two
subscales
were
.84
(Intensity)
and
.75
(Novelty)
in
a
Turkish
sample
(Sumer
&
Ozkan,
2002).
For
the
present
sample,
the
internal
consistency
was
.68
for
the
22
items.
Physical
Self-Description
Questionnaire
(PSDQ;
Marsh,
Richards,
John-
son,
Roche,
&
Tremayne,
1994).—Climber's
perception
of
himself
in
physi-
cal
fitness
and
motor
ability
parameters
was
measured.
The
PSDQ
(Marsh,
et
al.,
1994)
consists
of
70
items
designed
to
measure
nine
specific
subscales
of
physical
self-concept,
namely,
perceptions
of
Strength,
Body
Fat,
Physical
Activity,
Endurance/fitness,
Sports
Competence,
Coordination,
Health,
Ap-
pearance,
and
Flexibility.
There
are
also
two
global
scales,
Global
Physical
Self-concept
and
Self-esteem.
Each
item
in
these
components
is
a
simple
de-
clarative
statement
and
subjects
respond
on
a
6-point
true-false
response
scale.
The
questionnaire
is
designed
for
adolescents
12
years
of
age
or
older
(Marsh,
et
al.,
1994).
Evidence
of
reliability
and
validity
for
Turkish
univer-
sity
students
was
assessed
in
a
recent
study
by
Marsh,
Marco,
and
A5ci
(2002).
The
internal
consistency
of
70
items
for
the
present
sample
was
.96.
Sport
Motivation
Scale
(SMS,
Pelletier,
Fortier,
Vallerand,
Tuson,
Briere,
&
Blais,
1995).—This
scale
was
used
to
measure
the
motivation
from
multi-
dimensional
perspectives
based
on
the
self-determination
theory.
It
consists
of
seven
subscales
that
measure
three
types
of
Intrinsic
Motivation:
Intrinsic
Motivation
to
Know,
Intrinsic
Motivation
to
Accomplish
Things,
and
Intrin-
sic
Motivation
to
Experience
Stimulation);
three
forms
of
regulation
for
Extrinsic
Motivation
(Identified,
Introjected,
and
External);
and
Amotiva-
tion.
There
were
four
items
in
each
subscale,
for
a
total
of
28
items.
The
par-
ticipants
responded
on
a
7
-
point
subscale
ranging
from
1:
Does
not
corre-
spond
at
all
to
7:
Corresponds
exactly.
Reliability
and
validity
evidence
for
a
Turkish
sample
was
obtained
in
a
recent
study
carried
out
by
Toros
(2001).
The
internal
consistency
for
the
present
sample
was
.90.
A
self-report
questionnaire
was
developed
by
the
researchers
and
in-
cludes
questions
about
demographic
characteristics
and
climbing
experience,
896
F.
H.
AKI,
ET
AL.
such
as
number
of
indoor
and
outdoor
climbing
routes,
route
difficulty
based
on
the
UIAA
grading
system,
and
years
of
climbing
experience,
etc.
Procedure
Three
psychological
measures
and
a
self-report
questionnaire
of
socio-
demographic
characteristics
were
administered
to
rock
climbers
who
en-
rolled
in
the
Indoor
Sport
Climbing
Competitions
during
2004
and
2005,
in
Ankara,
Turkey.
These
measures
were
completed
by
participants
during
or
after
the
competition
period.
Participants
who
completed
these
measures
af-
ter
the
competition
sent
their
responses
to
the
researchers
by
post.
Rock
climbers
were
assigned
to
two
groups
according
to
climbing
expe-
rience
as
6
years
or
less
of
climbing
experience
(n
=36)
or
7
years
or
more
(n=26)
(Martens,
1987).
Climbers
were
also
grouped
into
two
groups
re-
garding
route
grades
of
the
Union
Internationale
des
Associations
d'Alpi-
nisme
(UIAA)
numerical
scale,
which
were
reported
by
the
climbers,
as
un-
der
6+
(n
=21)
and
over
7—
(n
=37).
The
UIAA
numerical
scale,
ranging
from
1
to
12—
(Cox
&
Fulsaas,
2003),
was
used
to
determine
the
rating
of
route
difficulty.
A
6+
grade
level
in
the
UIAA
system,
which
equals
5.10
in
numeric
grade
in
the
Yosemite
Decimal
System
(YDS),
was
chosen
to
cate-
gorize
the
climbers'
competence.
This
level
of
difficulty
is
perceived
as
a
kind
of
threshold
among
the
climbers.
According
to
Cox
and
Fulsaas
(2003),
above
5.10
requires
excellent
skills,
strength,
and
time
commitment
to
main-
tain.
RESULTS
Analysis
indicated
that
the
mean
score
of
rock
climbers
on
the
Novelty
subscale
of
sensation
seeking
was
33.9
(SD
=3.6),
and
the
mean
value
on
the
Intensity
subscale
was
29.2
(SD
=
5.2)
(Table
1).
