Ecological and morphological characteristics of parasitoids in Phauda flammans (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae)


Zheng, X-Lin.; Li, J.; Su, L.; Liu, J-Yan.; Meng, L-Yu.; Lin, M-Yi.; Zhang, J.; Lu, W.

Parasite 22: 36-36

2016


Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliators on Ficus spp. trees. In order to avoid environmental pollution, potential biological control agents for P. flammans need to be investigated instead of chemical control. Four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, including three hymenopteran species (i.e., Gotra octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Eurytoma verticillata) and one dipteran species (i.e., Exorista yunnanica). Parasitoid ratios of G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp., Eu. verticillata and Ex. yunnanica were 7.2%, 4.2%, 1.6% and 0.9%. The four species were all larval endoparasitoids of P. flammans larvae. Time of cocoon (pupa) to adult, life span, major axis of cocoon and body length of females were all longer compared to males for G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Ex. yunnanica. Based on the parasitoid ratios, the most abundant parasitoid species was G. octocinctus.

Parasite
2015,
22,
36
©
X.-L.
Zheng
et
al.,
published
by
EDP
Sciences,
2015
DOI:
10.1051/parasite/2015036
0
PARASITE
Available
online
at:
www.parasite-journaLorg
RESEARCH
ARTICLE
OPEN
a
ACCESS
Ecological
and
morphological
characteristics
of
parasitoids
in
Phauda
flammans
(Lepidoptera,
Zygaenidae)
Xia-Lin
Zheng,
Jun
Li,
Li
Su,
Jun-Yan
Liu,
Ling-Yu
Meng,
Min-Yi
Lin,
Jing
Zhang,
and
Wen
Lu*
College
of
Agriculture,
Guangxi
University,
Nanning
530004,
Guangxi
Zhuang
Autonomous
Region,
P.R.
China
Received
19
September
2015,
Accepted
25
November
2015,
Published
online
10
December
2015
Abstract
Phauda
flammans
Walker
(Lepidoptera,
Zygaenidae)
is
one
of
the
notorious
defoliators
on
Ficus
spp.
trees.
In
order
to
avoid
environmental
pollution,
potential
biological
control
agents
for
P
flammans
need
to
be
inves-
tigated
instead
of
chemical
control.
Four
species
of
insect
parasitoids
were
identified
from
P.'
flammans,
including
three
hymenopteran
species
(i.e.,
Gotra
octocinctus,
Apanteles
sp.
and
Eurytoma
verticillata) and
one
dipteran
species
(i.e.,
Exorista
yunnanica).
Parasitoid
ratios
of
G.
octocinctus,
Apanteles
sp.,
Eu.
verticillata
and
Ex.
yunnanica
were
7.2%,
4.2%,
1.6%
and
0.9%.
The
four
species
were
all
larval
endoparasitoids
of
R
flammans
larvae.
Time
of
cocoon
(pupa)
to
adult,
life
span,
major
axis
of
cocoon
and
body
length
of
females
were
all
longer
compared
to
males
for
G.
octocinctus,
Apanteles
sp.
and
Ex.
yunnanica.
Based
on
the
parasitoid
ratios,
the
most
abundant
parasitoid
species
was
G.
octocinctus.
Key
words:
Horticultural
pests,
Defoliator,
Biological
control,
Parasitoids.
Résumé
Caracteristiques
ecologiques
et
morphologiques
des
parasitoides
de
Phauda
flammans
(Lepidoptera,
Zygaenidae).
Phauda
flammans
Walker
(Lepidoptera,
Zygaenidae)
est
l'un
des
defoliateurs
notoires
sur
Ficus
spp.
Afin
d'eviter
la
pollution
de
l'environnement,
it
est
necessaire
d'etudier
des
agents
potentiels
de
lutte
biologique
contre
1?
flammans,
pour
remplacer
la
lutte
chimique.
Quatre
especes
d'insectes
parasitokles
ont
ete
identifiees
chez
P
fiammans,
dont
trois
especes
d'hymenopteres
(Gotra
octocinctus,
Apanteles
sp.,
Eurytoma
verticillata)
et
une
espece
de
dipteres
(Exorista
yunnanica).
Les
ratios
parasitoIdes
de
G.
octocinctus,
Apanteles
sp.,
Eu.
verticillata
et
Ex.
yunnanica
etaient
7.2
%,
4.2
%,
1.6
%
et
0.9
%.
