A new record for longevity of Macrophomina phaseolina sclerotia


Young, D.J.; Gilbertson, R.L.; Alcorn, S.M.

Mycologia 74(3): 504-505

1982


A herbarium specimen of beet contained viable sclerotia in root tissue after 16 yr.

504
MYCOLOGIA
Salata,
B.
1977.
Dwa
nowe
dla
flory
Polski
gatunki
grzybow
wy2szych—Deux
especes
champignons
superieurs,
nouvelles
pour
la
flore
de
la
Pologne.
Fragm.
Florist.
Geobot.
23:
423-428.
Shvartsman,
S.
R.
1959.
Redkii
gasteromitset
Anthurus
archeri
(Berk.)
Fischer
v
Kazakhstane.
De
fungo
raro
Anthurus
archeri
(Berk.)
Fischer
(Gasteromycetes)
in
Kazachstania
invento.
Bot.
Mater.
Otd.
Sporov.
Rast.
Bot.
Inst.
Komarova
Akad.
Nauk
SSSR
12:
257-261.
Spirandelli,
W.
1966.
Die
Entwicklung
des
Tintenfischpilzes
(Anthurus
aseroeformis)
vom
Hexenei
zum
von
ausgebildeten
Fruchtkorper.
Natur
&
Mus.
96:
321-325.
Vandeven,
E.
1976.
Anthurus
archeri,
een
indringer
in
de
flora
van
de
Benelux.
Coolia
19:
41
16.
A
NEW
RECORD
FOR
LONGEVITY
OF
MACROPHOMINA
PHASEOLINA
SCLEROTIA
1
DEBORAH
J.
YOUNG,
R.
L.
GILBERTSON,
AND
S.
M.
ALCORN
Department
of
Plant
Pathology,
University
of
Arizona,
Tucson,
Arizona
85721
Sclerotia
are
known
to
be
the
survival
stage
for
the
soil-inhabiting
fungus
Macrophomina
phaseolina
(Tassi)
Goid.
Laboratory
tests
have
shown
sclerotia
in
soil
(Bhargava,
1965)
and
in
plant
tissue
(Watanabe,
1973)
to
survive
at
least
3
yr.
This
research
was
initiated
when
viable
sclerotia
of
M.
phaseolina,
grown
on wooden
toothpicks,
were
detected
after
at
least
a
5
yr
storage
period.
Nineteen
herbarium
specimens
were
obtained
from
the
National
Fungus
Col-
lections,
Beltsville,
Maryland.
Sclerotia
on
these
specimens
were
checked
for
viability
in
the
following
manner.
(1)
Three
pieces
of
plant
tissue
from
each
specimen,
containing
2-3
sclerotia
each,
were
aseptically
transferred
to
one
Petri
dish
(100
x
15
mm)
containing
20
ml
of
a
modified
selective
medium
(Papavizas
and
Klag,
1975).
This
medium
consisted
of
potato
dextrose
agar
(Difco),
250
ppm
streptomycin
sulfate,
250
ppm
penicillin
G,
and
100
ppm
chloroneb.
One
plate
was
used
per
specimen.
(2)
One
piece
of
plant
tissue
from
each
specimen
was
allowed
to
soak
in
2
ml
sterile
distilled
water
for
4
h.
The
plant
tissue
was
then
transferred
to
one
Petri
dish
(60
x
15
mm)
containing
10
ml
of
the
selective
medium.
(3)
One
piece
of
plant
tissue
from
each
specimen
was
placed
in
4
ml
of
10%
Na0C1
for
2
min,
then
transferred
to
2
ml
of
sterile
distilled
water
for
2
min.
The
plant
tissue
was
subsequently
placed
on
one
Petri
dish
(60
x
15
mm)
with
selective
medium.
Plates
from
all
three
tests
were
incubated
at
34
C
for
14
da
in
the
dark.
An
herbarium
specimen
of
Beta
vulgaris
L.
(Pearsall,
TX,
June
17,
1965;
collected
by
P.
A.
Young)
contained
viable
sclerotia
in
root
tissue
after
16
yr.
Sclerotia
from
tuber
tissue
of
Solanum
stolomferum
var.
pumilum
Mart.
&
Gal.
(ex:
Mexico;
intercepted
at:
El
Paso
006056
TX,
June
26,
1975;
collected
by
J.
W.
Green)
also
germinated
after
6
yr.
Sclerotia
from
both
of
these
specimens
germinated
under
all
experimental
conditions.
The
38-yr-old
specimen
of
Lyco-
persicon
esculentum
Mill.
(Rio
Vista,
Solano
Co.,
CA,
Oct.
29,
1943;
collected
by
H.
T.
Osborn
and
C.
G.
Anderson;
Osborn
#137)
apparently
yielded
a
single