The
mean
scores
of
climbers
on
the
Physical
Self-Description
Questionnaire
ranged
between
3.93
(SD=
1.01)
for
Physical
Activity
and
5.05
(SD=
1.10)
for
Body
Fat.
Descriptive
analysis
also
indicated
that
the
highest
mean
score
of
climbers
on
the
Sport
Motivation
Scale
was
obtained
on
the
Intrinsic
Motivation
to
Experience
Stimulation
subscale
(M=5.71,
SD=
0.93);
cf.
Table
1.
The
independent
sam-
ple
t
test
indicated
no
significant
differences
in
Sensation
Seeking,
Physical
Self-perception
and
Sport
Motivation
with
regard
to
climbing
experience
and
route
difficulty
(p>
.05).
DISCUSSION
The
present
study
aimed
to
examine
the
sensation
seeking,
physical
self-perception,
and
extrinsic
and
intrinsic
motives
of
rock
climbers
with
re-
gard
to
climbing
experience
and
route
difficulty.
A
higher
score
on
Sensation
Seeking
subscales
and
Intrinsic
Motivation
to
Experience
Stimulation
of
the
Sport
Motivation
Scale
consistently
showed
TABLE
1
PSYCHOLOGICAL
MEASURES
WITH
RESPECT
TO
YEARS
OF
CLIMBING
EXPERIENCE
AND
ROUTE
DIFFICULTY
Measure
Climbing
Experience
t
Route
Difficulty
t
Total
(N=
64)
6
yr.
(n
=36)
7
yr.
(n
=
26)
(n=21)
7-
(n=37)
M
SD
M
SD
M
SD
M
SD
M
SD
Sensation
Seeking
Novelty
34.5
3.2
33.7
3.2
1.02
33.7
3.1
34.6
3.4
-0.94
33.9
3.6
Intensity
30.4
5.5
28.3
3.8
1.72
30.1
4.0
29.4
5.6
0.51
29.3
5.2
Physical
Self-concept
Health
5.1
0.6
5.0
0.6
0.64
5.0
0.7
5.1
0.6
-0.43
5.0
0.6
Coordination
4.6
0.7
4.3
1.0
1.04
4.4
1.0
4.5
0.8
-0.29
4.4
0.8
Physical
Activity
3.9
0.9
4.1
1.0
-0.82
3.9
1.0
4.0
1.0
-0.49
3.9
1.0
Body
Fat
5.2
1.1
4.9
1.1
0.80
5.2
0.9
5.0
1.2
0.62
5.1
1.1
Sport
Competence
4.5
0.6
4.4
1.0
0.60
4.3
0.9
4.4
0.7
-0.49
4.4
0.8
Appearance
4.3
0.9
4.3
0.7
0.03
4.4
0.7
4.2
0.8
1.0
4.3
0.8
Strength
4.7
0.7
4.7
0.6
-0.16
4.8
0.7
4.7
0.7
0.70
4.7
0.7
Flexibility
4.3
1.1
4.5
0.9
-0.86
4.3
0.8
4.3
1.1
0.01
4.3
1.0
Endurance
4.6
1.0
4.6
1.2
0.09
4.5
1.2
4.6
1.0
-0.45
4.5
1.1
Global
Physical
Self-concept
4.9
0.7
4.9
0.7
-0.41
5.0
0.6
4.8
0.7
0.93
4.9
0.7
Self-esteem
4.7
0.7
4.8
0.6
-0.44
4.7
0.7
4.7
0.7
0.11
4.7
0.7
Sport
Motivation
Intrinsic
Motivation
to
Know
and
Accomplish
5.2
1.2
5.0
1.1
0.54
5.2
0.9
5.0
1.3
0.70
5.1
1.2
Experience
Stimulation
5.7
1.0
5.8
0.8
-0.31
5.9
0.7
5.6
1.0
1.15
5.7
0.9
Extrinsic
Motivation
to
Identify
4.4
1.3
4.8
1.4
-1.19
4.7
1.3
4.3
1.3
1.32
4.5
1.3
Introject
4.9
1.6
5.2
1.4
-0.86
5.2
1.4
4.8
1.6
0.87
5.0
1.5
External
Regulation
3.0
1.4
3.1
1.5
-0.22
3.3
1.5
2.8
1.4
1.22
3.0
1.4
Amotivation
1.9
0.9
2.1
1.0
-0.80
2.2
0.8
1.9
1.0
1.23
2.0
0.9
00
T
URKISH
C
LIMBERS'
PSYCHOLOGICA
L
PROFILES
898
F.
H.
AKI,
ET
AL.
that
rock
climbers
tend
to
seek
the
novel,
unknown,
and
uncertain
and
dem-
onstrate
risk-taking
characteristics,
and
that
they
are
engaged
in
this
sport
to
experience
pleasant
sensations.
