On the helminth parasites of rodents in the Eastern Delta. I. General survey


Saoud, M.F.; Ramadan, M.M.; Ashour, A.A.; Shahawy, A.A.

Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 16(1): 197-209

1986


The incidence of helminths in 876 rodents belonging to four species in Eastern Delta (Lower Egypt) is given. The infections with cestodes and nematodes have been encountered in all rodents, while trematodes have been recorded in all rodenlR except Acomys cahirinus. Acanthoccphala infections are found in Arvicanthis n. niloticus and Ra;ttus norvegicus. The incidence of helminth parasites is fairly similar in males :ind females of A. niloticits niloticus, while V.V. in both R. norvegicus and R.r. rattus, but the reverse is true in A. cahirinuR. The highest incidence of helminth infection is recorded in A. niloticits at Sharkia and the lowest is encountered in A. cahirinus. The incidence of cestode infections encountered during various seasons of the year are higher than each of nematodes, trematodes or ncanthocephala. A correation is made between thf' incidence of helminth parasites, the intensity of infection and the incidence of various helminthic genera in pure and mixed infections.

Journal
of
the
Egyptian
Society
of
Para3itology,
vol.
16
No.
1,
1986.
ON
TILE
HELMINTH
PARASITES
OF
RODENTS
IN
THE
EASTERN
DELTAS
I.
GENERAL
SURVEY
By
M.F.A.
SAOUD,
M.M.
RAMADAN*,
A.A.
ASHOUR
and'
A.A.E.
SHAHAWY**
Departments
of
Zoology
and
Biology*,
Faculties
of
Science
and
Education.,
University,
of
Ain
Shams,,
and
Department
of
Zoology**,
Faculty
of
Science,
Uniersity
of
Zagazig,
Egypt.
ABSTRACT
The
incidence
of
helminths
in
876
rodents
belonging
to
four
species
in
Eastern
Delta
(Lower
Egypt)
is
given.
The
infections
with
cestodes
and
nematodes
have
been
encountered
in
all
rodents,
while
trematodes
have
been
recorded
in
all
rodents
except
Acomys
cahirinus.
Acanthocephala
infections
are
found
in
Arvicanthis
n.
niloticus
and
Rattus
norvegicus.
The
incidence
of
helminth
parasites
is
fairly
similar
in
males
and
females
of
A.
niloticus
niloticus,
while
V.V.
in
both
R.
norvegicus
and
R.r.
rattus,
but
the
reverse
is
true
in
A.
cahirinus.
The
highest
incidence
of
helminth
infection
is
recorded
in
A.
niloticus
at
Sharkia
and
the
lowest
is
encountered
in
A.
cahirinus.
The
in-
cidence
of
cestode
infections
encountered
during
various
seasons
of
the
year
are
higher
than
each
of
nematodes,
trematodes
or
acanthocephala.
A
correation
is
made
between
the
incidence
of
helminth
parasites,
the
intensity
of
infection
and
the
incidence
of
various
helminthic
genera
in
pure
and
mixed
infections.
INTRODUCTION
Many
workers
have
carried
out
surveys,
recorded
and
des-
-
197
cribed
the
helminthes
of
rodents
especially
those
of
wild
rats
and
mice
everywhere
(Lewis,
1968,
Niphadkar,
1977
and
Rigby
and
Threlfall,
1981).
In
Egypt,
Mohan
(1958)
studied
the
hel-
minth
parasites
of
the
animals.
Fahmy
(1961)
listed
some
tre-
matodes
and
cestodes
of
Egyptian
rodents.
Fahmy
et
al.
(1969
a,b)
studied
the
heminthic
infections
of
Rattus
norvegicus
and
Mus
musculus.
Fahmy
et
al.
(1967)
reported
some
trema-
todes
and
cestodes
among
Egyptian
small
mammals.
Rifaat
et
al.
