In vitro inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Colletotrichum circinans by summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) derivatives


Boyraz, N.; Ozcan, M.M.

Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 9(2): 107-117

2006


The inhibition effect of Satureja hortensis derivatives (essential oil, hydrosol, ground material and extract) on mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Colletotrichum circinans were determined in vitro conditions. Of derivatives tested, the extract completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungi, and showed a complete fungicidal effect on fungi. Essential oil of summer savory on growth of C. circinans were less effective than S. sclerotiorum. The hydrosol of summer savory shown similar effect against on the mycelial growth of both fungi. While the 1.5% level of ground material of summer savory inhibited 100% of mycelial growth of C. circinans, the 0.5% and 1% levels inhibited less. The 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations of ground materials of summer savory on growth of C. circinans were less effective than S. sclerotiorum. The high fungistatic effect in the beginning of incubation was decreased gradually towards the end of incubation.

SiI
a
s
,
t
0IAL
0/4
Cfr
...
4:11..,
co
c-
4,
7
14.
.
2
0
Z
-
1
0
'0
2
0
ISSN 0972-060X
Jeobp
9
(2)
2006
pp
107
-117
107
In
Vitro
Inhibition
of
Sclerotinia
sclerotiorum
and
Colletotrichum
circinans
by
Summer
Savory
(Satureja
hortensis
L.)
Derivatives
Nuh
BOYRAZ*,
Mehmet
Musa
OZCAN**
*Department
of
Plant
Protection,
Faculty
of
Agriculture,
Selguk
University,
42031
Konya,
Turkey
**Department
of
Food
Engineering,
Faculty
of
Agriculture,
Selguk
University,
42031
Konya,
Turkey.
Received
2
January
2006;
accepted
in
revised
form
28
May
2006
Abstract:
The
inhibition
effect
of
Satureja
hortensis
L.
derivatives
(
essential
oil,
hydrosol,
ground
material
and
extract)
on
mycelial
growth
of
Sclerotinia
sclerotiorum(
Libert)
de
Bary
and
Colletotrichum
circinans
(Berk.)
Vogl.
were
determined
in
vitro
conditions.
Of
derivatives
tested,
the
extract
completely
inhibited
the
mycelial
growth
of
fungi,
and
showed
a
complete
fungicidal
effect
on
fungi.
Essential
oil
of
summer
savory
on
growth
of
C
circinans
were
less
effective
than
S.
sclerotiorum.
The
hydrosol
of
summer
savory
shown
similar
effect
against
on
the
mycelial
growth
of
both
fungi.
While
the
1.5
%
level
of
ground
material
of
summer
savory
inhibited
100
%
ofmycelial
growth
of
C.
circinans,
the
0.5%
and
1%
levels
inhibited
less.
Also,
0.5%
and
1%
concentrations
of
ground
mate-
rials
of
summer
savory
on
growth
of
C.
circinans
were
less
effective
than
S.
sclerotiorum.
The
high
fungistatic
effect
in
the
beginning
of
incubation
was
decreased
gradually
towards
the
end
of
incuba-
tion.
Keywords:
Inhibition
effect,
fungi,
summer
savory
Introduction:
Fungi
of
the
genus
Sclerotinia,
especially
S.
sclerotiorum
and
S.
minor,
cause
destructive
diseases
of
numerous
succulent
plants,
particulary
vegetables
and
flowers.
Sclerotinia
diseases
occur
worlwide
and
affect
plants
in
all
stages
of
growth,
including
seedlings,
mature
plants,
and
harvested
products.
Especially,
post-
harvest
losses
due
to
S.
sclerotiorum
invasions
are
much
more
significant
for
highly
perishable
fresh
fruits
and
vegetables
than
field
crops.
Because
of
their
high
moisture
content,
fresh
fruits
and
vegetables
are
highly
susceptible
to
attack
by
S.
sclerotiorum'.
The
other
genus
Colletotrichum
is
very
common
and
destructive
numerous
crop
and
ornamental
plants.
