Complete rations for growing dairy replacements utilizing byproduct feedstuffs


Van Horn, H.H.; Marshall, S.P.; Floyd, G.T.; Olaloku, E.A.; Wilcox, C.J.; Wing, J.M.

Journal of Dairy Science 63(9): 1465-1474

1980


Four experiments utilized by-product fiber sources (sugarcane bagasse pellets or cottonseed hulls) for calves (0-84 days), young heifers (80-180 days) or yearling heifers (300-650 days). Complete starters with sugarcane bagasse pellets (15%) were not as effective for growth of young calves as 15% cottonseed hulls. Complete rations with 40 or 55% cottonseed hulls gave excellent and equal gains from 80-180 days of age at either 10.0 or 12.5% protein (air-dry ration) and with or without 0.89% urea. In a 3rd experiment comparing rations with 73 or 83% sugarcane bagasse, performance from 300-600 days of age was inadequate with 83% but near optimum (0.60 kg gain/day for Holsteins, 0.50 kg/day for Jerseys) with 73% when supplemented with soybean meal. With urea (2.5, 2.0 or 1.0%), gains were reduced. In a 2nd experiment with yearling heifers consuming high sugarcane bagasse rations (70%), condensed molasses solubles from rum distilling were utilized well at 10%. Attempts to force feed larger amounts via lickwheel feeders while restricting dry feed intake slightly reduced gains and feed efficiency. Feeding of mastitic milk to young calves was evaluated in experiment 1. Growth was equal to feeding whole milk (some colostrum included) and incidence of mastitis or blind quarters in these heifers when they calved 2 yr later was no higher.

Complete
Rations
for
Growing
Dairy
Replacements
Utilizing
By-Product
Feedstuffs
1,2
H.
H.
VAN
HORN,
S.
P.
MARSHALL,
G.
T.
FLOYD,
E.
A.
OLALOKU,
3
C.
J.
WILCOX,
and
J.
M.
WING
Dairy
Science
Department
University
of
Florida
Gainesville
32611
ABSTRACT
Four
experiments
utilized
by-product
fiber
sources
(either
sugarcane
bagasse
pellets
or
cottonseed
hulls)
for
calves
(0
to
84
days),
young
heifers
(80
to
180
days),
or
yearling
heifers
(300
to
650
days).
Complete
starters
with
sugarcane
bagasse
pellets
(15%)
were
not
as
effective
for
growth
of
young
calves
as
15%
cottonseed
hulls
had
been
in
previous
experiments.
Complete
rations
with
40
or
55%
cottonseed
hulls
gave
excellent
and
equal
gains
from
80
to
180
days
of
age
at
either
10.0
or
12.5%
protein
(air-dry
ration)
and
with
or
without
.89%
urea.
In
a
third
experiment
comparing
rations
with
73
or
83%
sugarcane
bagasse,
performance
from
300
to
600
days
of
age
was
inadequate
with
83%
but
near
optimum
(.60
kg
gain/day
for
Holsteins,
.50
kg/day
for
Jerseys)
with
73%
when
supplemented
with
soybean
meal.
With
urea
(2.5,
2.0,
or
1.0%),
gains
were
reduced.
In
a
second
experiment
with
yearling
heifers
consuming
high-sugarcane
bagasse
rations
(70%),
condensed
molasses
solubles
from
rum
distilling
were
utilized
well
at
10%.
Attempts
to
force
feed
larger
amounts
via
lick-wheel
feeders
while
restricting
dry
feed
intake
slightly
reduced
gains
and
feed
efficiency.
Feeding
of
mastitic
milk
to
young
calves
also
was
evaluated
in
Experiment
1.
Growth
was
equal
to
feeding
whole
milk
(some
Received
October
22,
1979.
'Florida
Agricultural
Experiment
Station
Journal
Series
No.
1982.
This
research
was
supported
in
part
by
Bacardi
Corporation,
PO
Box
26368,
Jacksonville
FL
32218.
Journal
Series
No.
1982.
;
Department
of
Animal
Science,
University
of
Ibadan,
Ibadan,
Nigeria.
colostrum
included),
and
incidence
of
mastitis
or
blind
quarters
in
these
heifers
when
they
calved
2
yr
later
was
no
higher.
INTRODUCTION
The
objective
of
a
replacement
program
is
to
grow
out
genetically
superior
heifers
so
they
are
of
adequate
size
and
in
desired
condition
for
calving
by
22
to
24
mo
of
age.
