Studies on rodents and their zoonotic parasites, particularly leishmania, in Ismailiya Governorate, A.R. Egypt


Morsy, T.A.; Michael, S.A.; Bassili, W.R.; Saleh, M.S.

Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 12(2): 565-585

1982


Examination of serum from 300 rats (150 Rattus norvegicus and 150 R. rattus) trapped in Ismailiya Governorate, Egypt, revealed antibodies to Echinococcus in 8 (2.7%), Trichinella in 11 (3.7%), Toxoplasma in 36 (12%) and Leishmania in 50 (16.7%). Inspection of 980 R. norvegicus and 344 R. rattus showed skin indurations in 12 and 5, respectively. Only one induration contained Leishmania. 4 of 150 R. norvegicus had Leishmania in spleen smears.

Journal
of
the
Egyptian
Society
of
Parasitology,
Vol.
12,
No.
2,
1982
FSTUDIES
ON
RODENTS
AND
THEIR
ZOONOTIC
PARASITES,
PARTICULARLY
LEISIIMANIA,
IN
ISIUAILIYA
GOVERNORATE,
A.R.
EGYPT
I
By
TOSSON
A.
MORSY,
SAMIR
A.
MICHAEL*,
WAGDY
R.
BASSILI"
and
MOSTAFA
S.M.
SALEH"
Faculty
of
Medicine,
Ain
Shams
University,
Abbassia,
Cairo
;
Animal
Health
Research
Institute*,
Ministry
of
Agriculture,
Dokki
and
The
Military
Medical
Academy**,
Cairo,
Egypt
ABSTRACT
Rodents
were
trapped
alive
from
different
areas
in
Ismailiya
Governorate
(Suez
Canal
Zone),
Egypt.
They
were
identified
and
counted.
Ectoparasites,
mainly
fleas
of
the
genus
Xcnopsylla
spp.
were
carefully
collected,
identified
and
counted.
Blood
sam-
ples
were
taken
directly
from
the
heart
of
rodents
by
sterile
disposable
syringes.
Sera
were
separated,
inactivated
and
exa-
mined
for
antibodies
against
Echinococcosis,
Trichinosis,
Toxo-
plasmosis
and
Leishmaniasis.
The
work
was
based
on
indirect
haemagglutination
tests.
In
addition
to
examination
of
blood
films
and
impression
smears
taken
from
the
liver
and
spleen
as
well
as
careful
skin
inspection
for
any
induration
or
sore
for
Leishmania.
Diagnostic
titers
were
detected.
In
the
mean
time,
four
rodents
showed
Leishmania
bodies
in
spleenic
smears,
and
one
in
skin
smear.
*
The
abstract
of
this
paper
presented
in
the
Fifth
International
Congress
of
Parasitology,
7_14
August,
1982,
Toronto,
Canada.
*
Address
for
reprints
:
Tosson
A.
Morsy,
Prof.
of
Parasitology,
Faculty
of
Medicine,
Ain
Shams
University,
Abbassia,
Cairo,
Egypt.
565
Rodenticide
was
applied
on
large
scale.
Trials
were
done
to
collect
rodents
for
comparative
studies
on
rodent
density
and
flea
index
before
and
after
the
control
measures.
The
present
results
lay
stress
on
the
fact
that
rodents
con-
stitute
one
of
the
most
important
reservoir
hosts
of
human
parasites.
INTRODUCTION
Over
the
last
four
to
five
years,
one
has
observed
a
marked
increase
in
the
rodent
population
in
some
Egyptian
Governorates
(Morsy
et
al.,
1979,
80,
81
and
El
Nahal
et
al.,
1982).
This
pro-
blem
becomes
magnified
in
the
Suez
Canal
Zone
as
this
area
was
nearly
completely
vacant
during
the
years
of
Israeli-Arab
War
(1967-1973).
The
reconstruction
of
this
area
including
the
pre-
occupied
Sinai,
is
faced
by
the
problem
of
rodents.
Generally
speaking,
most
of
the
rodents'
species
are
hosts
of
many
serious
zoonotic
diseases
as
plague,
murine
typhus
fever,
trichinosis,
toxoplasmosis,
leishmaniasis,
hymenolepiasis,
rat
bite
fever,
rabies...
etc.
Besides,
rodents
biting
children
becomes
more
common
even
during
the
daytime.
In
addition
to
the
me-
dical
and
veterinary
importance,
they
destroy
large
amount
of
things,
contaminate
and
feed
on
food
stocks,
damage
buildings
and
sometimes,
cause
fire
losses
by
gnawing
the
insulation
of
electrical
connections.
The
aim
of
the
present
work
was
to
investigate
the
role
played
by
rodents
as
hosts
of
zoonotic
parasites
as
well
as
their
ectoparasitic
fauna
and
flea
index
in
Ismailiya
Governorate.
MATERIAL
AND
METHODS
Area
of
the
study
:
Ismailiya
Governorate
lies
on
the
west
hank
of
the
Suez
Canal,
halfway
between
Port
Said
and
Suez
Governorates.
Through
Ahmed
Hamdy
Tunnel,
it
is
the
stepping-
stone
between
the
Nile
Delta
and
Sinai.
The
city
of
Ismailiya,
the
capital
of
the
governorate,
is
some
135
Km.
from
Cairo
566
either
by
the
rural
or
the
desert
road
by
rail
about
2.30
hours.
The
city
is
considered
as
one
of
the
lovliest
cities
in
Egypt.
This
is
due
to
its
mild
sunny
weather,
attractive
natural
scenery
and
abundant
fruit.
Also,
its
shores
on
the
Lake
Temsah,
are
distinguished
for
their
white
sandy
beaches
and
calm
clear
waters.
Collection
of
rodents
:
Rodents
were
trapped
alive
from
eleven
different
areas
in
Ismailiya
Governorate.
In
each
time,
one
hundred
wire
box
traps
with
spring
door
were
used.
Clean
traps
were
set
up
in
the
evening
just
before
sunset
both
indoors
and
outdoors
and
collected
the
next
morning.
Every
trap
was
enclosed
in
separate
white
cloth
bag
to
avoid
exchange
of
ecto-
parasites.
The
collected
rodents
were
transported
on
the
same
day
by
car
to
the
research
laboratory.
Examination
of
rodents
:
The
dead
rodents
were
considered
only
for
rodent
density.
Live
rodents
were
anaesthetized
with
chloroform
or
ether
and
identified.
The
ectoparasites
were
care-
fully
collected
by
brushing
the
animal
with
a
stiff
hair
brush,
especially
around
the
head,
the
rump
and
the
tail
head.
The
ectoparasites
of
each
group
of
rodents
were
preserved
in
70
per
cent
ethyl
alcohol
in
separate
labelled
specimen
tubes.
The
inner
and
outer
ear
surfaces,
nose
and
the
back
of
the
head
of
all
rodents,
were
carefully
inspected
for
any
induration
or
sore.