Although
severe
everywhere,
Colletotrichum
diseases
cause
their
most
significant
losses
in
*Corresponding
author:
(Musa
Ozcan)
E-mail:
<mozcan@selcukedu.tr
>
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9
(2)
2006
pp
107
-
117
108
the
tropic
and
subtropics.
The
fungus,
C.
circinans,
attacks
iner,
living
scales
only
under
conditions
of
favorable
high
moisture
and
temperature
2
.
Maximum
research
efforts
have
been
directed
towards
chemical
control
of
plant
diseases
and
a
large
number
of
synthetic
chemicals
are
used
32
.
The
use
of
synthetic
chemicals
to
control
plant
diseases
is
restricted,
due
to
the
their
possible
carcinogenicity,
teratogenicity,
high
and
acute
toxicity,
long
degrada-
tion
periods,
environmental
pollution
and
their
effects
on
human
beings
24
.
Therefore,
alterna-
tives
to
synthetic
pesticides
are
needed
from
microbial
and
plant
sources.
Effective
phytocompounds
are
expected
to
be
far
more
advantageous
than
synthetic
pesticides,
as
they
are
easily
decomposable,
not
environmental
pollutants
and
posses
no
residual
or
phyto-
toxic
properties
1,6,29,33
.
Some
phytochemicals
of
plant
origin
viz.azadirachtin,
pyrethroids,
carvone
(
trade
name
TALENT)
have
been
formulated
as
botanical
pesticides
and
are
used
successfully
in
integrated
pest
management
programme
as
botanical
pesticides.
Unlike
the
prevalent
fumi-
gants,
the
problem
of
development
of
resistant
strains
of
fungi
and
insects
may
be
solved
by
the
use
of
plant
derivatives
(essential
oil,
hydrosol,decoction
and
extract)
as
fumigants
in
management
of
storage
pests,
because
of
synergism
between
different
components
of
de-
rivatives.
The
derivatives
produced
by
different
plant
species
are
in
many
cases
biologically
active
and
have
antimicrobial,
allelopathic,
antioxidant
and
bioregulatory
properties"
,3,37
.
The
importance
of
spices
and
their
derivatives
(extracts,
essential
oils,
decoctions,
hydro-
sols)
in
crop
protection
is
being
increasingly
recognized
under
the
concept
of
Integrated
Pest
and
Disease
Management
(IPDM).
Under
this
concept,
all
possible
modes
of
plant
pests
and
disease
control
methods
should
be
integrated
to
minimize
the
excessive
use
of
synthetic
pesticides'.
During
the
last
years
there
has
been
growing
interest
in
testing
natural
compounds
of
different
origins
as
defense
for
cultivated
plants
against
phytopathogenic
fungi
7,22,25,34,35,38.
In
particular,
essential
oils
were
seen
to
exert
good
antifungal
activities
both
in
vitro
and
in
vivo
5,
'
4,36
.
But
antifungal
activities
of
other
derivatives
have
been
less
investigated
against
phytopathogenic
fungi
9,10,27.
In
the
present
work
we
wish
to
report
in
vitro
growth
inhibition
activity
against
two
phytopathogenic
fungi
S.
sclerotiorum
and
C.
circinans
of
derivatives
(essential
oil,
hydrosol,
ground
material
and
extract)
of
Saturaje
hortensis
L.
collected
in
Turkey.
The
future
aim
of
the
present
investigation
is
to
identify
the
most
suitable
in
vivo
bioassay
for
the
development
of
derivatives
-
based
treatment
system
to
inhibit
post
-
har-
vest
fungal
pathogens
in
squash
and
union
fruits.
For
this
purpose,
studies
of
the
in
vivo
properties
of
the
derivatives
from
S.
hortensis
L.
and
other
spices
against
phytopathogenic
fungi
are
now
in
progress
in
our
laboratories.
Materials
and
methods
Materials:
Summer
savory
(Satureja
hortensis
L.)
plant
was
collected
in
the
prov-
ince
of
Mersin
(Bilyiikeceli-Gillnar)
in
July
2003,
and
dried
at
room
temperature
soon.
The
plant
was
identified
botanically
by
Dr.
H.
Dural
at
the
Department
of
Biology,
Faculty
of
Science-
Education,
Selguk
University.