(1969
a,b)
studied
the
helminthic
infections
of
Rattus
rattus
and
Acomys
cahirinus.
Monib
(1980)
studied
the
helminth
parasites
in
some
small
mammals
at
Assiut
Governorate
in
Upper
Egypt.
Azzazy
(1981)
made
a
general
biological
study
on
parasites
of
the
wild
rats
in
Sharkia
Governorate
and
com-
mented
on
their
importance
to
public
health.
The
present
inves-
tigation
was
undertaken
to
fill
in
some
gapps
and
to
augment
the
knowledge
on
the
helminth
parasites
of
this
important
group
of
Egyptian
vertebrates.
MATERIAL
AND
METHODS
Altogether,
876
rodents
from
different
localities
in
Eastern
Delta,
(Fig.
1)
have
been
examined
for
helminth
parasites
dur-
D.1(
kNANI
AI,
SI
A
E
XAND
WESTERN
DE
SE
RT
Q
Arvtcanth)s
ni lot icus
n,
lot
)cus
R.t
t
us
nor
vegi
cos
IlAzittur
rat
t
u!,
rattul,
Acomy
5
(ahl
IJIWE
GNA
SUEZ;
0116e:
EASTERN
DESERT
SUE:
Gulf
198
THE
INCIDENCE
OF
HELM/NTH
PARASITES
IN
RODENTS
-
_
g
O
0.
Rodents
Total
parasites
H
0
O
F.
,
r
-
^
p
I,
O
GI
c")
c
-
••
0
0.
0
0
0
i-•••
P
0
0
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
Arvicanthis
niloticus
niloticus
498
179
35.9
11
2.21
142
28.5
47
9.44
2
0.40
Rattus
norvegicus
286
102
35.7
3
1.05
86
30.1
13
4.55
2
0.70
-
Rattus
rattus
rattus
54
18
33.3
1
1.85
15
27.8
5
9.26
0
Acomys
cahirinus
38
10
26.3
0
10
26.3
3
7.90
0
Total
876
309
.
I35.3
I
15
1.71
253
28.9
68
7.76
4
0.46
TABLE
(2)
C)
INCIDENCE
OF
NE_M/NTB
PARASITES
IN
MALE
AND
FEMALE
RODENTS
No
Examined
No.
Infected
Helminth
Fnrasi%es
cf
...
n
m
m
p
.....
m
"
Males
Females
TDemmtodes
Cestodee
Nematodes
Acsnthooephala
NO.
S
No.
%
Mnles
Females
;
I
Males
Females
Vales
.
Females
Pales
I
Females
No.
%
No
.
'
%
Nof%
No.
%
No?
%
No.
%
No.
%
No
%
Arvicanthis
nilotiews
niJoeicur
Rams
nozvegicms
Rettla
tattUS
rattus
Ammo
cahzrznus
307
169
3C
2L
191
117
2L
IL
105
55
0
8
34.2
32.5
3:
33.3
74
47
9
2
38.7
40.2
37.5
11..3
8
2
1
-
2.64
1.18
3.33
C
3
1
-
-
1.57
0.86
0
0
85
4
0
6
9
27.7
23.7
20
3
7
-5
57
L6
9
'
29.8
39.3
37.5
7
14
30
10
4
2
9.77
5.92
1
3.3
8.33
1
1
1
17
3
I
8.90
2.56
4.17
7.11
1
1
.
-
0.3
0.5
0
C
1
1
-
-
0.52
0.!..6
0
C
Total
530
3
4
6
177
33.4
132
38.2
11
2.08
I.
1.16
1
4C
26.L
113
32.7
46
8.68
22
6.36
2
0.35
2
C.58
_
ND
O
(i)
THE
INCIDENCE
OF
INFECTION
AND
DISTRIBUTION
OF
INFECTED
ronENTs
So.
Eza:ined
No.
Infected
0
.
-
....
,..
<
o
4
5
2
g
<
-
,t
.
C
23
,...
