Biological principles of grape cultivation in high-stemmed training systems under the continental climate conditions of southern USSR
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Cool Climate Viticulture and Enology: 217-226
Where the minimum temperature is -23 degrees C or lower, high-stemmed training (120-140 cm trunk height) should only be used with frost-resistant high-quality cultivars of high regenerative ability. Reducing autumn irrigation and omitting pre-winter irrigation promotes frost resistance. Shoots of low water content (41-43% dry weight) show increased water-holding capacity, increased unfrozen water content and a longer period of supercooling (in the range -27 to -30 degrees ).