Preparation
of
ground
material:
Aerial-
dried
parts
of
Satureja
hortensis
(about
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9
(2)
2006
pp
107
-
117
109
200
g
)
were
ground
to
pass
through
a
0.5
mm
sieve.
The
ground
plant
materials
were
stored
in
a
dark
coloured
glass
jar
(500
ml),
and
kept
at
the
4°C
until
use.
Essential
oil:
Air-dried
aerial
parts
were
subjected
to
hydrodistillation
for
4
h
by
using
a
conventional
glass
Clevenger-
type
apparatus.
It
has
a
glass
bulb
with
2
L.
capacity.
Oil
was
dried
over
anhydrous
sodium
sulphate
and
stored
until
the
experimental
use.
Preparation
of
spice
hydrosol:
A
200
g
sample
of
each
spice
was
ground
in
an
omnimixer.
The
hydrosols
of
each
ground
spice
were
obtained
for
1
h
in
a
hydrodistillation
apparatus
with
500
ml
water
(1:10
w/v)
Then,
the
oil
was
removed
by
separation
funnel.
Hydrosols
were
kept
in
sterile
dark
coloured
bottles
(500
ml)
under
refrigerated
conditions
until
use.
Fungi:
S.
sclerotiorum
and
C.
circinans
were
isolated
from
squash
and
onion
fruits,
respectively.
The
pathogenic
fungi
(S.
sclerotiorum
and
C.
circinans)
were
provided
from
the
collection
of
the
Department
of
Plant
Protection,
Selguk
University
,
Konya
in
Turkey.
Substrate:
Czapek-Dox
agar
(30g
sucrose,
3g
sodium
nitrate,
0.5g
magnesium
sulphate,
1
g
potassium
hydrogen
phosphate,13g
agar,
1000
ml
distilled
water)
was
used
as
the
main
medium
throughout
the
study.
It
was
dispensed
in
60
ml
quantities
into
100
ml
Erlenmeyer
flasks
and
sterilized
by
autoclaving
at
121°C
for
15
min.
Assessment
of
inhibition
of
fungal
growth:
The
effects
of
essential
oil,
hydrosols,
ground
material
and
extract
were
determined
against
S.
sclerotiorum
and
C.
circinans
growth
using
Czapek-
Dox
Agar
(CDA)
medium
only.
The
5
%,
10
%,
15
%
concentrations
of
hydrosols,
0.5%,
1.0%,
1.5%
concentrations
of
ground
material
and
0.5%,1.0%,
2.0
%
concentrations
of
extract
were
added
into
Erlenmeyer
flasks
contained
60
ml
CDA
media
sterilized
and
cooled
to
45°C,
separately.
Then
Erlenmeyer
flasks
were
shaked
thoroughly
and
the
medium
was
poured
into
Petri
dishes.
But
1,
3
and
5
µ1
concentrations
of
essential
oil
were
added
on
a
sterile
paper
disc
in
the
middle
of
the
each
Petri
cover.
Five
millimeter
discs
of
the
test
fungi
taken
from
advancing
edge
of
7-day-old
cultures
were
placed
on
the
middle
of
the
CDA
medium
containing
the
derivatives,
and
then
the
Petri
cover
with
essen-
tial
oil
was
placed
on
its
bottom
part
and
incubated
at
24°C
for
7
days.
Three
replicates
of
each
treatment
were
arranged
according
to
a
completely
randomized
desing
(CRD)
on
incubatory
shelves.
Control
sets
were
run
simultaneously,
using
the
medium
without
any
derivatives.
In
order
to
evaluate
to
inhibition
of
mycelial
growth,
colonial
diameters
were
measured
after
incubation.
The
inhibition
rates
were
calculated
according
to
formula
by
Deans
and
Svoboda
16
.
1=
C—T/Cx
100
where,
I
=
Percent
mycelial
inhibition
,
C
=
mean
colony
diameter
of
control
sets,
T
=
mean
colony
diameter
of
treatment
sets.
Where
the
growth
was
completely
inhibited
by
each
of
test
derivatives
(
essential
oil,
hydrosol,
ground
material
and
extract
),
fungal
discs
were
transferred
to
fresh
CDA
plates
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9
(2)
2006
pp
107
-
117
110
without
derivative
to
test
the
survival
of
the
fungus.