Smears
in
duplicate
were
taken
by
puncture
of
the
indurated
edge
of
any
suspected
one
using
medi-point
blood
lancet
(Morsy
and
Shoura,
1975).
Blood
samples
were
taken
directly
from
the
heart
of
150
R.
norvegicus
and
150
R.
rattus
by
disposable
syringes
till
the
death
of
the
animal.
Rodents
were
then
dissected
and
impres-
sion
smears
were
prepared
in
duplicate
from
the
liver
and
spleen.
Dissection
of
the
intestine
was
undertaken.
The
contents
were
collected
in
saline
solution
and
sieved
for
the
recovery
of
any
worm
present,
which
were
collected
in
glycerine
alcohol
for
identification.
The
results
of
the
intestinal
parasites
will
be
published
later
on
elsewhere
by
Morsy
et
al.
For
the
identification
of
the
ectoparasites,
it
was
necessary
567
to
consult
other
taxonomic
works
as
Fox
(1940)
and
Hubbard
(1947)
for
fleas,
Hoogstraal
(1956)
for
ticks
and
Ewing
(1929)
and
Baker
et
al.
(1956)
for
mites.
All
blood
films
and
impression
smears
were
fixed
in
acetone
free
methyl
alcohol
and
stained
in
Giemsa
stain
(1:10).
Serological
examination
of
blood
:
The
collected
blood
sam-
ples
were
allowed
to
clot
naturally
at
room
temperature
for
1
to
2
hours.
Sera
were
then
separated
by
centrifugation
and
kept
in
labelled
specimen
tubes
at
—30°C.
till
examined
for
anti-
bodies
at
the
first
convenience.
Sera
were
inactivated
at
56°C.
for
30
minutes
before
serological
examinations.
For
antibodies
against
echinococcosis,
toxoplasmosis
and
leishmaniasiv,
the
Cellognost
reagents
for
the
haemagglutination
tests
for
these
diseases
of
Behring
Institute
(Behringwerke
AG.,
Marburg,
West
Germany)
were
used.
The
technique
adopted
was
essentially
the
microtitration
technique
described
by
Morsy
et
al.
(1979,
80,
81).
For
trichinosis
haemagglutination
test,
a
locally
prepared
reagent
(Michael
and
Morsy,
1980)
was
used.
The
technique
adopted
was
essentially
the
same
as
performed
before
by
Morsy
et
al.
(1979).
Diagnostic
significance
:
For
the
evaluation
of
the
results
of
Echinococcosis
IHA,
the
interpretations
of
Kagan
et
al.
(1959)
and
Kagan
(1968)
were
considered.
Significant
titers
are
ob-
tained
only
by
the
formation
of
complete
agglutination
at
a
serum
dilution
of
1:32
to
1:64
and
higher.
Titers
between
1:512
and
1:2048
are
considered
as
mean
serum
titers
in
patients
with
cystic
echinococcosis.
For
the
evaluation
of
the
results
of
Trichinosis
IHA,
the
interpretations
of
Plonka
et
al.
(1972)
and
Michael
and
Morsy
(1980)
were
considered.
Titer
of
1:32
is
considered
negative.
Titer
of
1:64
is
weak
positive.
Titers
between
1:256
and
1:1024
are
considered
as
mean
serum
them
in
cases
with
encysted
larvae.
568
For
the
evaluation
of
the
results
of
Toxoplasmosis
IHA,
the
interpretations
of
Titus
(1963)
and
Piekarski
(1966)
were
considered.
Positive
reactions
beginning
at
a
titer
of
1:64
have
diagnostic
significance.
They
indicate
either
an
old
infection
with
Toxoplasma
or
the
early
stage
of
an
infection.
For
the
evaluation
of
the
results
of
Leishmaniasis
IHA,
the
interpretations
of
Zuckerman
(1975)
and
Bray
(1980)
were
considered.
Serum
titers
of
1:64
and
above
give
a
clear
indica-
tion
of
L.
donovani
infection.
Mean
serum
titers
range
from
1:256
to
1:2048.
Lower
titers
of
1:32
to
1:64
can
only
be
cor-
rectly•
interpreted
in
connnection
with
the
result
of
a
second
serological
method
(wr
or
CFT).
Titers
lower
than
1:32
gener-
ally
eliminate
Kala-azar.
Time
of
the
work
:
Collections
of
rodents
were
carried
out
during
.
the
year
1981,
exactly
between
February
and
October.
Collections
were
done
before
and
after
application
of
rcdenti-
cides.
The
control
measures
were
carried
out
on
large
scale
all
over
the
Governorate
by
the
cooperation
of
the
Authorities
of
Public
Health
of
Ismailiya
Governorate
and
of
the
Ministry
of
Agriculture.
The
rodenticide
used
was
an
anticoagulant
which
is
effective
against
the
most
important
rodent
pests
including
R.
vorvegicus,
R.
rattus
and
M.
musculus.
RESULTS
The
collected
rodents
were
:
Rattus
norvegims
(980),
Rat-
tus
rattus
(344)
Mus
musculus
(50).
The
ectoparasites
collected
were
fleas,
biting
lice,
ticks
and
mites
(table
1).
Fleas
were
(1)
Xcnopsylla
chcopis
(Rothschild,
1903),
Rothschild
1909
;
(2)
Pulcx
irritans
Linnaeus,
1758
;
(3)
Ctenocephalides
felis
(Bouche,
1835j
and
Ctenopsyllus
segnis
(Schonherr,
1816),
Stewart,
1933.
Ticks
were
(1)
Rhipicephalus
sanguincus
group
(Latreille,
1806)
and
(2)
Hyalomma
excava-
tum
(=
H.
anatolicum)
Mites
were
(1)
Ornithonyssus
sp.
(im
-
mature
stage)
and
(2)
Allodermanyssus
sanguincus
(Hirst,
1914).
Biting
lice
were
Mallophaga.
569
The
results
are
shown
in
the
tables
(1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6
&
7).
Table
1
:
The
infestation
rate
of
ectoparasitos
on
1374
rodents.
Ectoparasites
Total
No.
No.
of
infested
rodents
Percentage
of
infested
rodents
Fleas
594
343
24.9
Biting
lice.
30
17
1.2
Ticks
80
55
4.0
Mites
43
18
1.3
Table
2:
The
average
rodent
density
and
flea
index
in
the
eleven
areas
of
collection
before
application
of
rodenticide.
Area
of
collection
pate
of
collection
Rodent
Flea
density
index
1.
El
Sheikh
Zayed
1
to
7
March,
1981
0.3
2.
Nefeshah
8
to
14
March,
1981
19%
0.5
3.
Abou
Atwah
15
to
20
March,
1981
17%
0.5
4.
Areisht
Ismailiya
1
to
10
April,
1981
14%
0.5
5.