The
program
should
be
easy
to
manage.
Feeding
complete
rations
may
simplify
management
for
many
dairymen
if
rations
are
of
the
right
energy
density
to
allow
adequate
growth
without
overfattening
with
free-choice
feeding.
Complete
rations
usually
are
utilized
best
in
winter
feeding
programs
when
pastures
cannot
be
used,
in
periods
of
drought,
or
to
supplement
overstocked
pastures.
Sources
of
dry
by-product
fiber
are
particularly
useful
if
available
as
they
permit
use
of
self
feeders
which
can
reduce
feeding
labor.
Size
and
condition
of
heifers
at
calving
are
important,
because
undersized
animals
experi-
ence
more
calving
problems
at
parturition
and
produce
less
milk
during
lactation.
Heifers
overconditioned
before
calving
deposit
fat
in
the
udder,
and
some
of
this
deposit
interferes
with
development
of
secretory
tissue
and
is
counterproductive
(8).
Additional
milk
produc-
tion
gained
during
first
lactation
for
each
added
month
of
age
diminishes
rapidly
after
22
mo
of
age,
and
production
increments
become
small
at
26
mo
and
after.
Therefore,
if
heifers
are
normal
size
for
age,
bringing
them
into
produc-
tion
at
an
early
age
helps
to
maximize
life-
time
milk
production
and
to
maintain
the
desired
seasonal
calving
schedule.
There
can
be
considerable
variability
in
growth
patterns
in
different
stages
of
the
life
cycle
leading
to
the
same
desired
end
product
(8).
Particularly,
large
variations
can
be
tolerated
from
8
to
20
mo
of
age
if
the
program
is
1980
J
Dairy
Sci
63:1465-1474
1465
1466
VAN
HORN
ET
AL.
managed
so
that
the
desired
end
product
still
is
achieved.
For
example,
it
is
not
desirable
to
force
heifers
to
maximum
gains
because
too
much
fattening
occurs.
Therefore,
if
heifers
happen
to
grow
slower
than
desired
from
8
to
14
mo
of
age,
the
feeding
program
can
be
adjusted
to
speed
increases
from
14
to
20
mo
or
vice
versa.
In
general,
however,
keeping
heifers
growing
at
the
most
desirable
rate
of
gain
at
each
stage
of
life
cycle
is
preferred.
Because
of
management
considerations
the
feeding
program
for
management
of
the
life
cycle
can
be
broken
into
four
segments:
1.
Young
calf
(birth
to
3
mo
of
age).
This
is
an
intensive
labor
and
management
period
because
it
involves
daily
milk
feeding
until
weaning,
a
more
specialized
starter
ration,
and
more
intensive
health
management.
Calves
should
be
in
individual
pens
until
2
mo
(or
to
3
mo
if
pens
are
available
and
convenient).
Small,
group
feeding
pens
close
by
in
which
calves
are
continued
on
the
same
complete
ration
starter
often
saves
labor
and
helps
to
free
individual
pens
in
heavy
calving
seasons.
2.
Young
heifer
(3
to
10
mo).
Although
heifers
will
be
handled
in
groups
during
this
age,
forages
must
be
supplemented
with
concen-
trates
to
obtain
adequate
growth;
health
management
is
more
critical
than
for
older
animals.
Complete
rations
fed
free
choice
help
avoid
stunted
heifers
resulting
from
dominating
older
heifers
keeping
them
away
from
the
feed.
3.
Yearling
heifers
(10
to
22
mo).
Usual
age
for
maximizing
forage
utilization,
but
neglect
and
false
economy
frequently
cause
the
manager
to
underfeed
heifers
resulting
in
smaller
heifers
than
desired
or
heifers
bred
much
later
than
desired.
4.
Springing
heifers
(20 to
24
mo).
Heifers
approaching
parturition
should
be
brought
in
for
closer
examination
and
additional
feeding
if
they
have
fallen
behind
in
growth.
This
assumes
that
heifers
have
been
bred
to
calve
at
22
to
24
mo.
Objectives
of
our
research
were
to
develop
feeding
programs
with
complete
rations
utilizing
sources
of
by-product
fiber
that
would
meet
desired
growth
standards
in
various
segments
of
the
life
cycle.
