Increased yield in the olive with putrescine treatment


Rugini, E.; Mencuccini, M.

HortScience 20(1): 102-103

1985


Aqueous solutions of putrescine or putrescine dichloride were sprayed on flowers and fruits of the self-incompatible cultivars Leccino and Pendolino. Both diamine formulas increased fruit set and yield when applied to flowers before anthesis (Pendolino) and at full bloom (Leccino), but they slightly decreased fruit fresh weight. Putrescine dichloride was more effective than putrescine base, stimulating fruit set at 5 x 10-2M compared with 5 x 10-1M of putrescine base.

v1200-
1
1
8
0
-
e
160-
i-
140
to
IL
120
3
u.
100
or
1
1
0
;4220-
0
LSC057.
111
0
10
-
lo
-
10-1
M
Fig.
1.
Effects
of
putrescine
base
concentrations
applied
before
anthesis
on
'Pendolino'
fruit-set,
1982.
unction
entre
germination
physiologuique
(ou
activation)
et
germination
morphologuique
chez
1'olivier
(Olea
europaea
L.).
C.R.
Acad.
Sci.
Paris
t
284
(13
Juin
1977)
Serie
D-2235-
2237.
5.
Istambouli,
A.
and
P.
Neville.
1977.
Etude
de
la
"dormance"
des
semences
d'olivier
(Olea
europaea
L.).
Mise
en
evience
d'une
dormance
embryonnaire.
C.R.
Acad.
Sci.
Paris
t,
284
(24)
(27
Juin
1977)
Serie
DO-
2503-2506.
6.
Khan,
M.S.
and
I.
Khan.
1962.
Propagation
of
olives.
Agr.
Pakistan,
13:682-691.
[Hort.
Abst.
1964,
34(2):378].
7.
Lagarda,
A.
and
G.C.
Martin.
1983.
Influ-
ence
of
environment,
seed
tissue,
and
seed
maturity
on
Manzanillo
olive
seed
germi-
nation.
HortScience
18(6):868-869.
8.
LaLatta,
F.
1959.
Horticultural
seeds.
ening
of
seeds
of
tree
fruit
species.
Scm
elette
5(1):65-66.
9.
Loussert,
R.
and
G.
Brousse.
1978.
L'
vier.
Techniques
agricoles
et
produgi
mediterranean.
G.P.
Maisonneuve
el
rose.
15.
10.
Scaramuzzi,
F.
1957.
Studies
on
th
e
minating
power
of
olive
seeds
of
variou
s
Agr.
Ital.
56
[Hort.
Abst.
28(2):292-I
HORTSCIENCE
20(1):
102-103.
1985.
Increased
Yield
in
the
Olive
with
Putrescine
Treatment
Eddo
Ruginil
and
Massimo
Mencuccinil
C.N.R.
Centro
di
Studio
per
la
Olivicoltura,
Borgo
XX
Giugno,
Perugia
06100,
Italy
Additional
index
words.
Olea
europaea,
fruit-set
Abstract.
Aqueous
solutions
of
putrescine
and
putrescine
dichloride
were
sprayed
on
flowers
and
fruit
of
self-incompatible
olive
(Olea
europaea
L.)
`Leccino'
and
`Pendol-
ino'.
Both
diamine
formulas
increased
fruit-set
and
yield
when
applied
on
flowers
before
anthesis
(°Pendolino')
and
at
full
bloom
(`Leccino'),
but
they
slightly
decreased
fresh
fruit
weight.
Putrescine
dichloride
was
more effective
than
putrescine
base,
stim-
ulating
fruit-set
with
5
x
10
-2
M
solution
compared
to
5
x
10
-
I
M
to
1
n4
of
putrescine
base.
Low
productivity
in
the
olive
results
from
very
low
fruit-set
and
subsequent
fruit
ab-
scission.
Various
attempts
have
been
made
to
increase
fruit-set
and
decrease
fruit
ab-
scission
with
auxins
(6),
nitrogenous
prod-
ucts
(9)
and
GA
3
or
BA
(13)
but
with
rather
disappointing
results.
Field
use
of
growth
regulators
has
resulted
in
variable
response
because
of
environmental
variation
and
lack
of
knowledge
about
penetrating
capacity
and
the
physiological
mechanisms
regulating
ab-
scission.
It
is
known,
for
example,
that
ab-
scission
is
related
to
the
emission
of
ethylene
by
the
tissues
(1)
and
that
ethylene
has
the
same
precursor
as
the
polyamines,
S-Aden-
osylmethionine
(2).
Whereas
the
former
pro-
motes
senescence
(11),
the polyamine
retards
this
process
(7).
Furthermore,
polyamine
treatment
inhibits
ethylene
biosynthesis
in
apple
fruit
slices
and
protoplasts
(4).
It
is
uncertain
whether
the
polyamine
response
is
direct
or
indirect.
In
fact,
polyamines
inhibit
the
development
of
RNAase
and
protease
ac-
tivity
(3,
12),
increase
RNA
synthesis
and
cell
division
in
Helianthus
tuberosus
L.
(5)
and
induce
DNA
synthesis