germinating
sclerotium
from
one
of
the
five
pieces
of
root
tissue
plated
in
various
manners.
The
three
procedures
were
repeated
two
additional
times
with
this
specimen.
Since
none
of
the
other
pieces
from
the
L.
esculentum
specimens
yielded
germinating
sclerotia,
the
evidence
for
38-yr
survival
is
not
considered
adequate.
No
viable
sclerotia
were
found
on
the
remaining
16
specimens
of
var-
ious
host
plants
collected
from
1889
to
1963.
The
host
plants
sampled
included
1
Paper
No.
3505
of
the
University
of
Arizona
Experiment
Station.
BRIEF
ARTICLES
505
cultivated
and
non-cultivated
species
in
the
families
Gramineae,
Leguminosae,
Compositae,
Malvaceae,
Solanaceae,
and
Pinaceae.
Sixteen
yr
is
a
new
record
for
longevity
of
sclerotia
of
M.
phaseolina
in
plant
tissue.
It
cannot
be
determined
how
these
specimens
have
been
previously
han-
dled,
therefore
M.
phaseolina
may
be
able
to
survive
even
longer
than
16
yr.
We
wish
to
thank
the
National
Fungus
Collections
for
supplying
us
with
these
specimens
and
the
Diamond
Shamrock
Oil
Company
for
funding
this
research.
Key
Words:
longevity,
sclerotia,
Macrophomina
phaseolina.
LITERATURE
CITED
Bhargava,
S.
N.
1965.
Studies
on
the
charcoal
rot
of
potato.
Phytopathol.
Z.
53:
35-44.
Papavizas,
G.
C.,
and
N.
G.
Klag.
1975.
Isolation
and
quantitative
determination
of
Macrophomina
phaseolina
from
soil.
Phytopathology
65:
182-187.
Watanabe,
T.
1973.
Survivability
of
Macrophomina
phaseolina
(Maubl.)
Ashby
in
naturally
infested
soils
and
longevity
of
the
sclerotia
in
vitro.
Ann.
Phytopathol.
Soc.
Japan
39:
333-337.
FORMATION
OF
MYCORRHIZAE
IN
PLANTAGO
OVATA
1
H.
E.
BLoss
Department
of
Plant
Pathology,
University
of
Arizona,
Tucson,
Arizona
85721
Isbagol,
Plantago
ovata
Forsk.,
is
an
herb
grown
in
India
for
its
medicinal
qualities
and
in
the
USA
as
a
source
of
laxative
made
from
the
seed
(Randhawa
et
al.,
1978).
The
plant
is
grown
as
a
winter
crop
in
the
more
arid
regions
of
the
USA.
It
has
been
reported
susceptible
to
wilt,
caused
by
Fusarium
oxysporum
Schlecht.
(Snyder
&
Hansen)
by
Russell
(1975)
in
Arizona,
and
to
downy
mildew
caused
by
Peronospora
plantaginis
(Burr.)
Underwood
in
India
(Desai
and
Desai,
1969).
Randhawa
et
al.
(1978)
showed
that
the
relationship
between
rate
of
nitrogen
application
and
seed
yield
was
linear
up
to
60
kg/ha.
Application
of
nitrogen
and
date
of
planting
affected
seed
production.
The
objective
of
my
study
was
to
determine
whether
VA
mycorrhizal
fungi
would
improve
growth
and
seed
production
in
plants
grown
either
in
steam-ster-
ilized
or
nonsterile
soil
in
the
glasshouse.
The
VA
mycorrhizal
fungi
were
added
1
Scientific
Paper
No.
3511,
Arizona
Agricultural
Experiment
Station,
Tucson,
Arizona
85721.
TABLE
I
MEAN
PERCENTAGE
OF
OBSERVATIONS
IN
WHICH
FUNGAL
STRUCTURES
WERE
SEEN
IN
ROOTS
OF
Plantago
ovata
No
Inoculant
Hyphae
Arbuscules
Vesicles
structure
G.
fasciculatus
23.6b*
±
7.5a
2.4
±
3.9
48.1*
±
6.2
31.0*
±
5.8
G.
macrocarpus
15.1
±
7.2
11.1*
±
8.3
13.7*
±
9.6
58.7*
±
11.8
G.
mosseae
40.5*
±
9.3
19.3*
±
5.9
15.6*
±
8.4
36.2*
±
10.3
Noninoculated
control
10.5
±
6.4
0.0
±
0
0.0
±
0
79.7
±
6.2
a
Mean
±
SD
No.
of
fungal
structures
observed
in
500
microscopic
fields.
b*
The
differences
in
each
column
were
significant
at
the
1%
level
using
t-test.