Egg-Laying Habits of the Pecan Twig Girdler


Metcalf, C. L.

Journal of Economic Entomology 7(2): 218-219

1914


218
JOURNAL
OF
ECONOMIC
ENTOMOLOGY
[Vol.
7
HEwirr,
C.
G.
Ann.
Repts.
Dom.
Ent.,
Dept.
Agric.,
Canada,
1910-11,
pp.
226-
227;
1911-12,
p.
178.
Parliamentary
Evidence,
pp.
40-41,
1910.
Forty-sec-
ond
Ann.
Rept.
Ent.
Soc.
Ont.,
pp.
63-65,
1911.
HINDS,
W.
E.
"Contribution
to
a
Monograph
of
the
insects
of
the
order
Thysanop-
tera
inhabitating
North
America."
Proc.
U.
S.
Nat.
Mus.,
Vol.
26,
pp.
79-242,
11
pls.
A
striatus,
pp.
161-166,
pp.
49-51.
1902.
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S.
M.
"Tripsi
jivoustchie
na
nacikhstakakh."
Isviestiia
Moskows-
kago
Selskhosiaistvennago
Instituta.
Vol.
16,
pp.
192-204.
1910.
ORMEROD,
E.
A.
Text-book
of
Agric.,
Entomology,
2nd
ed.,
p.
196.
1892.
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F.
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Landw.
Presse,
Vol.
39,
p.
771.
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E.
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Praktische
Insektenkunde,
Vol.
4.
p.
213.
1880.
ZIMMERMANN,
H.
"Uber
das
Massenauftreten
namentlich
schadigender
Insekten-
formen."
Zeit.
Pflanzenkrankheiten,
Vol.
21,
pp.
257-269.
1911.
MR.
W.
E.
HINDS:
It
is
a
normal
habit
of
these
insects,
particularly
in
the
younger
stages,
to
feed
on
the
leaf
sheaths
or
stems.
I
am
sure
that
Doctor
Hewitt's
observations
on
the
young
actually
feeding
on
oat
stems
is
correct
and
I
do
not
think
there
is
any
doubt
of
their
being
capable
of
causing
the
trouble
mentioned
in
his
paper.
MR.
C.
GORDON
HEWITT:
There
are
two
types
of
injury;
one
where
the
stem
is
attacked
and
another
where
sterility
is
produced
by
the
insects
actually
attacking
the
ovaries
and
anthers.
MR.
W.
M.
WHEELER:
As
Doctor
Hewitt
has
said,
he
has
been
dealing
with
a
case
of
parasitic
castration.
Since
the
reproductive
organs
of
the
oat
plant
abort
through
lack
of
nutriment,
we
may
con-
ceive
this
castration
to
be
brought
about
either
by
such
insects
as
thrips
or
by
parasitic
plants,
such
as
certain
species
of
moulds.
MR.
HERBERT
OSBORN:
We
had
a
case
at
the
Experiment
Station
in
Iowa
many
years
ago
of
apple
blossoms
being
attacked
by
another
species
of
thrips
in
which
the
same
condition
was
produced.
Sterili-
zation
of
the
blossom
resulted
before
the
bloom
opened.
We
were
unable
to
find
any
fungus
disease
there.
MR.
C.
GORDON
HEWITT:
This
question
of
sterility
was
first
sent
to
the
Dominion
Department
of
Agriculture
with
the
idea
that
it
was
caused
by
bacteria
or
fungus.
PRESIDENT
P.
J.
PARROTT:
The
next
paper
is
by
Mr.
C.
L.
Metcalf,
entitled
"The
Egg-Laying
Habits
of
the
Pecan
Twig
Girdler."
EGG-LAYING
HABITS
OF
THE
PECAN
TWIG
GIRDLER
By
C.
L.
METCALF,
Raleigh,
N.
C.
(Withdrawn
for
publication
elsewhere)
MR.
H.
T.
FERNALD:
A
resident
of
Massachusetts
had
a
grove
of
pecan
trees
in
the
state
of
Mississippi
and
he
found
that
this
beetle
April,
'14]
MC
COLLOCH:
CHINCH
BUG
PARASITE
219
was
causing
so
much
damage
that
he
secured
no
income
from
his
investment,
and
finally
sold
the
property
at
a
loss.
PRESIDENT
P.
J.
PARROTT
:
The
next
paper,
entitled
"Notes
on
the
Life
History,
Distribution
and
Efficiency
of
the
Egg
Parasite
of
the
Chinch
Bug,"
will
be
presented
by
Mr.
J.
W.
McCulloch.
A
PARASITE
OF
THE
CHINCH
BUG
EGG
BY
JAMES
W.
MCCOLLOCH,
Assistant
Entomologist,
and
H.
YUASA,
Student
Assistant,
Kansas
State
Agricultural
College
INTRODUCTION
Probably
very
few
insects
have
received
the
attention
from
ento-
mologists
that
the
chinch
bug
has.
Without
a
doubt
the
chinch
bug
is
the
most
serious
pest
with
which
the
farmers
of
the
grain
belt
have
to
contend,
and
the
amount
of
damage
done
by
it
in
the
last
sixty
years
reaches
into
the
hundreds
of
millions
of
dollars.
Every
experiment
station
in
the
area
mentioned
has
at
some
time
carried
on
investigations
relative
to
the
chinch
bug,
and
it
has
been
thought
that
the
life
history
and
economy
of
this
insect
was
well
understood.
Of
all
the
staple
crop
insects,
the
chinch
bug
has
been
the
only
one
for
which
there
is
no
insect
parasite.
Prof.
F.
M.
Webster'
says
"there
may
sometimes
appear
hymenopterous
parasites
of
the
eggs,
but
we
have
as
yet
no
proof
of
the
existence
of
such
in
this
country,
and
only
suspect
the
possibility
of
such
a
phenomenon
because
other
allied
species
have
similar
enemies,
which
destroy
their
eggs."
In
April,
1913,
.the
writers
collected
chinch
bug
eggs
in
the
field
which
bore
signs
of
parasitism,
and
later
parasites
were
bred
from
these
eggs
which
Mr.
A.
B.
Gahan,
entomological
assistant,
United
States
Bureau
of
Entomology,
has
described
under
the
name
Eumicrosoma
benefica.
HISTORY
OF
DISCOVERY
In
the
course
of
a
series
of
experiments
conducted
by
the
department
of
entomology
of
the
Kansas
State
Agricultural
College
on
the
life
history
of
the
chinch
bug,
a
large
number
of
eggs
were
collected
in
the
field
to
determine
the
first
appearance
of
young
bugs
and
the
mortality
of
the
eggs.
The
eggs,
which
were
collected
at
different
intervals
and
in
different
localities,
were
examined
daily.
While
thus
examining
the
eggs
it
was
noticed
that
some
of
them
were
becoming
dark
in
color
instead
of
assuming
the
usual
red
coloring.
These
eggs
were
isolated
and
on
May
19
there
emerged
from
them
three
parasites.
Bul.
69,
U.
S.
Bur.
of
Ent.