0
4
A
,3-
,
n
-
-
<
4
,
I
4
4
n n n ,
.-
<
r•
r
7
fit
-
r•
COVerGOrttet
M
.0
W
n
n ;
.
2
t!.
2
:
1
:
.
.
z
11
Z
V
.
2
.
"
.
. .
,
.
-
E
E
.
.
2
"
.
: :
,
No.l
1
No.
%
ho.
:
No.
$
No.
$
No.
I
No.
%
5o
1
Sharkiat
541
364
67.3
148
27.4
17
3.14
12
2.22
138
25.5
66
12.2
7
1.29
4
0.74
Ismai1la
1
95
54
27.7
94
48.2
25
12.8
22
11.3
19
9.74
27
13.9
7
3.59
5
2.56
Suez
56
32
57.1
13
23.2
7
12.5
4
7.14
9
16.1
1
1.79
L
7:14
1
1.79
Port
Sate
67
37
55.2
30
44.6
-
i0
1
4
.9
8
11.9
-
0
0
Dakanlia
17
11
64.7
1
5.5F
5
29.4
3
17.7
0
-
0
Total
876
498
58.9
256
32.7
54
6.16
le
4.34
179
20.4
102
11.6
t8
2.06
10
1.14
1-)
Mill
rodent
species
was
not
trapped
in
trs,
.rer.
TABLE
(4)
THE
INCIDENCE
OF
INFECTION
IN
MALE
AND
FEMALE
RODENTS
Governorates
No.
Examined
No.
Infected
Arvicant.tis
niloticus
Rateus
norvegicus
niloticus
Pattus
rstrus rattus
Acveys
caltirinus
Pales
Females
Males
Females
!Wes
Females
Yates
Females
Males
Females
No.
r
%
'Nc.
%
9o.
%
Nc.
%
NT.
%
NO
%
NO.
%
NO.
%
Sharkia
324
217
79
21
,
..
.5";
127.2
31
9.51
3:
t6.1
3
0.S3
4
1
-
6
'
3
0.93
1
0.
4
5
Ismaili,
115
go
1
1
9.`A
6
10
e,
,
15.7
9
11.3
4
3.
4
E1
3
3.75
4
3.
4
8
1.25
Suez
37
10
6
.6.2
3
15.8
1
2.70
-
0
2
5.41
2
1
0.5
1
2.70
-
?or
-
.
Said
L3
2.
e
,.
1
6
7
5
11.6
;
12
5
-
0
-
0
-
0
-
:Lka!Ilia
11
6
.
27.3
-
0
0
-
0
_
o
_
7sta1
',30
34.6
!
5
19.6
7:.
21.4
55
lo.4
1,.6
9
1.70
9
2.60
6
1.51
2
0.5t
TABLE
(5)
SEASONAL
INFECTION
RATES
OF
HELMINTH
PARASITES
Z-7
c_,
0
o
GI
Z.-
0
;
7.
4'
p
m
a
ho.
Infected
Arvicanthis
niloticus
niloticus
Rattus
norvegicus
Rattus
rattus
rattus
Acoz7gs
cahirinus
No.
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
I-195]
Winter
104
25
24
10
9.62
-
0
2
1.92
Spring
106
32
30.2
8
7.55
2
1.89
3
2.83
Summer
184
44
23.9
29
15.8
5
2.72
-
0
Autumn
108
26
24.1
12
11.1
1
0.93
II-1352
_.
Winter
55
13
23.6
7
12.7
-
0
0
.
Spring
240
28
11.7
30
12.5
6
2.50
2
0.83
=er
79
11
13.9
6
7.60
4
5.06
3
3.80
.
-
,
c
,
76
17)
20.4
-
.102
11.6
18
2.06
10
1.14
TABLE
(6)
INFECTIONRAMS
OFHELM/NTH
PARASITES
IN
i:1012F14-
F
m
m
0
rs
0
...
m
x
a
0
S
No.
Infected
Trematodes!