Short
experiments
during
differ-
ent
stages
of
growth
to
test
several
sources
of
fiber,
by-product
additives,
and
protein
supple-
mentation
were
used
to
generate
segments
of
growth
curves
through
regression
of
growth
on
age
(third
degree
polynomial)
and
to
test
feedstuffs
and
protein
supplementation
regimes
with
different
by-products.
EXPERIMENTAL
PROCEDURES
AND
RESULTS
Experiment
1
Twenty-nine
female
calves
born
from
December
1,
1975,
through
February
29,
1976,
were
used
for
a
continued
study
of
two
milk
feeding
systems:
1)
a
mixture
of
colostrum
and
whole
milk,
and
2)
mastitic
milk,
plus
starters
including
either
5
or
15%
sugarcane
bagasse
pellets
factorially
arranged
with
or
without
TABLE
1.
Calf
starter
formulas
for
Experiment
1.a
Starter
number
Ingredients
(%)
1
2
3
4
Sugarcane
bagasse
pellets
5.0
5.0
15.0 15.0
Ground
shelled
corn
69.0
68.8
57.0
56.8
Soybean
meal
(48%)
20.0
20.0
22.0 22.0
Molasses
3.0
3.0
3.0 3.0
Salt,
trace
mineral
1.0
1.0
1.0 1.0
Dynafos
.5
.5
.5
.5
Ground
limestone
1.5 1.5
1.5 1.5
Enzyme
(a
cellulase)b
.2
.2
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
a
All
rations
fortified
per
pound
of
starter
with
vitamin
A,
2,500
IU;
vitamin
D,
300
IU;
aureomycin
or
terramycin,
10
mg.
b
Fungal
cellulolytic
enzyme
prepared
by
Edge
Enterprises,
Inc.,
Little
Rock,
AR.
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
63,
No.
9,
1980
OUR
INDUSTRY
TODAY
1467
TABLE
2.
Least
squares
estimates
of
growth
rates
and
feed
intake
for
Experiment
1.
Calves
Obser-
vations
Body
wt.
(kg)
on
day
Feed
intake
(kg)
on
day
Treatmenta
(no.)
(no.)
0
28
56
84
28
56
84
Breed
1
16
120
40.0
49.0
55.8
60.3
.76
1.94
2.66
3
13
93
24.8
30.0
38.5
44.8
.49
1.40
2.05
Ration
1
6
46
32.3
39.3
46.9
50.0
.52
1.32
1.85
2
7
50
32.2
39.3
47.3
54.3
.46
1.59
2.31
3
7
50
35.6
44.3
50.7
56.4
.86
2.12
2.94
4
9
67
33.5
40.1 48.1
53.3
.70
1.71
2.51
Milk
1
14
102
33.1
40.3
47.7
51.8
.68
1.66
2.26
2
15
111
33.8
41.1
48.8
55.0
.60
1.74
2.53
a
Breeds
were
1)
Holstein
and
3)
Jerseys;
rations
are
described
in
Table
1;
milks
were
1)
whole-colostrum
mixture
and
2)
mastitic.
addition
of
an
enzyme
(Table
1).
All
colostrum
was
saved
and
diluted
with
adequate
fresh
milk
from
several
Holstein
cows
to
give
needed
volume
of
milk
to
feed
calves
whole
milk.
Mastitic
milk
was
a
blend
of
milk
normally
discarded
from
mastitic
cows
(including
recently
treated
cows)
with
no
colostrum
added.
Proce-
dure
was
identical
to
that
reported
for
the
milk
phase
of
Experiment
2
by
Van
Horn
et
al.
(9)
with
calves
being
raised
in
flush
pens
with
slatted-floor
or
expanded
metal
floors.
Body
weight
measurements
were
taken
at
birth
and
approximately
2-wk
intervals
thereafter
to
12
wk.
Feed
intake
and
refusals
were
recorded
daily.
Data
were
analyzed
by
the
method
of
least
squares
analysis
of
variance.
Mathematical
model
included
as
main
effects
ration,
breed,
type
of
milk,
and
all
possible
two
factor
inter-
actions.
Also
included
were
calf
(nested
within
main
effect
subclasses)
and
days
of
age
(third
degree
polynomial).
Differences
between
main
effects
and
interactions
were
tested
by
examina-
tion
of
least
squares
constants
and
tests
for
heterogeneity
of
curvilinear
regression.
Results
are
in
Table
2.
No
effects
of
ration
or
type
of
milk
were
significant
for
body
weight
or
feed
intake.