Les
quatre
especes
etaient
toutes
des
endoparasitoIdes
larvaires
des
larves
de
1?
flammans.
La
duree
de
cocon
(nymphe)
a
adulte,
la
duree
de
vie,
la
longueur
de
l'axe
majeur
de
cocon
et
la
longueur
du
corps
etait
plus
elevees
chez
les
femelles
que
pour
les
males
pour
G.
octocinctus,
Apanteles
sp.
et
Ex.
yunnanica.
Sur
la
base
des
ratios
de
parasitokles,
l'espece
de
parasitokle
la
plus
abondante
etait
G.
octocinctus.
Introduction
Ficus
spp.
trees
are
the
main
avenue
species
in
the
urban
landscape
of
Southeast
Asian
countries
and
southern
provinces
of
China.
These
trees
play
an
important
role
in
maintaining
the
ecological
balance
by
actively
participating
in
the
cycling
of
nutrients
and
gases
(e.g.,
carbon
dioxide
and
oxygen)
and
pro-
viding
an
enormous
leaf
area
for
impingement,
absorption
and
accumulation
of
air
pollutants
(e.g.,
industry,
construction
materials
and
vehicle
emissions)
to
reduce
the
pollution
level
in
the
urban
atmosphere
[3].
Clearly,
these
functions
are
weak-
ened
when
leaves
of
Ficus
spp.
trees
are
eaten
by
herbivorous
insects.
Phauda
flammans
Walker
(Lepidoptera:
Zygaenidae)
*Corresponding
author:
luwe
nlw
eni111
63
.
c
o
m
is
one
of
the
notorious
defoliators
on
Ficus
microcarpa
L.
(Urticales:
Moraceae)
and
F
racemosa
L.
(Urticales:
Moraceae)
in
P.R.
China
[8-10],
and
on
F
racemosa
in
India
[12,
13].
Phauda
flammans
has
two
generations
per
year
in
Nanning
City,
Guangxi
Zhuang
Autonomous
Region,
PR
China.
Larval
peak
of
the
first
and
second
generations
occurred
from
mid-May
to
late
June
and
early
August
to
mid-October,
respectively.
Larvae
of
the
second
and
third
generations
overlapped,
which
could
attribute
to
the
longer
developmental
duration
of
larvae.
This
pest
overwintered
as
the
pre-pupae
larvae
and
pupae
of
the
second
generation
and
young
larvae
of
the
third
generation.
Only
a
few
individuals
could
overwinter
in
up
to
10
mm
soil
depths
[8-10].
Conventional
insecticides
are
still
the
most
effec-
tive
measure
against
the
pest.
However,
widespread
use
of
2
X.-L.
Zheng
et
al.:
Parasite
2015,
22,
36
Figure
1.
A.
Ficus
microcarpa
damaged
by
Phauda
flammans
larvae;
B.
Phauda
flammans
larva.
tl
chemical
insecticides
in
the
control
of
this
pest
is
no
longer
acceptable
due
to
insecticide
resistance,
negative
effects
on
bio-
diversity
and
environmental
pollution.
For
example,
dimethoate
and
dipterex
were
routinely
used
to
kill
P
flammans
larvae
by
the
Landscape
department
in
our
city.
In
recent
years,
only
high
concentrations
of
these
insecticides
have
been
able
to
kill
P
flammans
larvae.
However,
residues
of
the
two
pesticides
are
often
found
in
the
soil
[5].
The
purpose
of
this
article
is
to
identify
possible
biological
control
agents
for
P
flammans
occurring
on
Ficus
spp.
trees.
This
study
investigated
species
of
parasitoid
insects
using
P
flammans,
along
with
their
ecological
and
biological
charac-
teristics
and
parasitoid
ratios.
Materials
and
methods
In
order
to
investigate
the
species
of
parasitoids,
a
total
of
1032
individuals
of
P
flammans
larvae
were
collected
on
the
damaged
trees
(Fig.
1)
in
Nanning
City
from
May
to
October
2014.
Each
larva
was
reared
in
a
petri
dish
(90
mm
diame-
ter
x
18
mm
height)
in
a
laboratory
setting.
The
collected
lar-
vae
were
incubated
at
27
±
1
°C
with
an
L14:
D10
photoperiod
and
relative
humidity
(RH)
of
70-80%.
Phauda
flammans
larvae
were
reared
with
leaves
of
E
microcarpa
"Golden
leaves".