In
addition,
descriptive
analysis
indicated
that
rock
climbers
have
positive
self-esteem
and
perceive
themselves
positively
in
many
aspects
of
their
physical
and
motor
abilities.
Inconsistent
with
the
hypothesis
of
this
study,
sensation
seeking,
physi-
cal
self-perception,
and
extrinsic
and
intrinsic
motives
of
climbers
did
not
vary
according
to
years
of climbing
experience
or
route
difficulty.
This
find-
ing
indicated
that
neither
years
of
experience
nor
task
difficulty
played
a
role
in
measured
sensation
seeking,
physical
self-perception,
and
intrinsic
and
ex-
trinsic
motivation
of
rock
climbers.
Determination
of
no
significant
differences
in
sensation
seeking
with
re-
gard
to
years
of
climbing
experience
and
route
difficulty
is
inconsistent
with
most
of
the
previous
studies
(Zuckerman,
1983;
Kerr,
1987;
Breivik,
1996),
which
have
showed
that
sport
participants
having
higher
skill
or
competitive
level
are
more
telic
(arousal
avoider)
than
those
with
lower
skill
or
competi-
tive
level
and
that
expert
athletes
had
higher
sensation-seeking
scores
com-
pared
to
their
nonexpert
counterparts.
The
results
on
intrinsic
and
extrinsic
motivation
were
also
not
in
line
with
the
studies
that
reported
positive
and
negative
effects
of
sport
competi-
tiveness
on
intrinsic
and
extrinsic
motivation
of
athletes
from
various
sports.
For
example,
Fortier,
Vallerand,
Briere,
and
Provencher
(1995),
Kavussanu
and
Roberts
(1996),
and
Chantel,
Guay,
Debreva-Martinova,
and
Vallerand
(1996)
reported
that
their
competitive
athletes
and
best
performing
athletes
exhibited
lower
intrinsic
motivation
but
higher
extrinsic
motivation.
On
the
other
hand,
the
present
finding
was
consistent
with
the
interpretation
made
in
a
study
of
elite
soccer
players
by
Forzoni
and
Karageorghis
(2001),
who
employed
the
Sport
Motivation
Scale
to
examine
the
participation
motives
of
elite
soccer
players
across
four
age
groups.
They
found
no
significant
dif-
ferences
in
participation
motives
as
the
players
progressed
in
age
through
professional
ranks.
The
finding
of
the
present
study
also
indicated
that
physical
self-per-
ception
is
not
related
to
performance
or
years
of
experience
in
a
sport.
This
is
consistent
with
Alfermann,
Stiller,
and
Wurth
(2003).
On
the
other
hand,
the
present
findings
are
not
consistent
with
the
results
of
Marsh,
Hey,
Roche,
and
Perry's
(1997)
studies
indicating
a
higher
physical
self-concept
for
elite
versus
nonelite
groups.
The
inconsistent
results
could
be
attributed
to
sample,
methodological,
and
cultural
differences.
Rock
climbers
have
not
been
frequently
studied
from
a
self-determination
perspective
or
in
the
physical
self-perception
liter-
ature.
Furthermore,
the
Zuckerman
Sensation
Seeking
Scale
has
been
fre-
quently
used
in
previous
studies
in
which
was
investigated
sensation
seeking
TURKISH
CLIMBERS'
PSYCHOLOGICAL
PROFILES
899
in
high
risk
sport
participants.
In
addition,
most
of
the
previous
studies
were
conducted
in
European
and
North
American
high
risk
athletes
and
athletes
from
a
variety
of
sports,
while
this
study
investigated
Turkish
rock
climbers.
As
reported
by
Lindner,
Johns,
and
Butcher
(1991),
the
impor-
tance
of
motivational
factors
may
vary
among
different
cultural
groups,
and
the
motives
for
sport
participation
should
reflect
such
an
observation.
Although
the
present
study
was
conducted
on
a
small
number
of
rock
climbers
and
did
not
consider
sex
as
a
possible
moderating
variable,
it
makes
some
contribution
to
the
literature.
A
major
contribution
of
this
study
to
the
literature
derives
from
the
additional
motivating
variables
of
physical
self-perception
and
extrinsic
and
intrinsic
motivation
for
engaging
in
high
risk
sports
together
with
the
most
frequently
studied
construct
of
sensation
seeking.
Further
studies
should
continue
to
investigate
motives
behind
high
risk
sport
participation
from
different
theoretical
perspectives
(reversal
theo-
ry,
competence
motivation,
etc.).
In
addition,
further
studies
should
be
fo-
cused
on
different
types
of
high
risk
sport
participants
and
consider
possible
moderating
factors
such
as
sex,
age,
and
indoor
and
outdoor
climbing
psychological
profiles
of
participants.
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