El
Kantara
Gharb
3
to
7
May,
1981
17%
0.5
6.
Fayed
17
to
21
May,
1981
14%
0.5
7.
Hai
El
Afrang
4
to
9
July,
1981
11%
0.4
8.
Hai
El
Arab
11
to
16
July,
1981
14%
0.5
9.
El
Hekr
19
to
29
July,
1981
18%
0.4
10.
Mansheyt
El
Shohada
8
to
13
August,
1981
23%
0.3
11.
El
Tal
El
Kabeer
2
Feb.
to
7
June,
1981
28
%,
0.6
570
Table
3:
The
average
rodent
density
and
flea
index
in
the
eleven
areas
of
collection
after
application
of
rodenticide.
Area
of
collection
Date
of
cohection
Rodent
density
Flea
index
1.
El
Sheikh
Zayed
13
to
15
October,
1981
2
Nefeshah
19
to
22
September,
1981
3%
0
0.4
3.
Abou
Atwah
22
to
24
September,
1981
0.2
4.
Areisht
Ismailiya
8
to
11
September,
1981
3
0
/
0
0.4
.
5.
El
Kantara
Gharb
22
to
28
August,
1981
0.4
45.
Fayed
5
to
10
September,
1981
7.
Hai
El
Afrang
3
to
5
October,
1981
8.
Hai
El
Arab
19
to
22
September,
1981
9.
El
Hekr
26
to
1
October,
1981
2'%
0.3
10.
Mansheyt
El
Shohada
26/9
to
1
October,
1981
2%
0.2
11.
El
Tal
El
Kabeer
23
Aug
to
23
Sept.,
1981
16%
0.4
Table
4:
The
results
of
indirect
haemagglutination
tests
among
150
serum
samples
of
R.
norvegicus.
Parasite
Neg.
I.H.A.
Titers
Positive
1:32
1:64
1:128
1:256
1:512
1:1024
reaction
Echinococcosis
148
1.3%
Trichinosis
142
.
4
3
1
Toxoplasmosis
129
2
6
6
5
2
12.6%
I
eishmaniasis
118
10
10
4
4
4
21.3%
-
571
-
Table
5:
The
results
of
indirect
haemagglutination
tests
among
150
serum
samples
of
R.
rattus.
Parasite
Neg.
I.H.A.
Titers
Positive
1:32
1:64
1:128
1:256
1:512
1:1024
reaction
Echinococcosis
144
6
4.0%
Trichinosis
147
3
2.0%
Toxoplasmosis
135
6 6
3
10.0%
Leishmaniasis
132
3
6
6
3
12.0%
N.B.
:
The
serum
samples
of
the
six
R.
rattus
which
gave
Echinococcosis
IHA
titers
of
1:128
gave
also Toxoplasmosis
IHA
titers
at
1:128.
Table
6
:
The
results
of
indirect
haemagglutination
tests
among
300
serum
samples
(150
of
R.
norvegicus
and
150
of
R.
rattus)
examined.
Parasite
Neg.
I.H.A.
Titers
Positive•
1:32
1:64
1:128
1:256
1:512
1:1024
reaction
Echinococcosis
292
8
2.7%
Trichinosis
289
7
3
1
3.7%
Toxoplasmosis
264
2
6
12
11
5
11.3%
Leishmaniasis
250
13
16
10
7
4
16.7%
Table
7:
The
results
of
skin
inspection,
blood
films
and
impression
smears
of
liver
and
spleen
of
R.
norvegicus
and
R.
rattus
for
Lcishrnania
infection.
Organ
examined
R.
norvegicus
No.
examined
No.
positive
R.
rattus
No.
examined
No.
positive
Suspected
skin
induration
12
1
5
Blood
films
150
150
Liver
smears
150
150
Spleen
smears
150
4
150
—572—
:
a
total
of
980
R.
riorveglcus
and
344
It.
rattus
were
skin
inspected
for
induration
or
sore.
Only
12
of
the
former
species
and
five
of
the
latter
species
showed
suspected
skin
indurations.
The
results
of
their
exami-
nation
are
shown
in
the
above
mentioned
table
(7).
DISCUSSION
The
present
study
dealt
with
the
common
types
of
rodents.
(1)
Rattus
norvegiczts
(the
brown
or
Norway
rat)
is
a
burrow-
ing
rat
and
confines
its
activities
usually
to
the
lower
parts
of
buildings,
but
may
occur
in
the
vicinity
of
dumps
or
sources
of
food
supply
away
from
buildings.
It
nests
usually
in
burrows,
beneath
floors
or
concrete
slabs,
in
rubbish
piles
or
areas
adja-
cent
to
refuse
dumps.
It
is
of
world
wide
distribution.
(2)
Rattus
rattus
(the
black
rat)
is
a
climbing
rat
and
usually
occupies
the
upper
parts
of
buildings.
It
is
seldom
found
in
burrows
and
prefers
to
nest
in
attics,
trees
and
shrubbery.
Three
subspecies
belong
to
this
species
:
Rattus
r.
rattus
(the
ship
rat),
ROMs
.
r.
alexandrinus
(the
Alexandrina
or
roof
rat)
and
Rattus
r.
frugivorus
(the
frugivorus
rat).
They
are
closely
related
forms
with
generally
similar
habits
and
widely
distributed
throughout
the
warm
parts
of
the
world.
(3)
Mus
musculus
(the
house
mouse)
is
widely
distributed
in
and
around
human
habitations.
It
is
a
pest
by
damaging
and
contaminating
foodstuffs
and
by
nesting
in
clothing
and
goods.
In
.the
present
study,
four
groups
of
arthropod-ectoparasites
were
detected
on
the
collected
rodents,
namely
:
fleas,
biting
lice,
ticks
and
mites.
All
species
of
fleas
(Xenopsylla,
Pulex,
Ctenocephalides
and
Ctenopsyllus)
are
ectoparasites
of
warm
blooded
animals,
visit-
ing
their
hosts
for
blood
meals.
Each
flea
has
its
preferred
host
or
related
group
of
hosts.
However,
the
host-parasite
relation-
ship
by
its
true
meaning
is
not
absolute
and
flea
passes
from
one
host
to
another.
Most
rat
fleas
for
examples,
feed
on
several
-
kinds
of
animals
and
even
man
(Rumreich
and
Wynn,
1945).
No
doubt,
plague
and
murine
typhus
fever
are
the
most
impor-.
tant
rat-borne
diseases
transmitted
by
fleas.
Besides,
fleas
act
73
This
material
was
cooied
as
intermediate
hosts
for
hymenolepiasis
(the
common
cestode:
of
rodents)
and
also
cause
flea
dermatitis.
The
rat
louse
(Mallophaga
or
biting
lice),
although
common:
on
domestic
rats
and
transmit
rickettsiae
of
murine
typhus
from.
rat
to
rat
(Mooser
et
al.,
1931),
but
it
is
not
known
to
feed
on
,
man
(Soulsby,
1978).