Leaves
were
renewed
and
excretions
were
removed
daily
from
the
petri
dish
until
the
parasitoids
emerged
from
the
host.
A
total
of
25
individuals
died
during
the
course
of
the
experiment
and
no
parasitoids
were
found
in
their
body.
A
cotton
ball
soaked
in
10%
sucrose
solution
was
administered
to
check
the
longevity
of
both
sexes
of
adults
if
the
parasitoids
emerged
from
the
host
as
adults.
For
parasitoids
that
emerged
from
the
host
as
larval
stages,
cocoon
(pupa)
were
separated
(one
cocoon/petri
dish)
after
larvae
pupated.
The
sex
of
each
cocoon
(pupa)
and
time
of
each
cocoon
(pupa)
to
adult
were
recorded,
and
adults
were
provided
with
10%
sucrose
solution
to
record
the
longevity
of
both
sexes.
The
major
and
minor
axis
of
the
cocoon
(pupa)
and
body
length
of
adults
of
these
para-
sitoids
in
P
flammans
were
measured
using
image
measuring
software
(Leica
Application
Suite
version
4.6.0,
Leica
Micro-
systems,
Germany).
Rearing
conditions
of
these
parasitoids
were
the
same
as
those
of
host
insects.
Images
of
parasitoid
lar-
vae,
cocoon
(pupae)
and/or
adults
were
taken
with
a
Sony
dig-
ital
camera
(DSC-1DC60,
Sony,
Kyoto,
Japan).
All
parasitoid
adults
emerging
from
the
P
flammans
larvae
were
identified
according
to
[1,
7,
4,
15].
Statistical
analysis
was
performed
using
SPSS
16.0
(SPSS,
Chicago,
IL,
USA).
Time
of
cocoon
(pupa)
to
adult,
duration
of
parasitoids
in
the
adult
stage,
size
of
parasitoid
cocoon
and
body
length
of
adults
of
both
sexes
for
each
parasitoid
were
compared
using
the
nonparametric
Mann-Whitney
U
test.
Results
were
considered
significant
at
p
<
0.05.
results
ana
aiscussion
Species
composition
of
parasitoids
and
parasitoid
ratio
Total
parasitoid
rate
of
P
flammans
larvae
was
14.0%
(Table
1).
The
parasitoid
ratio
of
Hymenoptera
was
13.1%,
which
is
more
than
13
times
greater
than
that
of
Diptera
(0.9%).
After
rearing
the
P
flammans
populations
collected
from
the
field,
adults
of
four
parasitoid
species
could
be
iden-
tified:
7.2%
Gotra
octocinctus
(Hymenoptera:
Ichneumoni-
dae),
4.2%
Apanteles
sp.
(Hymenoptera:
Braconidae),
1.6%
Eurytoma
verticillata
(Hymenoptera:
Eurytomidae)
and
0.9%
Exorista
yunnanica
(Diptera:
Tachinidae).
Thus,
based
on
the
parasitoid
ratios,
the
most
abundant
parasitoid
species
was
G.
octocinctus
(Fig.
2A).
X.-L.
Zheng
et
al.:
Parasite
2015,
22,
36
3
A
B
+.111.•••••..
,77
C
0
r,
1
H
I.
ilk
Figure
2.
Endoparasitoids
of
Phauda
flammans
larvae.
A—B:
Dorsal
and
profile
view
of
adults
in
Gotra
octocinctus.
C—E:
Dorsal
and
profile
view
of
adults
and
cocoon
in
Apanteles
sp.
F—H:
Dorsal
and
profile
view
of
adults
and
cocoon
in
Eurytoma
verticillata.
I—K:
Dorsal
and
profile
view
of
adults
and
cocoon
in
Exorista
yunnanica.
Table
1.
Parasitism
by
parasitoids
on
Phauda
flammans.
Order
Family
Species
P.A/C.I
Parasitism
(%)
Species
Order
Total
Hymenoptera
Ichneumonidae
Gotra
octocinctus
75/1032
7.2
13.1
14.0
Braconidae
Apanteles
sp.
43/1032
4.2
Eurytomidae
Eurytoma
verticillata
17/1032
1.6
Diptera
Tachinidae
Exorista
yunnanica
10/1032
0.9 0.9
C.I,
collected
individuals
from
R
fiammans;
P.A,
parasitoid
appearance
in
R
flammans.
4
X.-L.
Zheng
et
al.:
Parasite
2015,
22,
36
Table
2.