(10).
On
the
basis
of
these
considerations,
we
tested
one
of
the
polyamines,
putrescine,
in
2
different
formulations
in
an
attempt
to
in-
crease
fruit-set
and
decrease
fruit
abscission.
In
1982,
treatments
were
applied
on
the
flowers
of
2
self-incompatible
cultivars
Received
for
publication
30
Dec.
1983.
The
cost
of
publishing
this
paper
was
defrayed
in
part
by
the
payment
of
page
charges.
Under
postal
regu-
lations,
this
paper
therefore
must
be
hereby
marked
advertisement
solely
to
indicate
this
fact.
'C.N.R.
Research
Scientist.
(Pendolino
and
Leccino)
and
on
the
fruit
of
the
`Leccino'.
An
aqueous
solution
of
pu-
trescine
(1,4
diaminobutane)
at
pH
12
and
putrescine
dichloride
(1,4
diaminobutane
di-
chloride)
(Merck)
at
pH
7
plus
0.01%
Tween
80,
as
wetting
agent,
was
sprayed
until
run-
off
at
concentrations
of
5
x
10
-4
to
1
M
on
flowers
and
on
fruit.
Tests
were
carried
out
on
uniform
12-year-
old
trees,
vase-trained
and
grown
in
a
non-
irrigated
orchard.
Ten
one-year-old
fruit
bearing
shoots,
uniform
in
vigour
and
av-
erage
number
of
inflorescences
'(about
60,
with
about
14
flowers
each
or
with
an
av-
erage
of
25
fruit
when
treatments
were
car-
ried
out
after
full
bloom),
were
labelled
for
each
concentration
of
each
putrescine
for-
mula
and
control.
The
10
shoots
were
dis-
tributed
on
5
trees
(2
per
tree).
A
total
number
of
20
trees
was
selected
for
the
experiments:
a)
five
trees
of
`Pendolino'
were
used
to
test
putrescine
base
applied
on
flowers
before
anthesis
(0.5
to
1%
of
open
flowers);
b)
five
trees
of
`Leccino'
to
test
both
putrescine
base
and
dichloride,
applying
them
on
flow-
ers
at
full
bloom;
c)
five
trees
of
`Leccino'
to
test
both
putrescine
formulas
applied
on
fruit
at
4
weeks
after
full
bloom
in
an
attempt
to
decrease
fruitlet-drop;
and
d)
five
trees
of
`Leccino'
to
test
both
putrescine
formulas
on
fruit
at
20
weeks
after
full
bloom,
when
the
epicarp
was
completely
black,
in
an
attempt
to
decrease
preharvest
drop.
Control
shoots,
just
as
in
the
other
treatments,
were
distrib-
uted
on
the
same
trees
and
sprayed
with
11
2
0
and
wetting
agent.
In
1983,
on
the
basis
of
the
results
of
the
previous
year,
treatments
were
repeated
only
on
`Leccino'
at
full
bloom
with
putrescine
base
(see
Fig.
2B
for
concentrations),
using
the
same
experimental
procedure
as
the
pre-
vious
year.
Furthermore,
since,
in
the
pre-
vious
year,
putrescine
base
was
found
to
cause
immediate
necrosis
of
the
stigma
and
styles,
NaOH
(3
x
10
-1
M)
solution
also
was
ap-
plied
to
cause
the
same
damage.
For
this
experiment
10
shoots,
distributed
among
the
5
trees
used
for
putrescine
base
and
control,
were
used.
Data
on
fruit-set
percentage
(per-
centage
of
the
fruit
set,
referred
to
the
num-
ber
of
inflorescences)
were
collected
3
weeks
after
treatments.
Then,
in
order
to
determine
relative
fruit
abscission
in
experiments
car-
ried
out
on
flowers
and
on
the
fruit
at
4
weeks
after
full
bloom,
the
fruit
still
remaining
at
10,
14,
and
18
weeks
were
counted.
Olives
were
harvested
at
18
weeks
after
full
bloom,
when
the
epicarp
was
almost
completely
black,
except
for
those
from
the
last
treat
I
-
A
LSO
5%
1
!"
..1-
"
....
1
11
01
"
1-
"
--..11
5,tio
,
Fig.
2.
Effect
of
putrescine
base
and
NaOH
CO'):
centrations
applied
at
full
bloom
on
`Leccino
fruit-set;
A
=
1982,
B
=
1983.
180
190
.2160
1120-
110-
C2NaOH
1
100-
90-
LSDS%
eo-
tr,
70-
g
so-
!
50-
40-
0
102
HORTSCIENCE,
VOL.
20(1),
FEBRUARY
1
a
I
1
LSD
O
540
-4
&KO
5x10
-2
M
Fig.
3.
Effect
of
putrescine
dichloride
concen-
trations
applied
at
full
bloom
on
`Leccino'
fruit-
set,
1982.
ment
(at
20
weeks
after
full
bloom)
which
were
harvested
4
weeks
after
treatment.
At
harvest,
detachment
force,
average
fresh
weight,
dry
weight
and
oil
percentage
were
determined