Average
performance,
however,
was
much
poorer
than
for
calves
fed
similar
diets
with
cottonseed
hulls.
Effects
of
feeding
mastitic
milk
on
incidence
of
mastitis
at
calving
time
also
were
evaluated
in
29
calves
from
this
experiment
and
62
others
(9).
For
49
controls
TABLE
3.
Heifer
rations
(Experiment
2).a
(%
Composition)
10%
Protein
12.5%
Protein
Ingredients
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
Cottonseed
hulls
40.0
40.0
55.0 55.0
40.0
40.0
55.0
55.0
Ground
corn
43.0 49.0
25.8
31.81
35.8
41.8
18.7
24.7
Soybean
meal
(44%)
9.5
2.61
11.7
4.8
16.7
9.81
18.8
11.91
Urea
.
.
.89
.89
.89
.89
Molasses
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
Dynafos
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0 1.0
1.0
1.0 1.0
Tricalcium
phosphate
1.0 1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Trace
mineral
salt
.5 .5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
a
All
rations
to
be
fortified
per
pound
with
vitamin
A,
2200
IU
and
vitamin
D
300
IU.
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
63,
No.
9,
1980
1468
VAN
HORN
ET
AL.
and
43
mastitic
milk-fed
calves,
incidence
of
mastitis
or
blind
quarters
at
calving
was
not
different.
Experiment
2
Sixty-four
heifers
were
started
on
an
experi-
ment
between
80
and
120
days
of
age
to
compare
main
effects
of
40
versus
55%
cotton-
seed
hulls,
10.0
versus
12.5%
crude
protein
(air
dry
basis),
urea
versus
soybean
meal,
and
worming
treatments
consisting
of
a
control,
Thibenzole,
and
Tramisol.
Rations
are
in
Table
3.
Thirty-six
Holstein,
19
Jersey,
and
9
Holstein-
Guernsey
crossbreds
were
assigned
to
the
eight
rations.
All
ration
groups
were
assigned
either
two
or
three
Jerseys,
and
the
Holsteins
and
Hol-
stein-Guernsey
crosses
were
assigned
randomly
without
regard
to
balancing
the
number
of
Holstein-Guernsey
crossbreds
on
each
ration.
The
rations
were
mixed
as
complete
diets,
and
heifers
were
fed
these
diets
in
covered
feed
bunks
to
mimic
a
self-feeder
as
much
as
the
capacity
of
the
feed
bunk
allowed.
The
heifers
generally
were
given
additional
feed
two
or
three
times
a
week,
but
the
frequency
of
feeding
depended
on
the
number
of
heifers
in
the
pens
at
any
time.
Heifers
were
assigned
to
these
ration
treatments
between
October,
1974,
and
April,
1975,
and
maintained
in
that
feeding
pen
for
approximately
12
wk
after
initiation
of
the
experiment.
Feed
intake
was
recorded
weekly
by
measuring
the
amount
of
feed
refused
and
subtracting
from
the
total
added
to
the
feed
bunk
during
the
week.
New
heifers
were
added
to
the
experimental
group
once
a
week
after
weighing
of
feed
refusals,
and
heifers
came
off
experiment
on
that
same
day.
Feed
intake
data
reflect
an
average
consumption
per
animal
day
on
different
diets,
but
statistical
evaluation
other
than
comparing
these
group
means
was
not
possible.
Body
weights
were
measured
at
approximately
3-wk
intervals
TABLE
4.
Least
squares
means
(adjusted
to
average
age
of
133.1
days)
for
Experiment
2.
Treatment
n
Body
weight
%
83-day
weight
(kg)
Overall
mean
268
118.5
153
Breed
Holstein
169
138.0a
148
Holstein
X
Guernsey
22
124.8
155
Jersey
77
92.6
156
Wormer
Control
78
110.3b
154
Thibenzole
109
126.7
153
Tramisol
81
118.5
152
Hulls
40%
137
112.1
152
55%
131
124.8
154
Protein
10.0%
135
115.3
150
12.5%
133
121.7
156
Urea
None
138
128.0
159
.89%
130
109.0
147
a
Breed
means
for
body
weight
differ
(P<.01).
b
Means
for
wormer
treatments
differ
(P<.05),
but
the
lack
of
significant
difference
when
expressed
as
percent
of
83-day
weights
suggests
differences
were
result
of
nonrandom
allocation
of
animals
to
wormer
treat-
ments
(particularly
heavier
animals
being
assigned
to
thibenzole).