Cestodes
Nematodes
Acanthocephala
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
1-1981
Winter
104
1
0.96
32
30.8
10
9.62
1
0.96
Spring
106
5
4.72
32
30.2
8
7.55
2
1.89
Summer
184
7
3.80
49
26.6
15
8.15
-
0
Autumn
108
1
0.93
36
33.3
12
11.1
1
0.93
11-1982
Winter
55
1
1.82
15
27.3
9
16.4
-
0
Spring
240
-
0
69
28.8
9
3.75
-
0
Summer
79
-
0
20
25.3
5
6.33
-
0
Tot.:‘1
876
15.
1.71
253
28.9
68
7.76
4
0.46
k
.
17.11LE
17/
THE
INCIDENCE
OF
SPECIES
01'
PARASITIC
HELMINTHLS
IN
PODLNTS
4
Rodents
Total
Velistrith
Pa
ra
sit
es
hn
ne.
Common
t,lentific
t
ogliah
Examined
Mame
Infected
No.
%
ark,a.loshis
n1locicus
n'ioracus
bile
kusu,
f
l
49E
Crass
rat
I
1
11
9
1
1
2.21
1.61
0.20
0.20
Trematodes
Cchinochaaftus
sharkiensis
n.sp.
n
rcnIessems
call
a
way
ens
i
s
E
ar
k
tr
an
d
No
11
,1
9
1
5
PlagierchAs
ap.
142
1
2
4
t6
2
23.5
24.9
3,21
0.40
tested.,
Hymerolep..5
daranuta(Pude/pNI,1019)elanensrd,1891
Andry,
n...atomze,
Voge,
1946
mid.atIgara
raenlaetormis
("y51
bAlNC,
.
,
1
47
33
1
3
1
9.44
6.63
2.61
0,20.
Neti,,O:C3
.5
5
1,nacla
Obyriec.,
(h
u
lolphi.1819)Seurdt.1916
Aspiculuris
tecrepc4ra
Mittl..(11,1821
.
ProcospirurJ
mura701J
(
›dati3t,
1916
A
2
2
0.40
0.40
Acantheceala
MonAlifvrm,
moo
,
./Jrn.
,
,,(Eremser,1811)Travasses,1915
a.,cc
us
nen/epic-vs
Brown,Worva3
2
rat
1
2
1
d
1.05
0.70
0.35
Treoetodes
no
I
rxten:Is
o
.sp.
fchi
chav,s
.n
Anch
l
trema
r
e
v
yptiocu
s
1
,
,m,61,,
1915
el,
75
3
8
30.1
?L."
I
..)5
2.0n
Ce,to,les
Pvmenolo
v
A,
Jiwlouta
.•.j,,,,4,to
:,cf.1.,,..formla
ry,t
13
11
2
4.5,
3.85
0.70
Mair:atodes
Syphacla
obvelJra
Protospirora
murtcola
2
2
0.70
0.70
Acuttnocephnla
1
a
:
mil:fermis morlliformis
Rattus
rattus
rattus
Bl
a
ck,
House
.,
1
.,
1.65
rat
1
1.85
Tremotedes
tch,,,och,smys
that
-
kir/n:1s
n.sp.
15
14
27.8
25.9
1,115
C...itud.o
isvm,nolopts
elm.wur,
my,!ativerm
tovi.J...lon....:
ciut
5
4
1
9.26
7.61
1.85
Nr.stries
SyphaCia
marls
Tamaguti,
1935
Prorospirura
muricola
"Cc."
ea
kirinUll
Cairo
spiny
38
11•01.1tt
10
7
3
26.3
18•
4
7.90
Cestodes
Nyonersolepis
diednute
ilydatigera
reeniarformis
cyst
3
3
7.90
7.90
Nematode"
Sahacia
obvcJata
876
340
38.