On
the
other
and,
mice
and
rats
are
important
hosts
on
which
ticks
may
develop
on
large
numbers.
Endemic
relapsing
-
fever
is
one
of
the
most
important
rat-borne
diseases
trans-
mitted
to
man
by
ticks
(Dutton
and
Todd,
1905).
The
disease•
occurs
in
the
Middle
East,
Mediterranean
basin
and
the
New
-
World
(Peters
and
Gilles,
1977).
Parasitic
mites
of
mice
and
rats
may
remain
on
their
hosts-
after
feeding
while
others
leave
them
and
infest
their
nests,
crevices
and
other
surrounding
places.
Most
of
rat
mites
move
freely
from
one
host
to
another
and
some
species
readily
attack
-
man
as
sarcoptid
itch
mite.
Besides,
the
larval
stages
of
trom-.
hiculid
infested
rodents
transmit
scrub
typhus
fever
(Philip,
1949)
and
also
cause
severe
dermatitis
(Jones,
1950).
The
tro-
pical
rat
mite,
Lipoyssus
bacoti
transmits
endemic
typhus
fever
(Dove
and
Shelmire,
1931)
and
Allodcrmanyssus
sanguincus
is
-
the
vector
of
human
rickettsialpox
(Huebner
et
al.,
1946).
Regarding
rodent
density
and
flea
index
(table
2)
before•
control
measures
against
rodents,
the
highest
density
was
in
El
Tal
El
Kabeer
(28%),
followed
by
Mansheyt
El
Shohada
(23%)
and
the
lowest
was
in
El
Sheikh
Zayed
(8%).
On
the
ether
hand,
the
highest
flea
index
was
in
El
Tal
El
Kabeer
(0.6)
and
the
lowest
was
in
Mansheyt
El
Shohada
and
El
Sheikh
Zayed
(0.3
in
both).
After
application
of
rodenticide
(table
3),
the
highest
rodent
density
was
in
El
Tal
El
Kabeer
(16%)
and
the
lowest
was
in
Fayed
and
Hai
El
Arab
(1%
in
both).
The
highest
flea
index
was
in
El
Tal
El
Kabeer,
Nefeshah,
Areisht
Ismailiya
and
El
Kantara
Gharb
(0.4)
and
the
lowest
was
zero
in
each
of
El
Sheikh
Zayed,
Fayed,
Hai
El
Afrang
and
Hai
ET
Arab.
It
was
suspected
that
the
flea
index
would
remain
as
it
574
was,
if
not
increased
as
no
control
measure
was
carried
out.
against
flca-].
Gm
:rally
speaking,
the
overall
rodent
density
was.
16.6%
and
0.
-
:31
-
mc
,
c1
to
4.1%
after
application
of
the
rodenticide.
However,
if
one
excludes
El
Tal
El
Kabeer,
which
is
a
typical
rural
area, the
rodent
density
will
be
lower
than
that
mentioned
above.
Echinococcosis
is
a
cosmopolitan
disease.
Each
continent
has
its
own
major
and
minor
foci
of
human
and
animal
infec-
tion.
In
Egypt,
human
cases
have
been
reported
(Botros
et
al.,
1975).
On
the
other
hand,
the
incidence
of
infection
among
camels,
cattle
sheep
and
pigs
ranged
between
31%,
10%
and
1.3%
(Halawani,
1956)
and
7.95%,
0.27%,
and
4.46(!)
(Hamdy
et
al.,
1980)
respectively.
In
the
present
study,
2
out
of
150
R.
norvegicus
and
six
out
of
150
R.
rattus
showed
sero-
positive
reactions
at
dilution
of
1:128.
The
overall
sero-positive
reaction
was
eight
out
of
300
(2.7%).
The
six
serum
samples
of
R.
rattus
which
gave
sero-positive
reaction
with
Echinococ-
cosis
IHA,
also
gave
sero-positive
reaction
with
Toxoplasmosis
IHA
at
the
same
dilution
(1:128).
It
could
be
a
cross
reaction
between
both
antibodies.
Williams
and
Prezioso
(1971)
found
persons
with
Chaga's
disease
and
Taenia
saginata
to
be
sero-
logically
positive
for
echinococcosis
at
dilution
up
to
1:64.
Also,
Botros
et
al.
(1973)
observed
that
schistosomal
antibodies
reacted
with
echinococcal
antigen
in
IHA.
However,
in
the
pre-
sent
study,
another
two
echinococcal
sero-positive
samples
did
not
react
with
Toxoplasmosis
IHA.
Also,
12
toxoplasmosis
sera
at
dilutions
1:32
(2),
1:64
(6)
and
1:128
(4)
did
not
react
with
Echonococcosis
IHA.
So,
it
is
accepted
to
be
double
infection
rather
than
cross
reaction.
Trichinosis
is
also
another
cosmopolitan
disease.
Infection
in
man
commonly
results
from
eating
raw
or
inadequately
cook-
ed
pork
or
pork
products
(Peters
and
Gilles,
1977).
Pigs
usually
acquire
the
infection
by
eating
infected
rodents.
In
Egypt,
human
cases
have
been
reported
(Ostertag,
1922
and
Morcos
et
al.,•"
1978).
Also,
Tadros
and
Iskander
(1975),
Sedik
et
al.
(1975)
and
El
Nawawi
(1977)
using
the
trichinoscope
'technique'
proved'
the
presence
of
T.
spiralis
in
fresh
pork
samples,
and'Siam
et
al..
:---
575
--
(1979)
isolated
the
parasite.
Rashwan
(1979)
in
Alexandria,
using
muscle
examination
detected
infection
in
stray
dogs
and
rodents,
but
not
in
stray
cats.
Morsy
et
al.
(1981)
by
autopsies,
found
T.
spiralis
adults
in
two
out
of
57
stray
cats
collected
in
Cairo.
Also,
Morsy
et
al.
(1980)
in
Port
Said,
using
Trichinosis
'HA,
found
13.3%
of
R.
norvegicus
and
1.4%
of
R.
rattus
to
have
positive
reactions
at
dilutions
up
to
1:256
and
1:64
respec-
tively.
In
the
present
study,
eight
out
of
150
R.
norvegicus
and
three
out
of
150
R.
rattus
reacted
positively
at
dilutions
up
to
1:512
and
1:128
respectively.
The
overall
sero-positive
reaction
was
11
out
of
300
(3.7%).
Toxoplasmosis
has
a
world
wide
geographical
and
zoological
distribution
(WHO,
1969).
It
is
more
or
less
endemic
in
the
Middle
East
(Morsy
and
Michael,
1980).
In
Egypt,
human
cases
have
been
reported
from
allover
the
country
(Rifaat
et
al.,
1978).
Infection
have
been
also
reported
in
dogs
and
cats
(Rifaat
et
al.,
1970),
camels
(Michael
et
al.,
1977)
and
farm
animals
(Rifaat
et
al.,
1979).