Ecological
characteristics
of
parasitoids
in
Phauda
flammans
larvae.
Parasitized
host
stage
Parasitoid
emerged
stage
Parasitized
host
ecdysis
Food
consumption
of
parasitized
host
Solitary
(S)
or
gregarious
(G)
Idiobiont
(I)
or
koinobiont
(K)
Hymenoptera
Ichneumonidae
Gotra
octocinctus
Larva
Adult
Yes
Yes
S
K
Braconidae
Apanteles
sp.
Larva Larva
Yes
Yes
G
K
Eurytomidae
Eurytoma
verticillata
Larva Larva
Yes
Yes
G
K
Diptera
Tachinidae
Exorista
yunnanica
Larva Larva
Yes
Yes
G
K
Table
3.
Ecological
characteristics
of
Gotra
octocinctus,
Apanteles
sp.,
Eurytoma
verticillata
and
Exorista
yunnanica.
c3VY
Time
of
cocoon
(pupa)
to
adult
(days)
Duration
of
parasitoids
in
adult
stage
(days)
Size
of
parasitoid
cocoon
(cm)
Body
length
of
adults
(cm)
Major
axis
Minor
axis
Hymenoptera
Ichneumonidae
Gotra
octocinctus
a
7.2
(20)
1.1
(20)
Y
8.0
(21)
1.2
(21)
Braconidae
Apanteles
sp.
a
6.1
±
0.1
(46)
3.1
±
0.3
(40)
0.26
±
0.0
(46)
0.1
±
0.0
(46)
0.25
(20)
Y
6.5
(10)
3.6
(10)
0.3
(10)
0.1
(10)
0.29
(10)
Eurytomidae
Eurytoma
verticillata
a
6.0
(12)
3.0
(12)
0.3
(12)
0.1
(12)
0.3
(12)
Y
6.5
(12)
3.3
(12)
0.3
(12)
0.1
(12)
0.3
(12)
Diptera
Tachinidae
Exorista
yunnanica
a
7.0
(8)
4.5
(8)
0.6
(8)
0.4
(8)
0.7
(8)
Y
7.3
(8)
4.8
(7)
0.7
(7)
0.4
(7)
0.8
(7)
Numbers
in
parentheses
indicate
the
sample
sizes.
Ecological
characteristics
of
parasitoids
Gotra
octocinctus
is
distributed
in
Japan,
North
Korea
and
P.R.
China
[4].
Its
main
hosts
are
Dendrolimus
punctatus
Walker
[14]
and
Hyphantria
cunea
Drury
[6],
and
the
parasit-
oid
ratios
were
0.8%
and
0.2%,
respectively
[2,
6].
In
this
work,
we
discovered
for
the
first
time
that
G.
octocinctus
also
parasitized
P
flammans
larvae
in
the
landscape
ecological
sys-
tem
of
southern
cities
in
P.R.
China.
This
parasitoid
emerged
from
the
host
as
the
adult
stage
(Table
2).
Meanwhile,
we
found
only
a
single
parasitoid
emerged
from
a
living
larva
during
the
process
of
rearing.
This
result
indicated
that
this
parasitoid
was
a
solitary
koinobiont
endoparasitoid
(Table
2).
Competition
between
parasitoids
includes
two
categories:
extrinsic
(among
free-living
adults)
and
intrinsic
competition
(among
immature
parasitoids)
[11].
The
latter
category
is
usu-
ally
encountered
in
solitary
parasitoids.
Usually,
one
of
the
parasitoid
larvae
will
kill
the
others
if
two
or
more
solitary
par-
asitoids
parasitize
the
same
host.
As
for
P
flammans,
only
a
single
species
of
parasitoid
G.
octocinctus
finally
emerged
from
the
host
We
speculate
that
this
may
be
related
to
the
big-
ger
body
size
of
G.
octocinctus
larvae
during
interspecific
com-
petition
among
parasitoids
in
P
flammans.
Apanteles
sp.
and
Eu.
verticillata
were
found
to
parasitize
only
P
flammans
larvae.
These
parasitoids
were
verified
as
endoparasitoids
and
emerged
from
the
host
as
the
larval
stage
(Table
2).
During
the
experiment,
many
larvae
ofApanteles
sp.
and
Eu.
verticillata
were
observed
to
emerge
from
the
host
and
pupated
on
the
host's
integument
(Figs.
2E
and
2H).
As
for
Ex.
yunnanica,
they
searched
for
other
pupation
sites
after
emerging
from
the
host
as
the
larval
stage
(Fig.