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
63,
No.
9,
1980
J
ourn
al
of
D
ai
r
y
S
ci
ence
V
ol
.
63
,
N
o
.
9
,
1
98
0
TABLE
5.
Least
squares
estimates
of
growth
for
Experiment
2.
Treatment
Calves
(no.)
Obser-
vations
(no.)
Body
wt.
(kg)
at
age
(days)
Gain
(kg/day)
(80-180
days)
Avg.
feed
intake
(kg/day)
80
100
120
140
160
180
Breed
Holstein
36
169
89.9
100.3
117.6
138.0
158.9
177.1
.87
H
X
Guernsey
9
22
79.4
98.1
116.7
135.3
153.5
170.2
.91
Jersey
19
77
54.5
63.6
74.5
87.2
101.2
116.7
.62
Hulls
40%
32
137
75.8
89.9
105.3
122.1
139.4
156.6
.81
4.40
55%
32
131
80.4
89.9
105.3
124.4
143.5
159.4
.79
4.42
Protein
X
U
Low
protein,
no
urea
16
66
75.4
89.9
105.3
122.6
138.0
158.4
.83
4.52
Low
protein,
urea
16
69
77.2
90.3
104.9
121,2
138.0
155.3
.78
4.41
High
protein,
no
urea
16
72
84.9
94.4
112.1
134.4
154.8
168.9
.84
4.86
High
protein,
urea
16
61
74.0
83.5
97.6
114.4
131.2
146.2
.72
3.87
Wormer
Control
21
78
78.1
90.3
105.8
123.5
141.6
158.4
.80
Thibenzole
24
109
83.1
93.1
109.9
130.3
150.7
168.0
.85
Tramisol
19
81
71.7
84.9
98.5
113.5
129.4
145.7
.74
A
v
aos,
A
2I
LSt1QNI
11f10
1470
VAN
HORN
ET
AL.
throughout
the
experiment,
and
growth
was
quantified
as
described
for
Experiment
1.
Results
are
in
Tables
4
and
5.
Although
some
effects
for
overall
means
of
all
observa-
tions
on
body
weight
is
suggested
from
Table
4
(P<.05
for
wormer),
examination
of
the
analysis
of
percent
of
83-day
weight
and
gains
from
growth
curves
in
Table
5
(which
correct
for
differences
in
beginning
weights)
indicate
that
gains
were
not
significantly
different.
No
differences
from
rations
were
significant.
Calves
performed
equally
on
55%
cottonseed
hulls
as
40%
hulls,
and
nearly
as
well
with
.89%
urea
as
with
all
soybean
meal,
although
poorest
per-
formance
was
with
high-protein
and
.89%
urea
(apparently
because
calves
ate
less
of
this
ration).
Experiment
3
Heifers
ranging
from
205
to
533
days
of
age
at
the
start
of
experiment
were
used
for
a
120-day
feeding
trial
during
the
summer
of
1975
to
determine
maximum
sugarcane
bagasse
that
might
be
used
in
complete
diets
for
desired
performance
and
also
to
compare
urea
with
soybean
meal
in
this
kind
of
diet.
Rations
are
in
Table
6.
Sugarcane
bagasse
pellets
(6)
were
crumbled
before
mixing
rations.
Rations
were
mixed
as
a
complete
diet
and
fed
in
a
self-feeder.
Ration
3
did
not
support
gain,
and
halfway
through
the
120-day
feeding
trial
this
group
of
heifers
was
switched
to
Ration
5
(Table
6).
Analysis
of
data
was
as
in
Experiment
1
with
weight
measurements
which
were
taken
each
2
wk
throughout
the
experiment
regressed
(third
degree
polynomial)
either
on
age
of
heifer
or
days
on
experiment
(Table
7).
Growth
curves
differed
(P<.01)
for
these
rations.
Gains
were
largest
on
Ration
2
but
were
still
.12
kg/day
less
than
.72
kg/day
desired
for
Holsteins.
However,
it
is
thought
this
ration
would
have
been
eaten
in
greater
amounts
in
a
cooler
season
and
would
have
given
desired
gains
under
those
conditions.