Morsy
et
al.
(1981)
in
Port
Said,
using
Toxoplasmosis
IHA
found
an
incidence
of
30.76%
among
R.
norvegicus
at
dilution
up
to
1:1024.
El
Nahal
et
al.
(1982)
in
Giza,
using
IHA,
found
26.6%
of
R.
norvegicus
and
16.6%
of
R.
rattus
reacted
positively
at
dilutions
up
to
1:512
and
1:128
respectively.
In
the
present
study,
19
out
of
150
(12.6%)
R.
nor-
vegicus
and
15
out
of
150
(10%)
R.
rattus
reacted
positively
at
dilutions
up
to
1:512
in
both
species.
Epidemiological
evidence
suggests
that
predation
by
cats
(definitive
host)
on
infected
rodents
and
the
feeding
of
raw
meat
containing
the
cysts
to
cats
are
the
major
source
of
their
infection
(Dubey,
1973
and
Overdulve,
1978).
Man
and
other
animals
apart
from
congenital
infection,
are
infected
by
eating
the
cysts
in
not
well
cooked
meat
or
in
rare
instance
by
inges-
tion
of
oocysts
from
cats
faeces
(Garnham,
1982).
So,
the
pre-
sence
of
Toxoplasma
infection
in
rodents,
in
one
way
or
another
leads
to
more
prevalence
rate
of
human
and
animal
infection.
Leishmaniasis
is
essentially
a
zoonosis
associated
with
rodents
(Peters
and
Gilles,
1977).
They
are
transmitted
by
Phlcbotomus
sp.
which
spend
the
days
in
cool
deep
crevices
in
576
the
ground,
between
rocks,
in
caves,
house
walls...
etc.
The
i;220
-
2:12,
adapted
to
canines
and
man
in
whom
they
cause
three
main
clinical
types.
In
general,
there
is
a
primary
lesion
of
the
skin
(cutaneous
leishmaniasis)
or
which,
in
some
areas
of
the
world,
may
metastasize
to
the
lymph
glands,
other
areas
of
the
skin
and
the
mucocutaneous
junction
(mucocutaneous
leishmaniasis).
In
other
areas,
the
infection
metastasize
through-
out
the
reticulo-endothelial
system
of
the
body
(visceral
leish-
maniasis).
Cutaneous
or
dermal
leishmaniasis
occurs
in
scattered
foci
throughout
the
tropical
and
subtropical
belts.
Arid
or
even
semi-
desert
terrain
provides
ideal
habitats
for
the
reservoir
hosts
(rodents)
and
the
insect
vector
(sand
flies).
Generally
speak-
ing,
the
disease
in
endemic
in
nearly
all
the
Middle
East
coun-
tries
(Adler,
1964
and
Morsy,
1975).
In
Egypt,
human
cases
of
cutaneous
leishmaniasis
have
been
reported
by
several
authors
mainly
Panayotatou
(1923,
28),
Khalil
Bey
(1934,
35)
and
Hala-
wani
(1940)
and
recently
by
Soliman
and
Abo-Shady
(1981)
and
Morsy
et
al.
(1982).
Abo-Shady
(1982)
isolated
a
Leishmania
strain
from
one
of
her
patients.
On
the
other
hand,
Phillips
(1904)
examined
patients
with
splenomegaly
with
or
without
ascites
in
El
Kasr
El
Ainy
Hospital
of
Cairo,
found
32
per
cent
of
them
having
Leishmania
bodies
by
spleenic
puncture.
Re-
cently,
Tawfik
and
Awadallah
(1982)
in
Alexandria,
detected
a
case
of
infantile
visceral
leishmaniasis
as
indicated
by
sternal
puncture.
The
senior
author
also
examined
the
slide
of
this
case
which
was
kindly
handled
to
him
by
Prof.
Hassan
Abdel
.A
al,
Dean,
Al
Azhar
Faculty
of
Medicine.
Regarding
non
human
leishmaniasis,
Rifaat
et
al.
(1968)
did
not
find
natural
visceral
leishmaniasis
in
443
stray
dogs
and
324
rodents.
Their
work
was
based
on
formol
gel
test,
smear
examination
and
culture
of
spleens
and
livers.
Reen.ntiv,
Mor3y
et'
al.
(1981)
in
Port
Said.
using
Leishmaniasis
IHA,
found
9.5%
of
R.
norvcgicus
and
8.1%
of
R.
rattus
to
have
positive
reactions
at
dilutions
un
to
1:512
and
1:64
respectively.
Michael
et
al.
(1982)
in
Ismailiya,
using
the
same
serological
technique,
found
three
out
of
80
stray
eats
reacted
positively
at
dilution
of
1:1024.
El
Nahal
et
al.
(1982)
in
Giza,
using
Leishmaniasis
IHA,
found
15%
of
R.
norvegicus
serologically
positive
at
dilution
up
to
1:512.
Khalid
et
al.
'577
(1982)
in•Cairo,.using
L.
IHA,
fcund
four
out
of
43
stray
dogs
with
positive
reactions
at
dilution
up
to
1:512.
In
the
present
study,
32
out
of
150
(21.3%)
R.
norvegictu:
and
18
out
of
150
(12%)
R.
rattus
reacted
positively
at
dilutions
up
to
1:1024
and
1:512
respectively.
The
overall
sero-positive
reaction
was
50
out
of
300
(16.7%).
Skin
inspection
of
980
R.
norvcgicus
and
344
R.
rattus
showed
12
and
five
indurations
respectively.
Smear
examination
of
these
skin
indurations
show-
ed
Leishmania
bodies
in
few
numbers
in
only
one
case
of
P.
woruegicus
(table
7).
In
addition
four
out
of
150.
R.
norvcgicus
showed
Lcishmania
bodies
in
smears
of
impressed
spleen
mate-
rials.
However,
blood
films
and
smears
of
impressed
liver
ma-
terials
did
not
show
Leishmania
bodies.
The
low
prevalence
of
human
and
canine
cases
of
leish-
maniasis
and
the
presence
of
a
high
density
of
rodents,
suggest-
ed
that
both
visceral
and
cutaneous
leishmaniasis
are
principally
diseases
of
wild
mammals.
This
fact
was
observed
in
some
other
parts
of
the
world
by
Garnham
(1971),
Lainson
and
Shaw
(1971)
in
the
New
World,
Ashford
et
al.
(1977)
in
Libya,
Morsy
and
Shoura
(1976)
in
Saudi
Arabia,
Bettini
et
al.
(1980)
in
Italy
and
Morsy
et
al.
(1981)
in
Jordan.
Generally
speaking,
with
the
presence
of
reservoirs
(rodents
mainly),
insect
vector
and
sporadic
human
cases,
an
outbreak•
or
even
a
sudden
marked
increase
of
human
cases
of
leish-
maniasis
is
very
suspected
sooner
or
later.