After
a
7
day
incubation
period,
fungal
discs
indicating
no
growth
were
flooded
with
a
freshly
prepared
solution
of
1%
2,3,5
Triphenyl
Tetrazolium
Chloride
(TTC)
for
30
min
in
order
to
confirm
the
death
of
fungal
cells.
After
following
incubation
for
a
week,
any
further
growth
indicated
a
fungistatic
effect;
if
mycelial
development
was
not
noted
and
the
death
of
fungal
cells
is
confirmed,
the
effect
was
appre-
ciated
as
fungicidal.
Results
and
Discussion:
The
inhibitory
effects
of
essential
oil
,
hydrosol,
extract
and
ground
form
of
summer
savory
(Saturej
a
hortensis
L.)
against
two
phytopathogenic
fungi
(S.
sclerotiorum
and
C.
circinans)
are
given
in
Table
1.
The
spice
derivatives
exerted
varying
levels
of
antifungal
effects
against
phytopatho-
genic
fungi.
All
derivatives
of
summer
savory
had
different
effects
on
the
growth
rates
of
mycelial
growth
of
the
fungi.
Percentage
in
inhibition
rate
during
incubation
was
between
16.12
to100%.
The
1
µ1
concentration
of
essential
oil
had
a
lesser
effect
than
other
concen-
trations
on
mycelial
growth
of
S.
sclerotiorum
(Fig.
1).
While
1µ1
and
3
µ1
concentrations
of
oil
show
fungistatic
effect
against
S.
sclerotiorum,
fungicidal
effect
was
observed
at
5
µ1
level.The
lowest
concentrations
of
hydrosol
and
ground
material
had
affect
at
the
rate
of
72.30
%
and
30.76
%
against
S.
sclerotiorum
at
the
end
of
incubation.
But
other
concentra-
tions
completely
inhibited
mycelial
growth
(Figs.
2
-
3).
At
the
same
time,
the
lowest
concen-
trations
of
hydrosol
and
ground
material
exhibited
fungistatic
effect
on
S.
sclerotiorum.
The
high
concentrations
shown
fungicidal
effect.
Of
derivatives
tested,
the
extract
completely
inhibited
the
mycelial
growth
of
fungi
and
showed
a
complete
fungicidal
effect
on
fungi
(Table
1).
Summer
savory
oil
less
affected
mycelial
growth
of
C.
circinans
when
compared
with
S.
sclerotiorum.
While
the
5
µ1
level
of
oil
resulted
at
89.55%
ratio
mycelial
growth
inhibition
of
C.
circinans,
it
inhibited
100%
mycelial
growth
of
S.
Sclerotiorum
(Figs.1-
4).
While
mycelial
growth
of
C.
circinans
is
inhibited
at
86.61
%
ratio
at
the
5
%
concentration
of
summer
savory
hydrosol,
10
and
15
%
levels
inhibited
100
%
(
Fig.5).
All
concentrations
of
summer
savory
hydrosol
shown
almost
similar
effect
against
both
of
fungi.
While
the
lowest
concentration
of
hydrosol
shown
fungistatic
effect
tested
fungi,
high
concentrations
exhibited
fungicidal
effect.
While
the
1.5%
level
of
ground
material
of
summer
savory
inhib-
ited
100%
of
mycelial
growth
of
C.
circinans
(Fig.
6),
the
0.5%
and
1%
levels
inhibited
lesser.
Also,
0.5
%
and
1
%
concentrations
of
summer
savory
ground
materials
were
less
effective
against
C.
circinans
than
against
S.
sclerotiorum
(Fig.3-6).
This
decrease
varied
in
accordance
with
concentrations.
While
all
concentrations
of
summer
savory
extract
af-
fect
100
%
the
mycelial
growth
of
C.
circinans
(Table
1
),
C.
circinans
showed
partly
resistance
against
concentrations
of
essential
oil,
hydrosol
and
ground
material
(Figs.
4
-
6
).