in
200
fruit.
The
data
were
ana-
lyzed
by
ANOVA.
Putrescine
base
at
the
highest
concentra-
tions
(10
1
to
1
M)
caused
immediate
necro-
sis
of
all
stigmas
and
styles
when
applied
at
full
bloom
on
`Leccino'.
At
these
high
con-
centrations,
however,
putrescine
base
in-
creased
fruit-set
about
2
times
on
`Pendolino'
at
10
-1
M
in
1982
(Fig.
1)
and
on
`Leccino'
at
1
m
in
1982,
and
from
5
X
10
-1
to
I
m
in
1983
(Fig.
2A,
2B).
Putrescine
dichloride
increased
fruit-set
on
`Leccino'
about
2
times
in
1982,
when
applied
at
full
bloom
at
the
highest
concentration
(5
x
10
-2
M)
(Fig.
3).
This
positive
effect
at
5
x
10
-2
M
contrasts
with
the
high
concentrations
of
putrescine
base
needed
for
an
equal
effect
(Fig.
1
and
2).
Our
results
are
contrary
to
the
indepen-
dent
work
of
Costa
and
Bagni
(8)
on
apple.
They
obtained
an
increase
in
fruit-set
with
9
O
LSD57.I
2.5
1.5
el
1.0
0
O
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
1
Fig.
4.
Effect
of
putrescine
base
concentrations
applied
at
full
bloom
on
`Leccino'
average
fruit
weight,
1982.
very
low
concentrations
of
putrescine
di-
chloride
(10
-6
and
10
-5
M).
Both
putrescine
base
and
putrescine
di-
chloride
slightly
reduced
average
fresh
fruit
weight
of
`Pendolino'
(1982)
and
`Leccino'
(1982
and
1983).
The
data
for
putrescine
base
treatment
on
`Leccino'
in
1982
are
shown
in
Figure
4.
This
decrease
in
fruit
size
is
not
surprising
as
these
cultivars
have
low
pro-
ductivity
potential,
and
even
a
slight
increase
in
fruit
number
results
in
a
decrease
in
fruit
3.
weight.
However,
the
decrease
in
our
ex-
periments
had
little
effect
on
yield
increase.
When
applied
either
before
anthesis
(`Pendolino')
or
at
full
bloom
(`Leccino'),
neither
formulation
affected
dry
weight,
de-
tachment
force,
or
oil
percentage.
None
of
these
parameters
was
affected
by
either
for-
mulation
when
applied
to
`Leccino'
at
4
weeks
or
20
weeks
after
full
bloom,
nor
was
there
5.
any
effect
on
fresh
weight
from
application
after
full
bloom.
Relative
fruit
abscission
was
not
modified
by
any
of
the
treatments
ap-
plied
to
flowers.
The
quantity
of
fruit
har-
vested
was
proportional
to
the
initial
fruit-
set
percentages
in
all
treatments
on
both
cul-
tivars.
In
spite
of
its
antiethylene
character-
istics
(4),
neither
purtrescine
formulation
was
effective
in
reducing
fruit
abscission
when
7.
sprayed
on
the
fruit.
This
lack
of
effective-
ness
is
in
agreement
with
the
results
of
pre-
vious
tests
on
olive
with
the
strong
antiethylene
substance,
AgNO
3
.
AgNO
3
was
able
only
to
delay
fruit
blackening
(Rugini,
unpublished
data).
Fruit
blackening
also
was
delayed
in
olives
treated
with
high
putrescine
concentrations,
but
we
feel
this
reflects
the
9.
high
number
of
fruit.
Heavy
fruit-set
is
known
to
delay
fruit
blackening
in
olive.
Apart
from
stigma
and
stylar
necrosis,
3
x
10
-1
m
NaOH
had
no
statistically
significant
effect,
either
on
fruit-set
(Fig.
2B)
or
on
other
parameters
measured.
Our
results
show
that
both
putrescine
for-
mulations,
when
applied
to
flowers,
can
in-
12.
crease
fruit-set
with
only
a
very
slight
decrease
in
fresh
fruit
weight.
We
feel
that
further
research
is
warranted,
because
putrescine
is
the
1st
product
that
seems
capable
of
in-
creasing
yield
in
the
olive.
Experiments
are
in
progress
to
determine
treatment
timing
for
maximum
effect
and
economic
use.
It
also
would
be
of
interest
to
try
L-arginine,
be-
cause
it
is
known
to
be
metabolized
imme-
diately
into
polyamines
(14).
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F.B.
1973.
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biosynthesis
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u
90
r,
80
70
«6
50
W
4
1
1
.
53
u.
0
1
2.
4.
6.
8.
10.
11.
13.
14.
HORTSC1ENCE,
VOL.
20(1),
FEBRUARY
1985
103