That
was
the
case
in
Russia
(Hoare,
1955),
in
Israel
(Katzenellenbogen
and
Confino,
1964)
and
in
Saudi
Arabia,
in
both
of
Riyadh
(Morsy
and
Shoura,
1976)
and
Bisha
(Sebai
and
Morsy,
1976).
CONCLUSION
Rodents
as
rats
and
mice
in
their
long
association
with
man
and
animals
have
left
their
mark
on
the
pages
of
history.
They
have
followed
man
to
almost
all
inhibited
parts
of
the
world,
carrying
with
them
serious
human
and
animal
diseases
and
in
general
interfering
with
human
welfare.
As
the
authors
men-
tioned
before,
programmes
undertaken
to
control
any
pest,
must
.
578
take
into
consideration
the
associated
fauna,
so
as
not
to
upset
the
balance
of
nature.
Toxicants
employed
to
kill
rodents
may
provide
an
opportunity
for
competitors
to
replace
them
and
vis
verse.
There
must
be
complete
epidemiologic,
ecologic,
agricul-
tural
and
meterologic
data
to
carry
out
successful
control
mea-
sures.
People
must
understand
and
appreciate
the
attempt
to
help
the
Authorities
and
take
an
active
share
in
the
controlling
programmes.
One
must
always
remember
"WHEREVER
THEIR
IS
DIRT,
THERE
ARE
RODENTS".
It
is
concluded
that
rodents
and
Rattus
norvegicus
in
par-
ticular,
are
among
the
most
important
reservoirs
for
many
zoonotic
diseases,
especially
leishmaniasis.
Numerically
speak-
ing,
rodents
are
probably
responsible
for
more
diseases
of
man
than
any
other
type
of
animals.
Generally
speaking,
it
is
illogical
to
limit
epidemiological
studies
by
national
boundaries.
No
doubt,
high
speed
air
travel
has
resulted
in
the
spread
of
many
diseases
beyond
their
natural
geographical
boundaries.
For
example,
patients
may
arrive
in
Egypt
with
visceral
leishmaniasis
from
the
Sudan
and
so
on.
Even
infected
wild
mammals
or
insect
vectors
may
arrive
from
any
neighbouring
countries.
We
hope
that
the
extensive
work
we
are
doing
may
throw
more
light
on
the
epidemiology
of
rat-
borne
diseases.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The
authors
are
greatly
indebted
to
the
Public
Health
Au-
thorities
and
Veterinary
Medical
Authorities
of
Ismailiya
Gover-
norate.
They
are
particularly
grateful
to
Dr.
Sayed
Helal,
Direc-
tor,
Preventive
Medicine
Section
and
Dr.
Hassan
I.
Hassan,
El
Kantara
Public
Health
Centre
for
the
facilities
they
offered.
The
authors
also
thank
Mr.
Mohamed
El
Shazely
and
Mr.
Fathy
Shetawy,
the
lab.
assistants,
Faculty
of
Medicine,
Ain
Shams
University,
for
their
assistance
in
collection
of
rodents.
—579—
REFERENCES
Abo-Shady,
O.M.
(1982)
:
Personnal
communication.
Adler,
S.
(1964)
:
Leishmania
spp.
35-96.
In
B.
Dawes
(ed.)
Ad-
vances
in
Parasitology,
vol.
2.
Academic
Press,
London
and
N.Y.
Ashford,
R.W..
Schnur,
L.F.,
Chance,
M.L.,
Suman,
S.A.
and
Ahmed,
H.N.
(1977)
:
Cutaneous
leishmaniasis
in
the
Libyan
Arab
Republic,
preliminary
ecological
findings.
Ann.
Trop.
Med.
&
Parasit.,
71:
265-271.
Baker,
W.E.,
Evans,
T.M.,
Gould,
D.J.,
Hall,
W.B.
and
Keegan,
H.C.
(1956):
A
manual
of
the
mites
of
medical
er
eco-
nomic
importance.
New
York,
National
Pest.
Control
Association.
Bettini,
S.,
Pozio,
E.
and
Gradoni,
L.
(1980)
:
Leishmaniasis
in
Tuscany
(Italy)
:
II.
Trans.
Roy.
Soc.
Trop.
Med.
&
Hyg.,
74:
77-83.
Botros,
B.A.M.,
Moch,
R.W.
and
Barsoun,
I.S.
(1973)
:
Faino-
coecosis
in
Egypt.
Evaluation
of
the
IHA
and
latex
agglutination
tests
for
echinococcal
serologic
surveys.
J.
Trop.
Med.
&
Hyg.,
76:
243-247.
Botros,
B.A.M.,
Moch,
R.W.,
Barsoum,
I.S.,
Mahmoud,
A.H.,
Fahmi,
S.
and
El
Leil,
M.S.
(1975)
:
Echinococcosis
in
Egypt.
Serology
on
patients
with
chest
problem.
J.
Trop.
Med.
Hyg.,
78:231.
Bray,
R.S.
(1980)
:
Leishmaniasis.
In
Vaclav
Houba
(ea.)
Im-
munological
investigation
of
tropical
Parasitir_.
Diseases.
Churchill
Livingstone,
Edinb.,
Lond.
and
N.
York.
Dove,
W.E.
and
B.
Shelmire,
B.
(1931)
:
Tropical
rat
mites
Liponyssus
bacoti
Hirst,
vectors
of
endemic
typhus.
J.
Amer.
Med.
Ass.,
97:
1506-1510.
Dubey,
J.P.
(1973)
:
Feline
toxoplasmosis
and
coc..eicliosis.
J.
Amer.
Vet.
Med.
Ass.,
162:
873-877.
Dutton,
J.E.
and
Todd,
J.L.
(1905)
:
The
nature
of
human
tick
fever
in
the
Eastern
part
of
the
Congo
Free
State.
Liverpool
Sch.
Trop.
Med.
Mem.
No.
17:18.
El
Nahal,
H.S.,
Morsy,
T.A.,
Bassili,
W.R.,
El
Missiry,
A.G.
and
Saleh,
M.S.M.
(1982)
:
Antibodies
against
3
parasites
of
Medical
importance
in
Rattus
sp.
collected
in
Giza
G.,
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parasit.,
12.
287
-
293.
580
El
Nawawi,
F.A.
(1977)
:
Trichinella
spiralis
in
Egypt.
Proc.
7th
Intern.
Symp.
Wld.
Ass.
Vet.
Food
Hygienists
(W.A.
V.F.H.).
Ewing,
H.E.
(1929)
:
A
manual
of
external
parasites.
Spring-
field,
III.,
and
Baltimore,
Md.
Fox,
I.
(1940)
:
The
fleas
of
Eastern
United
States.
Iowa
State
Press.
Garnham,
P.C.C.
(1971)
:
Progress
in
Parastology.
London,
Athlone
Press.
Garnham,
P.C.C.