All
of
doses
of
summer
savory
extract
showed
the
strongest
inhibitory
effect
on
both
fungi.
The
effectiveness
of
the
inhibitors
followed
the
sequence:
extract
>
essential
oil
>
hydrosol
>
ground
material.
Several
studies
have
conducted
on
the
antimicrobial
properties
of
herbs,
spices
and
their
derivatives
such
as
essential
oils,
extracts,
hydrosol
and
decoctions7,9,18,19,20,27,28,30,31.
Additionally,
it
is
known
that
the
compositions
of
derivatives
and
their
antimicrobial
effects
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9
(2)
2006
pp
107
-
117
111
depend
on
plant
species
and
regional
conditions.
Some
researchers
reported
that
there
is
a
relationship
between
the
chemical
structures
of
the
most
abundant
compounds
in
the
tested
essential
oils
and
the
antimicrobial
activity.
Hence
it
seems
probable
that
the
extent
of
the
inhibition
of
thyme
(
wild),
thyme
(
black),
oregano
and
savory
may
be
due
to
aspects
of
their
chemical
structures.
It
is
well
known
that
a
phenolic
-
OH
group
is
very
reactive
and
can
easily
form
hydrogen
bonds
with
the
active
sites
of
enzymes
14,16,20.
Vi
gorous
plant
tissues
contain
too
much
natural
antifungal
agents
and
these
compounds
defend
plants
against
dis-
eases
2
'.
The
effects
of
Origanum
syriacum
which
contains
carvacrol
and
thymol
were
reported
to
be
effective
on
Aspergillus
niger,
Fusarium
oxysporum
and
Penicillium
spp.
and
the
minimum
inhibition
concentration
was
0.1
µ1
/ml".
Thymol
and
carvacrol
were
determined
as
the
most
effective
antimicrobial
components
in
essential
OilS
12
'
23
'
39
.
The
inhibi-
tory
effects
of
thyme,
oregano
and
savory
were
found
to
be
similar
to
those
of
other
spices
and
derivatives
such
as
essential
oils,
or
oleoresins
8,17,26
.
In
conclision,
the
increase
in
resistance
of
plants
to
fungal
infection,
which
can
be
achieved
by
breeding
and
genetic
engineering
,
and
the
use
of
natural,
low
toxicity
subtances
is
becoming
more
and
more
the
up-to-date
integrated
control
strategy
to
give
a
more
accept-
able
and
less
environmentally
damaging
form
of
agriculture.
Further
studies
have
to
be
done
in
plant
model
systems
to
evaluate
the
efficacy
of
summer
savory
derivatives
under
pot
and
field
conditions
against
induced
fungal
infectious
so
that
its
importance
as
an
alternative
to
synthetic
pesticides
can
be
properly
assessed.
References
1.
Agrios,
G
(1997).
Plant
Pathology.
Fourth
Edition,
Academic
Press.,
San
Diego.
2.
Badei,
A.Z.M.,
El-Akel,
A.T.M.,
Morsi,
H.H.,
Baruah,
P.,
Sharma,
R.K.,
Singh,
R.S.
and
Ghosh,
A.
(1996).
Fungicidal
activity
of
some
naturally
occurring
essential
oils
against
Fusarium
moniliforme.
J.
Essent.
Oil
Research
8:
411-412.
3.
Bailey,
J.A.
and
Jeger,
M.J.
(1992).
"Colletotrichum:
Biology,
pathology,
and
Con-
trol".
Commonw.
Agric.
Bur.,
Farnham
Royal,
Buks,
U.K.
4.
Beg,
A.
Z.
and
Ahmad,
I.
(2002).
In
vitro
fungitoxicity
of
the
essential
oil
of
Syzygium
aromaticum.
World
J.
of
Microbiology
and
Biotechnology
18:
313-315.
5.
Bhaskara
Reddy,
M.V.,
Angers,
P.,
Gosselin,
A.
and
Arul,
J.
(1998).
Charac-
terization
and
use
of
essential
oil
from
Thymus
vulgaris
against
Botrytis
cinerea
and
Rhizopus
stolonifer
in
strawberry
fruits.
Phytochemistry,
Vol.
47
(8):
1515-1520.