Experiment
4
Twenty-four
heifers
(12
Holsteins
and
12
Jerseys)
were
divided
randomly
(within
breed)
into
12
pens
of
two
(6
pens
of
Holsteins
and
6
pens
of
Jerseys)
for
feeding
to
compare
the
effect
of
adding
10%
condensed
cane
molasses
solubles
(CMS,
a
by-product
of
rum
distilling)
to
70%
sugarcane
bagasse
diets
and
also
the
added
effects
of
offering
additional
CMS
free-choice
via
lick-wheel
while
restricting
mixed
feed
intake
to
about
90%
of
free-choice.
Ration
formulas
and
composition
of
CMS
are
in
Table
8.
Performance
data
are
in
Tables
9
and
10.
Rations
with
10%
CMS
supported
growth
about
equal
to
controls.
Growth
rates
were
the
same
for
growth
curves
regressed
on
age
and
slightly
in
favor
of
10%
CMS
in
growth
over
the
80-day
experiment.
Heifers
ate
slightly
more
of
10%
CMS
diet
so
the
feed:gain
ratios
were
about
equal
(14.7
vs.
15.1).
Restricting
feed
slightly
to
encourage
CMS
consumption
from
lick-wheel
reduced
rate
of
gain
and
increased
feed:gain
ratio.
Heifers
ate
only
.4
kg
CMS
per
day
from
the
lick
wheel.
Ammerman
et
al
(1)
found
reduced
gain
with
as
little
as
5%
CMS
in
high-concentrate
finishing
rations
for
beef
cattle
as
contrasted
to
acceptable
performance
with
10%
CMS
in
a
high-fiber
diet
in
this
experiment.
DISCUSSION
Segmented
growth
curves
are
in
Figures
1
TABLE
6.
Rations
for
Experiment
3.
Ingredients
1
2
3
4
5
Sugarcane
bagasse,
%
83.0
73.0
83.0
73.0
73.0
Soybean
meal,
49%
crude
protein,
%
15.0
14.0
7.3
Ground
corn,
%
11.0
12.5
23.0
16.5
Urea,
%
2.5
2.0
1.0
Biofos,
%
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
Trace
mineral
salt,
%
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
Vitamin,
IU/lb
1000.0
1000.0 1000.0
1000.0
1000.0
Crude
protein,
%
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0 10.0
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
63,
No.
9,
1980
J
ournal
of
D
ai
r
y
S
ci
ence
V
ol
.
63
,
N
o
.
9
,
1980
TABLE
7,
Regression
curve
body
weights
and
average
gain
for
heifers
receiving
sugarcane
bagasse
diets
(Experiment
3).
Heifers
Obser-
vations
Body
wt.
(kg)
at
day
(age):
Avg.
gain
(kg/day)
Body
wt.
(kg)
at
day
of
Experiment:
Avg.
gain
(kg/day)
Avg.
feed
intake
Treatmenta
(no.)
(no.)
300
400
500
600
300-600
days
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0-120
days
(kg/day)
Holstein
28
356
273
305
336
380
.36
271
282
287
295
301
310
323
.43
Jersey
12
156
189
218
243
268
.26
215
226
232
235
239
244
253
.32
Ration
1
10
128
227
254
284
342
.38
215
229
236
242
247
256
271
.47
6.89
2
10
129
229
281
339
396
.56
263
281
293
303
311 321
334
.59
7.80
3
10
67
250
245
229
220
—.10
239
251
244
244
.
. .
... ...
.10b
5.98
4
10
128
258 288
314
332
.25
294
304
310
313
315
319
326
.26
6.76
5
10
60
209
250
287
323
.38
..
.
...
... ...
263
265
276
.35b
7.11
a
Ration
numbers
are
described
in
Table
6.
b
Gain
and
feed
intake
for
60
or
40
day
periods
for
Rations
3
and
5,
A
V
UOI
71
.
00
00N
7
00
en
tr.
M
to
71-
,
rD
o
.n
(2.
0
.
.0
O
o
71
-
'0
*
en en
rel
re,
N
en
00
00
en
trt
en
en
en
rei
CN
:
71-
ON ON
N
en
oo
r•-•
o
cl
6
O
4
I-.
co
N
MN
N
m
rn
en
N
cr.
00
en
I-.
en
N
0
N
N
M
en
en
co
0\
oo
esi
O
N
N
M
m
N
ON
0
N
71
-
ON
M
7F
CO
Sc?
en
O
N
CO
CO
rn
N
ti
Nen71:
N N
0
\
en
en
en
en
`71
-
N
.
en
71
-
kn
N
0
,.
eft
en
en
en
.1-
en
,
C
e‘l
es1
*
03
00
N
Ul
N
M
ef,
en
'‘!