8
-
205
-
TAKE
(hi
THE
INCIDENCE
AND
INTENSITY
OF
INFECTION
OF
HELMINTH
PARASITES
IN
VARIOUS
HOSTS
OF
RODENTS
Kelminth
Parasites
Hosts
Incidence
Infections
---1
1
..•...*...
6
6
1
o
R
,..
t.
n
...1
u
'
..".
Pr=mstode
genera
9e."inochasmus
Arvicanthis
n..niloticus
.
5.03%
57.
0.12
(1-27)
1
4
Rattus
noryegicus
1.96%
7
0.0
7
(1-6)
3.5
Rattus
r.
rattus"'
5.56%
1
0.06
(1)
1
rchlnostoma
Arvicanthis
P.ntioticus
0.56%
11
0.06
(111
11
Flagiorchis
Arvicanthis
n.
niloticus
0.56%
1
0.01
(1)
1
Anchitrema
Rattus
norvegicus
0.98%
1
0.01
(1)
1
Ccetode
genera:
Hymeno1epis
Arvicanthis
n,
niloticus
69.1%
613
3.43
(1-191
10
Rattus
norvegicus
73.5%
322
3.16
(1-61
3.5
Rattus
r.
rattus
77.8%
32
1.78
(1-i)
:
Acomys
cahirinus
70.0%
17
1.70
(1-3)
2
Andrya
Arvicanthis
n,
nifotidus
8.94%
51
0.29
(1-71
4
Rattus
norvegicus
2.94%
II
0.11
(1-71
4
Ujdatigera
Arvicanthis
n.
niloticus
1.12%
3
0.02
(1-21
L
.
;
Rattus
norvegicus
7.84%
13
0.13
(1-2)
1.5
RJCCUS
r.
rattus
5.56%
1
0.06
(11
1
Acomys
cahirinus
30.
0
%
3
0.30
(1)
I
-
_
rtc.atcdc
genera:
C!iphacia
Arvicanthis
n.
niloticus
18.4%
2810
15.7
(1-1891
73:
,
Rattus
norvegicus
10.19%
968
9.49
(1-1181
5.
)
.'-'
Rattus
r.
rattus
22.2%
44
2.44
!
(3-17)
1C.
Acomys
cahirinus
30.%
179
17.9
(5-96)
50.
5
.
kr:lcufuris
Arvicanthis
n.
niloticus
7.26%
252
1.41
(24-C71
5
5
Pr
otospirura
Arvicanthis
n,
niloticus
0.56%
3
0.017
(3)
3
Rattus
norvegicus
1.96%
11
0.11
(4-7)
f.',.j
s--.....
Rattus
r.
rattus
5.56%
2
0.11
(2)
..h0cephalan
tenv
3:
^T'
Attn..
1%?/%/ife.mis
Arvicanthis
n.
nilotteus
1.12%
113
0.63
(1-1121
Rattus
norvegicus
2.96%
2
0
.
02
(1)
1
'TABLE
(SI
1HE
INCIDENCE
AND
INTENSITY
OF
INFECTION
OF
HELMINTH
PARASITES
IN
VARIOUS
HOSTS
OF
RODENTS
Kelminth
Parasites
Hosts
Incidense
Infections
......
ii
m
a,
I.
6
.
A
4,
1
t
...1
N 0
.",.
41
7r=mstode
genera
t
(c2.:inochasmus
Arvicanthis
n..niloticus
.
5.035
.
57-
0.12
(1-27)
14
Rattus
noryoglcus
1.96%
7
0.0
7
(1-6)
Rattus
r.
rattur
.
5.56%
1
0.06
(1)
1
tch.fnostoma
Arvicanthis
0.ni1oticus
0.56%
11
0.06
(11)
11
Flagiorchis
Arvicanthis
n.
niloticus
0.56%
1
0.01
(1)
1
Anchitrema
Rattus
norvegicus
0.98%
1
0.01
(1)
1
Cestode
genera:
Hymenolepis
Arvicanthis
n.
niloticus
69.3%
613
3.43
(1-19)
10
Rattus
norvegicus
73.5%
322
3.16
(1-6)
3.