6.
Bishop,
C.D.
and
Thornton,
I.B.
(1997).
Evaluation
of
the
antifungal
activity
of
the
essential
oils
of
Monarda
citriodora
var.
citriodora
and
Melaleuca
alternifolia
on
post
harvest
pathogen.
J.
Essent.
Oil
Research
9:
77-82.
7.
Bowers,
J.H.
and
Locke,
J.C.
(2000).
Effect
of
botanical
extracts
on
the
popula-
tion
density
of
Fusarium
oxysporum
in
soil
and
control
of
Fusarium
wilt
in
the
green
house.
Plant
Disease
84:
300-305.
8.
Boyraz,
N.
and
Ozcan,
M.
(1997).
Antifungal
effects
of
some
Turkish
spice
ex-
tracts
and
essential
oils
on
phytopathogenic
fungi.
GSTda
6:
457-462.
(
in
Turkish)
9.
Boyraz,
N.,
Ozcan,
M.
and
Arslan,
D.
(2003).
Fungitoxic
effects
of
hydrosols
from
several
spices
against
some
phytopathogenic
fungi.
J.
of
Turkish
Phytopathology
32:
61-69.
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9
(2)
2006
pp
107
-
117
112
10.
Boyraz,
N.
and
Ozcan,
M.
(2005).
Antifungal
effect
of
spice
hydrosols.
Fitoterapia
76:
661-665.
11.
Boyraz,
N.
and
Ozcan,
M.
(2006).
Inhibition
of
phytopathogenic
fungi
by
essential
oil,
hydrosol,
ground
material
and
extract
of
summer
savor
(Satureja
hortensis
L.)
growing
wild
in
Turkey.
Int.
J.
Food
Microbiol.
107:
238-242
.
12.
Buchanan,
R.L.
and
Shepherd,
A.J.
(1981).
Inhibition
of
Aspergillus
parasiticus
by
thymol.
J.
Food
Sci.,
46:
976-977.
13.
Caccioni,
D.R.L.
and
Guizzardi,
M.
(1994).
Inhibition
of
germination
and
growth
of
fruit
and
vegetable
post-harvest
pathogenic
fungi
by
essential
oil
components.
J.
Essential
Oil
Research,
6:
173-179.
14.
Caccioni,
D.R.L.,
Guizzardi,
M.,
Biondi,
D.M.,
Renda,
A.
and
Ruberto,
G.
(1998).
Relationship
between
volatile
components
of
Citrus
fruits
essential
oil
and
antimicrobial
action
on
Penicillium
digitatum
and
Penicillium
italicum.
Int.
J.
Food
Microbiol.
43:
73-79.
15.
Daouk,
R.K.,
Bagher,
S.M.
and
Sattout,
E.J.
(1995).
Antifungal
activity
of
the
essential
oils
of
Origanum
syriacum
L.
J.
of
Food
Protection
58
(10):
1147-1149.
16.
Deans,
S.G
and
Svoboda,
K.P.
(1990).
The
antimicrobial
properties
of
marjoram
(Origanum
majorana
L.)
volatile
oil.
Flavour
Fragr.
J.,
5:
187-190.
17.
Demyttenaene,
J.C.R.,
Wffiemen,
H.M.,
Herrena,
M.C.
and
Verhe,
R.
(1997).
Antifungal
properties
of
essential
oil
components.
In:
Proceedings
of
the
28th
ISEO
(International
Symposium
on
Essential
Oils):
1-3
September
1997,
Eskisehir,
Turkey,
pp
9
.
18.
Dormen,
H.J.B.
and
Deans
S.G.
(2000).
Antimicrobial
agents
from
plants:
Anti-
bacterial
activity
of
plant
volatile
oils.
J.
Appl.
Microbiol.,
88:
308-316.
19.
Erkmen,
0.
and
Ozcan,
M.
(2003).
The
effects
of
essential
oils
of
Turkish
plants
spices
on
microorganisms
in
broth.
J.
Essent.
Oil-
Bearing
Plants
6(2):
130-134.
20.
Farag,
R.S.,
Daw,
Z.Y.
and
Abo-Raya,
S.H.
(1989).