CO
N
‘0
O.N.-i
N
N
.Y1
r'n
CD
00
0,
CC;
N
N
,
0
00
S
N
N
N
N
N
N
CO
00
00
7h'
71
-
7F
N
N
00
00
CO
1-1
al
at
ect
N
C
.
61
0
ti
a
Ra
t
io
n
fo
rmu
las
in
Ta
b
le
8.
17
0
bis
00
oc
I
O
co
O
Bo
dy
w
t.
(
kg
)
a
t
day
o
f
exp
er
im
ent:
O
N
O
0
O
O
O
.0
0
ut
0
Bo
dy
w
t.
(
kg
)
a
t
day
o
f
ag
e:
O
71"
o
C
.
t
1
,1
.
0
5,
Trea
tm
en
t
TAB
L
E
9.
Reg
ress
io
n
cu
r
v
e
bo
dy
we
ig
hts,
av
erag
e
g
a
in
o
f
he
i
fers
rec
e
iv
ing
sug
arca
n
e
bag
ass
e
die
ts
(
Exp
er
im
en
t
4).
1472
VAN
HORN
ET
AL.
TABLE
8.
Ration
formulas
(Experiment
4).
Rations
(%
composition)
Ingredient
1
2
Sugarcane
bagasse
pellets
70.0
70.0
Ground
corn
17.1
7.1
Condensed
molasses
solublesa
....
10.0
Peanut
meal
10.4
10.4
Urea
.5
.5
Biofos
1.5
1.5
Salt,
trace
mineral
.5
.5
a
Avg
%
composition
(%
of
dry
matter):
52.6
dry
matter,
8.7
crude
protein,
32.6
ash,
11.6
potassi-
um,
2.06
calcium,
.16
phosphorus,
.84
sodium,
1.07
magnesium.
and
2.
Holstein
and
Jersey
curves
are
for
0
to
85
days
(average
of
rations
fed
in
Experiment
1)
and
for
rations
fed
in
two
experiments
by
Van
Horn
et
al.
(9),
80
to
180
days
(average
of
rations
from
Experiment
2)
and
300
to
650
days
(data
from
Experiments
3
and
4).
Rations
given
for
0
to
84
and
80
to
200
days
showed
growth
potential.
From
Experiment
3
only
the
73%
sugarcane
bagasse
ration
with
soybean
meal
as
the
only
protein
supplement
(Ration
2)
came
close
to
desired
performance.
Rations
from
Experiment
4
gave
performance
similar
to
Ration
2
from
Experiment
3.
If
550
to
600
kg
Holstein
heifers
are
desired
at
2
yr
of
age,
.06
to
.20
kg/day
more
gain
is
necessary
from
1
to
2
yr
of
age.
Rakes
(7)
reported
gains
of
.68
to
.77
kg
gain
per
day
with
rations
of
75.3%
ground
corn
480
Ropoki
to
10-5301;
,....
...
,
24
months
E.2
4
400
6.
3,
ROW.,
2
320
0
111
160
Exp
2
80
An
Von
Home,
(9I
40
Ave
Exp
0
80
160
240
320
400
480
560
640
720
AGE
(days)
Figure
1.
segmented
growth
curve
for
Holstein
heifers
fed
complete
rations
utilizing
by-product
feedstuffs.
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
63,
No.
9,
1980
OUR
INDUSTRY
TODAY
TABLE
10.
Feed
intake
summary
(Experiment
4).
1473
Cumulative
feed
intake
per
animal
(kg)
to
day
of
experiment:
Body
wt.
gain
(kg)
Treatment
0
20
40
60
80
0-80
days
Feed/gain
Holstein
0
142.9
307.5
485.4
668.8
46.8
14.3
Jersey
0
105.0
220.7
348.1
486.6
27.0
18.0
Ration
la
0
117.8
246.9
388.0
540.2
36.7
14.7
2
0
134.4
289.8
454.7
617.4
41.0
15.1
3
0
120.2
255.3
406.8
576.5
b
33.1
17.4
a
Rations
formulas
are
in
Table
8.
b
Of
this
total,
31.2
kg
was
CMS
from
lick
wheel,
545.3
kg
was
Ration
2.
cobs
and
78.5
or
82.5%
cottonseed
hulls
when
supplemented
with
soybean
meal
and
hydro-
lyzed
feather
meal.