(1982)
:
Personnal
communication.
Halawani,
A.
(1940)
:
On
the
distribution
of
oriental
sore
in
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Med.
Ass.,
12:
1-7.
Halawani,
A.
(1956)
:
Hydatid
disease
in
Egypt.
Arch.
Intern.
Hydatid.,
15:
374-375.
Hamdy,
E.I.,
Mikhail,
E.G.,
Soliman,
A.A.
and
flamed,
H.H.
(1980)
:
A
study
on
hydatidosis
in
some
animals
in
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parasit.,
10:
43-51.
Hoare,
C.A.
(1955)
:
The
epidemiological
role
of
animal
reser-
voirs
in
human
leishmaniasis
and
trypanosomiasis.
Vet.
Rev.
&
Annot.,
1:
62-68.
Hoogstraal,
H.H.
(1956)
:
African
Ixodidae.
VI.
Ticks
r
f
the
Sudan.
Hubbard,
C.A.
(1947)
:
Fleas
of
Western
North
America.
Iowa
State
College
Press,
U.S.A.
Huebner,
R.J.,
Williams,
L.J.
and
Charles,
P.
(1946)
:
Rickettsial-
pox
A
newly
recognized
rickettsial
disease.
IV.
Isola-
.
tion
of
a
rickettsia
apparently
identical
with
the
causa-
tive
agent
from
Allodermanyssus
sangitine118,
a
rodent
mite.
Pub.
Illth
Rep.
61:
1677-1682.
Jones,
B.M.
(1950)
:
The
penetration
of
the
host
tissue
by
the
harvest
mite
Trombicula
autumnalis
Shaw.
Parasitol.,
40
:247-260.
Kagan,
I.G.
(1968)
:
A
review
of
serological
tests
for
the
diag-
nosis
of
hydatid
disease.
Bull.
Wld.
Hlth.
Org
.,
39:25-37:
.
Kagan,
I.G.,
Allain,
D.S.
and
Norman,
L.
(1959):
An
evaluation
of
the
haemagglutination
and
'flocculation
tests
in
the
diagnosis
of
Echinococcus
disease.
Amer.
J.
Trop.
Med.
&
Hyg.,
8:
51-55.
Katzenellenbogen,
I.
and
Confino,
R.
(1964)'.
Quoted
by'Gunders;
581
A.E.,
Naggan,
L.
and
Michaeli,
D.
(1972):
Trans.
Roy.
Soc.
Trop.
Med.
&
Hyg.,
66:
235-237.
Khalid,
M.L.M.,
Mors'
)
T.A.,
Sadek,
M.S.M.
an
1
Salama,
M.M.L.
(1982):
The
presence
of
antibodies
against
toxoplas-
mosis,
leishmanisis
and
amoebiasis
in
stray
clogs
in
Cairo,
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parasit.,
12
341
-
347.
Khalil
Bey,
M.
(1934):
Dermal
leishmaniasis.
A
study
of
an
en-
demic
focus
in
Egypt.
Arch.
Schiff-u.
Trol
,-
!nhyg.,
38:
417-433.
Khalil
Bey,
M.
(1935):
A
discussion
on
leislimaniasi,
,
,
in
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Med.
Ass.,
12:
203-206.
Lainson,
R.
and
Shaw,
J.J.
(1971):
Epidemiological
considera-
tions
of
the
leishmanias
with
particular
reference
to
the
New
World.
In
Ecology
and
Physiology
of
Para-
sites.
Fallis,
A.M.
(ed.),
University
of
Toronto
Press,
Canada.
Michael,
S.A.,
El
Refaii,
A.H.
and
Morsy,
T.A.
(1977):
The
in-
cidence
of
Toxoplasma
antibodies
among
camels
in
Egypt.
Ib;c1.,
7:
129-132.
Michael,
S.A.
and
Morsy,
T.A.
(1980)
:
Studies
on
Trichinosis
indirect
haemagglutination
tests
in
experimentally
in-
fected
albino
rats.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parasit.,
10%
247-253.
Michael,
S.A.,
Morsy,
T.A.,
Abou
El-Seoud,
S.F.
and
Saleh,
M.S.M.
(1982):
Leishmaniasis
antibodies
in
stray
cats
in
Ismailiya
Governorate,
Egypt.
Ibid.,
12:
283-286.
Mooser,
H.,
Castaneda,
M.R.
and
Zinsser,
H.
(1931)
:
The
:
,
-ans-
mission
of
the
virus
of
Mexican
typhus
from
rat
to
rat
by
Polyplax
spinulosa.
J.
Exper.
Med.,
54:
567-575.
Morcos,
W.M.,
Mikhail,
E.G.
and
Youssef,
M.M.
(1978)
:
The
first
diagnosed
case
of
trichinosis
in
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parasit.,
8:
121-129.
Morsy,
T.A.
(1975):
Oriental
sore
in
Riyadh,
Saudi
Arabia.
Cas-
tellania,
3:
155-157,
Acron
Verlag,
Berlin.
Morsy,
T.A.
and
Michael,
S.A.
(1980):
Toxoplasmosis
in
Jordan.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parasit.,
10:457-470.
Morsy,
T.A.
and
Shoura,
M.I.
(1975):
Natural
LC;k11.771(!ttiCi,
infec-
tion
sought
in
animals
in
El
Kharj,
Saudi
Arabia.
J.
Egypt.
Pub.
Hlth.
Ass.,
50:
328-331.
Morsy,
T.A.
and
Shoura,
M.I.
(1976):
Some
sisur-ts
of
cutaneous
582
leishmaniasis
in
Riyadh,
Saudi
Arabia.
J.
Trop.
Med.
&
Hyg.,
79:
137-139.
Morsy,
T.A.,
Michael,
S.A.
and
El
Khateeb,
M.
(1979):
The
pre-
valence
of
antibodies
of
some
paar-ptes
ill
students
of
Jordan
University,
Amman.
Ibid.,
9.
495-504.
Morsy,
T.A.,
Michael,
S.A.
and
Abou
S
F.
(1980)
:
Trichinosis
antibodies
sought
in
rodents
collected
at
Suez
Canal
Zone,
A.R.E.
Ibid.,
10:
250.265.
Morsy,
T.A.,
El
Disi,
A.M.
and
Amr,
Z.S.
(19'61)
:
Leishmania
iyifection
sought
in
rodents
caught
in
Jordan.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parssit.,
11:
5-14.
Morsy,
T.A.,
Michael,
S.A.
and
Abou
El-Seoud.
S.F.
(1981)
:
Leishmaniasis
in
rodents
caught
in
Suez
Canal
Zone,
Lgypt
Ibid.,
11:
241-252.
Morsy,
T.A.,
Sadek,
M.S.M.
and
Abdel
Hamid,
M.Y.
(1981
:
In-
testinal
parasites
of
stray
cats
in
Cairo,
Egypt.
