Studies on the seed oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.)


Domokos, J.; Peredi, J.

Acta Horticulturae ( 344): 312-314

1993


The cultivation of basil and summer savory results in considerable production of seeds which can contaminate the drug yield and are regarded as a waste product. Extraction and analysis of the fatty acids showed that they constituted 22.5 and 23.1% of the DW of the seed for basil and savory, respectively. The major fatty acids were linoleic and alpha -linolenic acid. The extracts were considered suitable for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food purposes.

STUDIES
ON
THE
SEED
OILS
OF
BASIL
/OCIMUM
RASILICUM
L./
AND
SUMMER
SAVORY
/SATURFJA
HORTENSIS
L./
J.
Domokos
CAOLA
Cosmetics
1133
Budapest
V6sei
u.
7.
Hungary
J.
Peredi
University
of
Horticulture
and
Food
Industry,
Budapest
Hungary
Abstract
Basil
and
summer
savory
are
grown
every
year
on
about
200
and
200
hectares,
respectively,
in
Hungary
to
make
spices.
It
often
occures
in
the
practice
of
growing
that
the
drug
used
to
make
spices
contains
more
or
less,
sometimes
considerable
quantities
of
seeds
impairing
the
quality
of
the
product.
A
fatty
oi]
has
been
produced
by
us
from
the
seeds
resulting
this
way
as
wastes,
and
based
on
studies
of
it,
we
have
been
able
to
establish
its
usefulness
for
cosmetic,
pharmaceutical,
and
diethetic
uses.
I.
Introduction
Basil,
and
summer
savory
are
annual
plants
belonging
to
the
family
of
Lamiaceae,
through
drying
the
brooming,
lettery
shoots
of
which
the
drugs
Basilic'
herba
and
Saturejae
herba
are
gained.
The
inflorences
of
both
of
the
plants
are
sympodiums
made
up
of
pseudoverticils,
in
which
the
opening
of
the
flowers
starts
at
the
lower
verticils,
and
the
period
of
flowering
drags
on
the
inflorencens-stalk
going
upwards.
Thus,
while
ripened
seeds
can
he
found
in
the
lower
verticiles,
flowering
on
the
higher
parts
of
the
spikes
continues.
Resulting
from
the
periodical
ripening
of
the
seeds,
and
from
the
delayed
harvesting,
the
drug
eventually
contains
even
20%
to
25%
seeds
and
then
the
seeds
are
separated
by
the
grower
during
the
processing
of
the
dried
matters
from
it.
In
case
of
basil,
and
summer
savory
grown
with
the
purpose
of
gaining
essential
oils,
it
can
be
useful
to
wait
with
the
harvesting
until
ripening
of
the
seeds
starts.
However,
the
maximum
of
the
yields
of
the
essential
oils
falls
at
the
beginning
of
the
flowering,
considering
the
possibilities
of
gaining
the
fatty
oils
it
may
be
more
economic
to
harvest
the
plants,
when
the
seeds
have
been
ripened.
As
a
result
of
plant
improving
works
drawing
into
cultivation
of
varieties
appropiate
expressed
for
gaining
fatty
oils
is
conceivable,
in
which
the
herb
or
the
volatile
oils
are
by-products.
2.
Materials
and
Methods
The
seed
materials
arising
from
producing
the
commercial
drugs
of
basil,
and
summer
savory
formed
our
experimental
materials.
The
fatty
oils
have
been
gained
by
cold
pressing
with
a
helical
press
Type
KOMET,
and
the
oils
gained
were
312
screened
through
screening
paper.
The
water,
and
oil
contents
of
the
samples,
acid,
and
peroxyde
numbers,
colours,
refractive
indices,
densities,
unsaponifiable
parts,
and
organoleptic
evaluations
of
the
oils
were
analysed
according
to
Hungarian
Standards.
Orienting
studies
have
also
been
made
for
using
them
in
cosmetic
products.
3.
Results
The
contents
of
humidity
were
8.6%,
and
9.0%
in
the
case
of
basil,
and
summer
savory,
respectively.
The
contents
of
fatty
oils
relating
to
the
dried
materials
were
22.5%,
and
23.1%
in
the
cases
of
basil,
and
summer
savory,
respectively.
The
results
of
the
studies
on
the
physical
properties
of
the
oils
are
shown
in
the
Tables
l
and
2.
Table
1
-
Characteristics
of
the
oils
Basil
Summer
savory
Colour
/Lovibond
1"
cuvette/
yellow
99.0 99.0
red
2.8
8.0
blue
4.0
12.0
Refractive
index
/29
°
C/
1.480
1.482
Density
/20
°
C/
g/cm
0.929
0.933
Organoleptic
scores
Taste
10
9
at
20
°
C
3 3
Odour
at
100
°
C
1
1
Free
fatty
acids
%
0.5
0.8
Peroxyde
value
1.5
2.0
Unsaponifiable
matter
%
0.6
0.7
Table
2
-
Fatty
compositions
of
the
oils
Basil
/c
16:0/
6-9
/C
1P:1
/
P-3
/C
18:]
/
9-15
/C
/
1R:2
17-25
/C
1R:3
/
50-63
Palmitic
acid
Stearic
acid
Oleic
acid
Linoleic
acid
alfa-Linolenic
acid
Summer
savory
range
%
2-4
1-3
4-6
20-24
60-65
313
4.
Discussion
Results
of
the
studies
show,
that
fatty
oils
of
basil,
and
summer
savory
both
are
considerable
source
of
omega-3
fatty
acids
because
of
their
considerable
alfa-linolenic
acid
contents,
which
are
greater
than
that
of
linseed
oils.
During
organoleptic
studies
of
the
oils
we
experienced
the
characteristic
spicy
tastes
of
both
of
the
plants,
obviously
due
to
the
incomplete
purification.
The
expectable
benefits
of
the
applying
of
the
oils
of
basil,
and
summer
savory
can
be
summarised,
as
follows:
In
case
of
diethetic
use:
-
they
are
considerable
sources
of
omega-3
fatty
acids,
-
they
have
pleasant
tastes,
and
odours.
In
case
of
making
cosmetic
products:
-
they
have
an
emollient
efficacy,
-
they
are
ready
spreadable,
-
they
have
good
hydrating
effects
/reducing
the
TEWL/,
-
they
have
suitable
/neutral/
odour,
ready
to
be
masked.
Technologies
of
growing
both
of
the
plants
are
well
established.
Their
fatty
oils
are
producible
in
appropiate
quantities
as
by-products
or
as
staple
products
aswell.
314