2K).
Results
suggested
that
these
species
were
gregarious.
As
for
the
para-
sitized
host,
it
can
exuviate
but
not
pupate
which
indicated
that
these
parasitoids
were
koinobiont
(Table
2).
It
was
found
that
the
four
species
from
P
flammans
larvae
were
all
larval
endoparasitoids.
Results
suggested
that
the
lar-
val
stage
in
the
P
flammans
life
cycle
was
the
optimal
time
used
by
these
parasitoids.
Morphological
characteristics
and
life
cycles
of
parasitoids
Longevity
(U
=
103.0,
p
=
0.005)
and
body
length
(U
=
115.5,
p
=
0.01)
of
females
were
significantly
greater
than
in
males
in
G.
octocinctus
(Table
3).
With
regard
to
Apanteles
sp.,
time
for
development
of
cocoon
(pupa)
of
both
sexes
had
a
statistical
difference
(U
=
145.0,
p
=
0.032).
The
life
spans
of
adult
males
and
females
were
3.1
±
0.3
and
3.6
days,
respectively,
which
was
X.-L.
Zheng
et
al.:
Parasite
2015,
22,
36
5
significantly
different
(U=
118.0,
p
=
0.003).
The
major
and
minor
axis
of
male
and
female
cocoon
(pupa)
were
0.26
±
0.0/0.1
±
0.0
cm
and
0.3/0.1
cm,
respectively,
which
shows
a
significant
difference
of
major
axis
of
cocoon
(pupa)
between
males
and
females
(U
=
2.5,
p
=
0.000)
but
minor
axis
was
the
opposite
(U=
225.0,
p
=
0.915).
Body
length
of
females
was
significantly
longer
than
males
(U
=
10.0,
p
=
0.000;
Table
3),
which
suggested
that
the
body
length
could
be
a
positive
correlation
with
the
major
axis
of
the
cocoon
(pupa).
It
was
found
that
the
period
from
the
cocoon
(pupa)
to
adult
of
Eu.
verticillata
female
was
approximately
half
a
day
shorter
than
in
males,
which
does
not
show
a
significant
differ-
ence
between
the
sexes
(U
=
45.0,
p
=
0.085).
The
life
spans
of
adult
males
and
females
were
not
significantly
different
(U
=
58.5,
p
=
0.387).
The
major
and
minor
axis
of
male
and
female
cocoon
(pupa)
were
the
same
as
Apanteles
sp.,
but
there
was
no
statistical
difference
for
males
and
females
(major
axis:
U
=
44.0,
p
=
0.105;
minor
axis:
U
=
56.0,
p
=
0.353).
Body
lengths
of
Eu.
verticillata
adults
were
similar
in
males
and
females
(U
=
52.0,
p
=
0.248)
(Table
3).
As
for
Ex.
yunnanica,
the
intervals
from
pupa
to
adult
of
males
and
females
were
not
statistically
different
(U
=
25.0,
p
=
0.332).
The
life
spans
of
adult
males
and
females
were
4.5
and
4.8
days,
respectively,
which
does
not
show
a
signifi-
cant
difference
between
the
sexes
(U
=
24.0,
p
=
0.317).
Although
the
major
axis
of
female
cocoon
(pupa)
was
signifi-
cantly
longer
than
in
males
(U=
13.5,
p
=
0.031),
there
was
no
significant
difference
of
minor
axis
of
cocoon
(pupa)
between
males
and
females
(U=
32.0,
p
=
1.000).
The
body
length
of
females
has
a
significant
difference
(U
=
6.5,
p
=
0.007)
(Table
3),
which
suggested
that
the
body
length
could
be
a
positive
correlation
with
the
major
axis
of
the
cocoon
(pupa).
A
previous
study
reported
that
the
body
length
of
Ex.
yunnanica
adults
was
7-8
mm
[1].
Our
results
support
this
conclusion.
Conclusion
In
the
current
study,
we
found
that
G.
octocinctus
was
the
most
abundant
species
and
could
be
used
as
a
biological
agent
for
P
flammans
larvae.
However,
further
studies
on
the
mass
production
and
release
of
this
parasitoid
need
to
be
carried
out.
Acknowledgements.
We
are
grateful
to
the
anonymous
reviewers
and
editors
for
their
valuable
comments
on
an
earlier
version.