Influence
of
some
spice
ess-
ential
oils
on
Aspergillus
parasiticus
growth
and
production
of
aflatoxins
in
a
syn-
thetic
medium.
J.
Food
Protect.,
54:
74-76.
21.
Fawcet,
C.H.
and
Spencer,
D.M.
(1970).
Plant
chemoteraphy
with
natural
products.
Ann.
Rev.
Phytopathol,
403-418.
22.
Kishore,
N.,
Dixit,
S.
N.
and
Dubey,
N.K.
(1989).
Fungitoxic
studies
with
Che-
nopodium
ambrosioides
for
control
of
damping-off
in
Phaseolus
aureus
(Moong)
caused
by
Rhizoctonia
solani.
Trop.
Sci.
29:
171-176.
23.
Kurita,
N.,
Miyaji,
M.,
Kurane,
R.
and
Takahara,
Y.
(1981).
Antifungal
activitiy
of
components
of
essential
oils.
Agric.
Biol.
Chem.,
45:
945-952.
24.
Lingk,
W.
(1991).
Health
risk
evaluation
of
pesticide
contamination
in
drinking
wa-
ter.
Gesunde
Pflangen,
43:
21-25.
25.
Muller-Riebau,
F.,
Berger,
B.
and
Yegen,
0.
(1995).
Chemical
composition
and
fungitoxic
properties
to
phytopathogenic
fungi
essential
oils
of
selected
aromatic
plants
growing
wild
in
Turkey.
J.
Agric.
Food
Chem.
43:
2262-2266.
26.
Ozcan,
M.
(1998).
Inhibitory
effects
of
spice
extracts
on
the
growth
of
Aspergillus
parasiticus
NRRL
2999
strain.
Z.
Lebensmittelunters.u.-Forsch.
A,
207:
253-255.
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9
(2)
2006
pp
107
-
117
113
27.
Ozcan,
M.
and
Boyraz,
N.
(2000).
Antifungal
properties
of
some
herb
decoctions.
Eur
Food
Res
Technol,
212:
86-88.
28.
Ozkan,
G,
SaMST,
0.
and
Ozcan,
M.
(2003).
Inhibition
of
pathogenic
bacteria
by
essential
oils
at
different
concentrations.
Food
Sci.
Tech.
Int.
9:
85-88.
29.
Rao,
S.
(1990).
Pesticides
from
biological
origin
are
the
key
to
better
pesticides.
National
Academy
of
Science
Letters
13:
18-25.
30.
SaMST,
0.,
Karahan,
A.G.,
Ozcan,
M.
and
Ozkan,
G.
(2003).
Effect
of
some
spice
exracts
on
bacterial
inhibition
.
Food
Sci.
Tech.
Int.
5:
353-356.
31.
SaMST,
0.
and
Ozcan,
M.
(2003).
Antibacterial
activity
of
Turkish
spice
hydrosols.
Food
Control,
14:
141-143.
32.
Spotts,
R.A.
and
Cervantes
L.A.
(1986).
Populations,
Pathogenicity
and
benomyl
resistance
of
Botrytis
spp.,
Penicillium
spp.
and
Mucor
piriformis
in
Paking
houses.
Plant
Disease,
70:
106-108.
33.
Tewari,
S.N.
(1990).
Toxic
effect
of
few
botanicals
on
three
fungal
pathogens
of
rice.
In:
Chari,
M.S.,
Ramprasad,
G
(Eds.),
Proc.
Symposium
Botanical
Pesticides
in
IPM.
Neem
Foundation,
India,
pp.
397-
403.
34.
Tewari,
S.N.
(1995).
Ocimum
sanctum
L.,
a
botanical
fungicide
for
rice
blast
con-
trol.
Trop.
Sci.
35:
263-273.
35.
Thompson,
D.P.
(1989).
Fungitoxic
activity
of
essential
oil
components
on
food
storage
fungi.
Mycologia,
80:
151-153.
36.
Tripathi,
P.,
Dubey,
N.K.,
Banerji,
R.
and
Chansouria,
J.P.N.
(2004).