Gains
of
1.0
kg
were
obtained
with
58.3%
corn
cobs
or
41.5%
cottonseed
hulls.
These
data
agreed
well
with
our
experiments.
Sugarcane
bagasse
must
be
limited
to
smaller
percents
of
diets
than cotton-
seed
hulls
or
ground
corn
cobs
to
achieve
similar
gains.
Effects
of
temperature
as
related
to
feed
intake
need
further
evaluation,
however,
to
see
if
differences
in
temperature
at
time
of
experiments,
differences
between
fiber
sources
in
their
effect
on
feed
intake,
or
a
combination
of
both
account
for
performance
differences
between
cottonseed
hulls
and
sugarcane
bagasse
rations
in
experiments
of
Rakes
(7)
and
Experi-
ments
3
and
4.
Our
data
add
to
previously
published
data
showing
that
many
by-product
feedstuffs
have
potential
for
extensive
use
in
heifer
rations
if
cost
and
availability
make
them
economical.
It
usually
is
thought
that
pastures
are
cheaper
sources
of
nutrients
than
these
types
of
rations,
but
this
is
not
always
true,
and
winter
seasons
often
favor
complete
rations
with
by-product
feedstuffs
over
other
types
of
stored
feed
such
as
silage
and
hay.
Even
on
pasture,
potential
for
desirable
gains
TABLE
11.
Growth
rate
of
Jersey
heifers
grazing
different
pastures.a
Avg.
initial
weight
Avg.
daily
gains
(kg)
White
clover
223
.65
Sweet
yellow
lupine
233
.58
Kenland
red
clover
261
.56
Southland
oats
250
.52
Camellia
oats
256
.51
Pearl
millet
225
.46
Pangola
(1952-53)
265
.24
Pangola
(1954)
227
.40
Coastal
bermuda
(1952-53)
266
.17
Coastal
bermuda
(1954)
269
.43
a
From
references
2,
3,
4,
and
5.
Journal
of
Dairy
Science
Vol.
63,
No.
9,
1980
1474
VAN
HORN
ET
AL.
400-
320
haiecad
la
360-400
a
24
man.*
larly
would
be
appropriate
if
pasture
supplies
as
well
as
quality
are
limiting.
Exp.
3,Fiation
:IS
240
CD
Ei
160
.—AveExp
80
Ave
Von
Horn
et
al
(91
Ave
Eap.l
0
80
160
240
320
400
480
560
640
720
AGE
(days)
Figure
2.
Segmented
growth
curve
for
Jersey
heifers
fed
complete
rations
utilizing
by-product
feedstuffs.
is
limited.
In
Florida,
legume
and
temporary
grasses
can
support
desired
growth
rates,
but
rates
on
permanent
pasture
grasses
alone
generally
are
subnormal.
In
studies
represented
in
Table
11,
all
pastures
were
well
fertilized
and
well
managed.
Pangola
and
coastal
bermuda
each
were
grazed
rotationally
with
two
plots
in
1952,
three
in
1953,
and
six
in
1954.
Growth
during
the
latter
year
represents
about
the
maximum
these
pastures
can
support.
Lower
gains
of
the
first
2
yr
are
more
representative
of
growth
most
dairymen
obtain,
and
concentrate
supplementation
is
needed
to
achieve
desired
rates
or
an
alternative
might
be
use
of
self-feeder
supplying
complete
rations.
The
latter
particu-
REFERENCES
1
Ammerman,
C.
B.,
P.
R.
Henry,
S.
G.
Potter,
and
H.
N.
Becker.
1979.
Condensed
molasses
solubles
for
finishing
cattle.
J.
Anim.
Sci.
49(Suppl.
1):48.
(Abstr.)
2
Marshall,
S.
P.
1957.
Value
of
oat
pasture
for
dairy
cattle.
Florida
Agric.
Exp.
Sta.
Bull.
584,
Gainesville.
3
Marshall,
S.
P.
1959.
Whiteclover-pangolagrass
and
white
clover-coastal
bermuda
grass
pastures
for
dairy
heifers.
Florida
Agric.
Exp.
Sta.
Bull.
613,
Gainesville.
4
Marshall,
S.
P.,
and
J.
M.
Myers.
1963.
Unirrigated
an
irrigated
alfalfa-oat-clover
pasture
for
dairy
cattle.
Florida
Agri
c.
Exp.
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