Hamartoma of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneum: a review and a case report


Paclík, A.; Dytrych, P.; Hoskovec, D.; Jakša, R.; Krška, Z.

Rozhledy v Chirurgii 96(9): 375-382

2017


We have reviewed recent as well as older literature with the intention of compiling a summary report on hamartomas of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneum. Hamartoma of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneum is a rare condition which has received relatively little attention. The most commonly affected organs are the liver, spleen, digestive tract, pancreas and kidneys. By its nature, hamartoma is a benign lesion with a good prognosis. However, neoplastic transformation may occur and hamartomas need to be regarded as potentially malignant. Patients are very often asymptomatic. Signs and symptoms depend on the organ involved and are caused, to different degrees, by obstruction, surrounding tissue compression, rupture or tumor bleeding. In imaging diagnostics, it is usually not possible to safely distinguish between a hamartoma and a malignant lesion. Therefore, the patient is preferably indicated for surgery (or endoscopic removal) for the purpose of histological verification and definitive treatment. Hamartomas of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneum are relatively rare, benign and often asymptomatic diseases which, however, may manifest as compression, obstruction, perforation, bleeding or even malignant transformation. The recent case report of splenic hamartoma presented at the end of this review proves that surgical management is often the only rational option to obtain definitive confirmation of the diagnosis.Key words: splenic hamartoma hamartoma of the liver hamartoma of the pancreas hamartomatous polyps of the colon multiple hamartoma syndrome.