This
research
was
supported
financially
by
the
Guangxi
Natural
Science
Foundation
(2014GXNSFBA118065,
2015GXNSFAA139056)
and
Training
Programs
of
Innovation
and
Entrepreneurship
for
Under-
graduates
of
Guangxi
University
(201510593227),
and
Guangxi
Special
Invited
Scientist
Program
in
Agric-Environment
and
Agric-Products
Safety
(2013B015).
leferences
1.
Chao
CM.
1964.
Fauna
larvaevoriden
Chinas
V
Gattung
Exorista
Meigen.
Acta
Entomologica
Sinica,
13,
362-375.
2.
Cheu
SR
1955.
Preliminary
observations
on
the
insect
parasites
of
the
pine
caterpillar
(Dendrolimus
punctatus
walker)
in
Nanking
District.
Acta
Entomologica
Sinica,
5,
181-190.
3.
Escobedo
FJ,
Wagner
JE,
Nowak
DJ.
2008.
Analyzing
the
cost
effectiveness
of
Santiago
Chile's
policy
of
using
urban forest
to
improve
air
quality.
Journal
of
Environmental
Management,
86,
148-291.
4.
He
JH,
Chen
XX,
Fan
JJ,
Li
Q,
Liu
CM,
Lou
XM,
Ma
Y,
Wang
SF,
Wu
YR,
Xu
ZH,
Xu
ZF,
Yao
J.
2004.
Hymenopteran
Insect
Fauna
of
Zhejiang.
Science
Press:
Beijing.
5.
Huang
Y,
Li
ZY,
Zhao BS.
2009.
Present
situation
and
progress
of
research
on
the
organophosphorus
pesticide
dimethoate's
degradation.
Environmental
Science
and
Management,
34,
20-24.
6.
Li
Y.
2011.
Investigation
on
natural
enemy
insect
resources
of
Hyphantria
cunea
Drury
in
Shandong
and
biology
of
Exorista
japonica
Townsend.
Shandong
Agricultural
University:
Tai'an.
7.
Liao
DX,
Li
XL,
Pang
XF,
Chen
TL.
1987.
Economic
insect
fauna
of
China.
Fasc.
34,
Hymenoptera:
Chalcidoidea
(I).
Science
Press:
Beijing.
8.
Liu
JY,
He
QL,
Su
S,
Wei
H,
Yang
J,
Lu
W,
Zheng
XL.
2014.
Investigated
method
of
Phauda
fiammans
pupae.
China
Plant
Protection,
34,
51-53.
9.
Liu
JY,
He
QL,
Wei
H,
Yang
J,
Li
J,
Lu
W,
Zheng
XL.
2015.
Developmental
duration,
threshold
temperature
and
effective
accumulated
temperature
of
Phauda
flammans
under
natural
temperature
indoor.
Plant
Protection,
41,
137-140.
10.
Liu
JY,
He
QL,
Wei
H,
Yang
J,
Li
J,
Lu
W,
Zheng
XL.
2015.
Studies
on
the
biological
characteristics
of
Phauda
flammans
(Lepidoptera:
Zygaenidae).
Plant Protection,
41,
188-192.
11.
Mu§tu
M,
Mincer
N.
2015.
Interspecific
competition between
Anagyrus
pseudococci
and
Leptomastix
dactylopii,
parasitoids
of
the
vine
mealybug
Planococcus
ficus.
BioControl,
60,
485-493.
12.
Nageshchandra
BK,
Rajagopal
BK,
Balasubramanian
R.
1972.
Occurrence
of
slug
caterpillar
Phauda
flammans
Wlk.
(Lepidoptera:
Zygaenidae)
on
Ficus
racemosa
L.
in
South
India.
Mysore
Journal
of
Agricultural
Science,
6,
186-189.
13.
Verma
TD,
Dogra
GS.
1982.
Occurrence
of
Phauda
flammans
Wlk.
(Lepidoptera:
Zygaenidae)
on
Ficus
species
in
Himachal
Pradesh.
Journal
of
Tree
Science,
1,
130-132.
14.
Xu
YX,
Sun
XG,
Han
RD,
He
Z.
2006.
Parasitoids
of
Dendrolimus
punctatus
in
China.
Chinese
Journal
of
Applied
Entomology,
43,
767-773.
15.
Zhao
JM,
Liang
EY,
Shi
YS,
Zhou
SX.
2001.
Animal
fauna
of
China.
Fasc.
23,
Diptera:
Tachinidae
(I).
Science
Press:
Beijing.