Rattus
r.
rattus
77.8%
32
1.78
(1-3)
.
Acomys
cahirinus
70.0%
17
1.70
(1-3)
2
.).::drya
Arvicanthis
n, nilotidus
8.94%
51
0.29
(1-7)
1
Rattus
norvegicus
2.94%
11
0.11
(1
-
7)
4
Ujdatigera
Arvicanthis
n. niloticus
1.12%
3
0.02
(1-2)
1.
Rattus
norvegicus
7.84%
13
0.13
(1-2)
1.
Rattus
I.
r4000s
5.56%
1
0.06
(1)
1
Acomys
cahirinus
30.
0
%
3
0.30
(1)
2
re%atede
genera:
Cvhacia
Arvicanthis
n. niloticus
18.4%
2810
15.7
(1-18(..)
73.
Rattus
norvegicus
10.8*
968
9.49
(1-118)
5).
Rattus
r.
rartus
22.2%
44
2.44
!
(3-17)
1c.
Acomys
cahirinus
30.%
179
17.9
(5-96)
50.
A
.
.7.
,
ickauris
Arvicanthis
n.
niloticus
7.26%
252
1.41
(24-23)
5'
P
zotospirura
Arvicanthis
n,
niloticus
0.56%
3
0.017
(3)
3
RaCtus
norvegicus
1.96%
11
0.11
(4-7)
5.
Rattus
r.
rattus
0
5.56%
2
0.11
(2)
Ace21*
.hocephe.lan
0'1'41
3:
P
alife.miS
Arvicanthis
n.
nlInticus
1.12%
113
0.63
(1-112)
Rattus
norvegicus
1.96%
2
0.02
(1)
1
1
H
5
5
J
ing
various
seasons
from
winter
of
1981
to
the
summer
of
1982.
The
rodents
were
identified
using
four
standard
references
by
Anderson
and
Winton's
(1902),
Abdou
(1961),
Abdou
and
Sam
--
man
(1962)
and
Waker
(1975).
The
rodents
examined
belong
to
four
different
species
(1)
Arvicanthis
niloticus
niloticus
Desmarest,
1822.
(2)
Rattus
norvegicu,s
Linnaeus
and
Erxleben,
1777.
(3)
Rattus
rattus
rattus
Linnaeus,
1758
and
(4)
Acomys
cahirinus
Geoffroy-
Hilaire,
1803.
Rodents
were
brought
alive
to
the
laboratory.
Notes
on
the
host,
its
sex,
date
of
collection,
locality,
and
other
relevant
information
were
recorded.
They
were
killed
with
chloreform,
dissected
and
the
alimentary
canal,
lungs,
liver,
kidneys,
heart
and
pancreas
were
examined
carefully
for
helminth
parasites.
These
were
fixed
in
cold
or
hot
70%
alcohol
after
relaxation,
10())
formalin
was
used
for
thick
parasites
and
Ristroph's
fixa-
tive
"Acetic-Formalin-Alcohol-Glycerine
:
A.F.A.G."
(Weesner,
1968)
for
acanthocephala
and
nematodes.
He11:ninths
were
stain-
ed
in
certain
carmine
stains
(Gurr,
1969),
Harris's
alum
haema-
-
toxylin
and
Malory's
triple
stains
(Weesner,
1968).
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
The
results
are
shown
in
tables
(1-8).
From
the
foregoing
results
it
is
clear
that
all
the
examined'
rodents
harboured
helminthic
parasites.
Some
of
them
are
trans-
missible
to
man.
Consequently,
rodents
are
iimportant
source
for
human
and
animal
infection.
REFERENCES
Abdou,
A.H.
(1961)
:
Commensal
and
wild
mammals
in
Egypt
and
their
ectoparasites.
J.
Arab.
Vet.
Med.
Assoc.
21:7-13.