Evalua-
tion
of
some
essential
oils
as
botanical
fungitoxicants
in
management
of
post-harvest
rotting
of
citrus
fruits.
World
J.
of
Microbiology
and
Biotechnology
20:
317-321.
37.
Vaughn,
S.F.
and
Spencer,
GF.
(1991).
Volatile
monoterpenes
inhibit
potato
tuber
sprouting.
Potato
Journal,
68:
821-831.
38.
Wilson,
C.L.,
Solar,
L.M.,
Elghaouth,A.
and
Wisniewski,
M.E.
(1997).
Rapid
evaluation
of
plant
extracts
and
essential
oils
for
antifungal
activity
aganist
Botrytis
cinerea.
Plant
Disease,
81:
204-210.
39.
Zaika,
L.L.
(1988).
Spices
and
herbs:
Their
antimicrobial
activity
and
its
determina-
tion.
J.
of
Food
Safety,
9:
97-118.
Table
1.
Percentage
of
growth
inhibition
of
two
phytopathogenic
fungi
treated
with
different
concentrations
of
spice
derivatives.
Fungi
Days
Essential
oil
Hydrosol
(%)
Ground
material
(%)
Extract
(%)
microliters/petri
dish
1
3
5
5
10
15
0.5
1.0
1.5
0.5
1.0
2.0
S.
sclerotiorum
C.
circinans
3
100
100
100
100 100 100
33.33
100 100 100 100 100
4
100
100
100
100 100 100
29.41
100 100 100 100 100
5
95.45
100
100
93.14
100 100
31.42
100 100 100 100 100
6
88.00
97.77
100
83.11
100 100
33.33
100 100 100 100 100
7
65.38
87.30
100
72.30
100 100
30.76
100 100 100 100 100
3
61.76
91.17
100
76.47
100 100
16.12
79.41
100 100 100 100
4
64.58
91.66 91.66
81.25
100 100
18.60
83.33
100 100 100 100
5
63.47
92.98
91.30
83.47
100 100
22.22
85.96
100 100 100 100
6
62.68
94.02
90.14
85.82
100 100
21.21
88.05
100 100 100 100
7
55.63
94.36
89.55
86.61
100 100
19.73
88.73
100 100 100 100
M
eh
m
et
M
usa
O
zcan
et
al
.
I
J
eob
p 9
(2
)
2
006
pp
1
0
7 -
11
7
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9 (2)
2006
pp
107
-
117
115
30
4
0—
Control
25
c"
"A"
20
—a—
1µ1
5
4.)
15
3µ1
tx
M
5
1
11
V
.4
74b
10
5
0
7
—r
I
3
4
5
6
7
Days
Fig.
1.
Inhibition
effect
of
summer
savory
essential
oil
on
S.
sclerotiorum
30
-
—4
0
Control
—a-5%
—A-10%
15%
0
3
4
5
6
7
Days
Fig.
2.
Inhibition
effect
of
summer
savory
hydrosol
on
S.
sclerotiorum
30
-
—6
Control
25
cj
i
0.5%
20
5
0.)
cL)
ono
—a
1.0%
1
.5
%
15
.4
10
5
0
111
-
1
3
4
5
6
7
Days
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9
(2)
2006
pp
107
-
117
116
Fig.
3.
Inhibition
effect
of
ground
summer
savory
on
S.
sclerotiorum
O
8
-
Control
1µ1
—A—
3µ1
7
6
5
'5
6"
1.4
4
51-t1
tx
1
3
7.0
;g-
o.)
2
1
0
3
4
5
1
6
1
7
Days
Fig.
4.
Inhibition
effect
of
summer
savory
essential
oil
on
C.
circinans
A-
3
4
5
6
7
Days
—6—
Control
0.5%
—M-1.5%
0
Mehmet
Musa
Ozcan
et
al.
/
Jeobp
9 (2)
2006
pp
107
-
117 117
—.0—
Control
—T
5%
—A—
1
0%
1
5
%
0
-
Sr
3
4
5
6
7
Days
Fig.
5.
Inhibition
effect
of
summer
savory
hydrosol
on
C.
circinans
Fig.
6.
Inhibition
effect
of
ground
summer
savory
on
C.
circinans