Abdou,
A
H.
and
Sammaan,
M.
(1962)
:
Egyptian
rodents
and'
their
public
health
importance.
Ibid.
22:403-431.
207
Anderson,
J.
and
Winton,
W.E.
de.
(1902)
:
Zoology
of
Egypt,-
Mammalia.
Hugh
Rees
Publ.
London.
Azzazy,
O.M.E.
(1981)
:
Biological
studies
on
parasites
of
the
wild
rats
in
Sharkia
Governorate
and
i1
s
importance
to
public
health.
Ph.D.
Thesis.
Zagazig
University.
Fahmy,
M.A.M.
(1961)
:
Study
on
some
trematodes
and
ces-
todes
of
rodents.
Vet.
Med.
J.,
7:215-229.
Fahmy,
M.A.M.,
Mikhail,
J.W.
and
McConnell,
E.
(1967)
:
Studies
on
some
trematodes
and
cestodes
investigation
among
Egyptian
small
mammals.
J.
Vet.
Sci.
U.A.R.,.
4:143-152.
Fahmy,
M.A.M.,
Rifaat,
M.A.
and
Arafa,
M.S.
(1969a)
:
Hel-
minth
infection
of
the
brown
rat
RattuP
norvegicits
(Berkenhout,
1769)
in
U.A.R.
J.
Egypt.
Publ.
Hlth.
Assoc.
44:147-153.
Fahmy,
M.A.M.,
Rifaat,
M.A.
and
Arafa,
M.S.
(1969b)
:
Hel-
minth
infection
of
the
house
mouse
Mus
musculus
(Cretzeschmar,
1924)
in
U.A.R.
Ibid.
44:183-187.
Gurr,
G.T.
(1969)
:
Biological
staining
methods.
7th
ed.
London.
T.W.
Pegg
and
Sons
Ltd.
Lewis,
J.w.
(1968)
:
Studies
on
the
helminth
parasites
of
the
long-tailed
field
mouse,
Apodomzts
sylvaticus
sylvaticus
from
Wales.
J.
Zool.,
London,
154:287-312.
Mohan,
J.
(1958)
:
Helminth
parasites
of
Egypt.
Canad.
J.
Zool.,
36:577-605.
Monib,
M.E.M.
(1980)
:
Studies
on
helminth
parasites
in
some
small
mammals
in
Assiut
Governorate.
Ph.D.
Thesis,
Assiut
University.
Niphadkar,
S.M.
(1977)
:
Ecological
study
of
helminthes
of
three
species
of
rats
in
Bombay
in
relation
to
vetrinary
and
public
health.
1.
Incidence.
Ind.
Sco.
Parasit.,
pp.
45-46.
Rifaat,
M.A.,
Mandi.
A.H.
and
Arafa,
M.S.
(1969a
1
:
Helminthic
infection
of
the
Climbing
rat.
Rg
-
flit.s
,
rot
is
(Linnaeus,
1.7581
in
the
U.A.R.
J.
Egypt.
Publ.
Hith
Assoc.,
44:
119-125.
Rifaat,
M.A.,
Mandi,
A.H.
and
Arafa,
M.S.
(1969b)
:
Helminthic
infection
of
Cairo
spiny
mouse,
Acomys
coquirinits
(E.
'
Geoffroy)
St.
Haiaire,
1803
in
U.A.R.
Ibid.
44:177-182.
208
.Rigby,
M.D.
and
Thielfall,
W.
(1981)
:
Helmint,h
parasites
of
the
muskrat
Ondatra
zibethictis
(L.)
in
New
Found-
land.
Canad.
J.
Zool.,
59:2172-2176.
Walker,
E.P.
(1975)
:
Mammals
of
the
world.
The
Johns
Hopkins
Univ.
Press
Baltimore
and
London.
Weesner,
F.M.
(1968)
:
General
Zoological
microtechniques.
Scientific
Book
Agency,
Calcutta.
209