Ibid.,
11:
331-345.
Morsy,
T.A.,
Michael,
S.A.
and
Musallam,
R.A.Z.
(1981)
:
Anti-
bodies
against
some
parasites
of
zoonotic
importance
in
rodents
caught
in
Port
Said
Governorate,
A.R.E.
Ibid.,
11:
147-156.
Morsy,
T.A.,
Musallam,
R.A.Z.,
El
Shabrawy,
M.N.
and
Hassan,
H.I.
(1982):
Parasitic
infections
in
Ismailiya
Gover-
norate,
Egypt.
Ibid.,
12:
209-216.
Ostertag,
R.
(1922)
:
Handbook
of
meat
inspection
3rd
ed.,
William
R.
Jenkins
Co.,
New
York.
Overdulve,
J.P.
(1978)
:
Excretion
of
Toxoplasma
gondii
by
non
immunized
and
immunized
cats,
its
role
in
the
epide-
miology
of
toxoplasmosis.
Proc.
Kon.
Nederl.
Akad.
Wetensch.
(Amsterdam),
Ser.
C.
81:
1-18.
Panayotatau,
A.
(1923):
Leishmaniose
Cutanee
ou
"Houton
d'Orient"
a
Alexandria,
Egypte.
Bull.
Mem.
de
la,
Soc.
Med.
des
HOpitaux
de
Paris.
Panayatatou,
A.
(1928):
Sur
un
cas
de
Leishmaniose
cutanee
ou
bouton
d'Orient
de
la
face.
Rev.
de
Med.
et
d'Hyg•
Trop.,
20:114.
Peters,
W.
and
Gilles,
H.M.
(1977)
A
colour
atlas
of
'Trapical
Medicine
and
Parasitology.
Wolfe
Medical
'Publications
Ltd.,
Lond.
583
Philip,
C.
(1949)
:
Scrub
typhus
or
Tsutsugamushi
disease.
Sci.
monthly,
69:
281-289.
Phillips,
L.
(1904)
:
Note
on
the
occurance
of
the
Leishman-
Donovan
parasite
in
Arabia
and
Egypt.
Brit.
Med.
J.,
2:
657-658.
Piekarski,
0.
(1966)
:
Toxoplaf.oriose,
Paraktische
Frangen
and
Ergrabnise
George,
m
Thelma
Verlag
Stuttgart,
West
Germany.
Plonka,
W.S.,
Gancarz,
Z.
and
Zawadbza,
B.
(1972)
:
A
rapid
screening
haemagglutination
test
in
the
diagnosis
of
human
trichinosis.
J.
Immunol.
Methods.
1:
309-312.
Rashwan,
A.A.
(1979)
:
Detection
of
Trichinella
spiralis
in
stray
and
domestic
dogs
and
cats,
rats,
mice
and
other
pos-
sible
hosts
in
Alexandria.
M.Sc.
thesis
submitted
to
High
Inst.
Pub.
Hlth.
Alex.
Univers.,
Egypt.
Rifaat,
M.A.,
Morsy,
T.A.
and
Hassan,
Z.A.
(1968)
:
Visceral
leishmaniasis
in
U.A.R.
Proc.
8th
Intern
Cong.
Trop.
Med
&
Malar.,
Teheran,
Iran.
Rifaat,
M.A.,
Morsy,
T.A.,
Salem,
S.A.
and
Sadek,
M.S.M.
(1970)
:
Serological
pattern
of
toxoplasmosis
in
stray
dogs
and
cats
collected
from
Cairo.
Pakis.
Med.
Rev.,
Karachi,
5:11-15.
Rifaat,
Mo
A.,
Morsy,
T.A.,
Sadek,
M.S.M.
and
Khaled,
M.L.H.
(1978)
:
A
review
on
toxoplasmosis
in
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parasit.,
8:
393-398.
Rifaat,
M.A.,
Morsy,
T.A.,
Sadek,
M.S.M.,
Azab,
M.E.,
Khalid,
M.L.M.
and
Safar,
E.H.
(1979)
:
Incidence
of
toxoplas-
mosis
among
farm
animals
in
North
Coastal
Zone
of
Egypt.
Ibid.,
9:193-197.
Rumreich,
A.S.
and
Wynn,
R.S.
(1945)
:
A
study
of
the
rodent
ectoparasite
population
of
Kacksonville,
Fla.
Pub.
Hlth.
Rep.
60:
885-905.
Sebai,
Z.A.
and
Morsy,
T.A.
(1976)
:
Cutaneous
leishmaniasis
in
Bisha
town,
Saudi
Arabia.
J.
Trop.
Med.
&
Hyg.,
79:
89-91.
Sedik,
M.F.,
Roushdy,
S.,
El
Sawah,
H.
and
Ezzat,
N.
(1975)
:
Trichinosis
in
Egypt.
Egypt.
Vet.
Med.
J.,
Cairo
Uni.,
22:
522.
--584—
Siam,
M.A.,
Michael,
S.A.
and
Ghoneim,
N.H.
(1979)
:
Studies
on
the
isolation
of
the
infective
stages
of
Trichinella
spiralis
and
Toxaplasma
gondii
from
fresh
and
pro-
cessed
pork
in
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Pub.
Hlth.
Ass.,
51.
Soliman,
M.M.
and
Abou-Shady,
O.M.
(1981)
:
Investigation
of
some
cases
of
oriental
sore
in
Egypt.
J.
Egypt.
Soc.
Parasit.,
11:
421-423.
Soulsby,
E.J.L.
(1978)
:
Helminths,
arthropods
and
protozoa
of
domesticated
animals
(sixth
ed.
of
Monnig's
Veterinary
Helminthology
&
Entomology).
The
Engl.
Lang.
Book
Soc.
&
Bailliere,
Tindall
&
Cassell
Ltd.
Tadros,
G.
and
Iskandr,
A.R.
(1975)
:
Trichinosis
among
swine
in
Egypt.
Bull.
Zool.
Soc.
Egypt.,
104:
100-108.
Tawfik,
Th.
and
Awadallah,
H.N.
(1982)
:
Personnal
communi-
cation.
Titus,
K.
(1963)
:
Vergleichende
serologische
inter
such
ungen
auf
toxoplasmose
antiborper.
Ingur.
Dissu.,
Bonn,
West
nary.
Ward,
R.D.
(1977)
:
New
World
leishmaniasis
:
review
of
the
epidemiological
changes
in
the
last
three
decades.
Proc.
XV.
Intern.
Congr.
Entom.,
Washington,
U.S.A.
Williams.
J.F.
and
Prezioso,
U.
(1971)
:
La
Prbu
de
haemagglu-
tination
indirecta
para
hidatidosis
empleando
cellulse
tratados
Conglutara-aldehido.
Rev.
Instit.
Med.
Trop.,
13:
333-335,
S.
Paulo.
World
Health
Organization
(1969)
:
Toxoplasmosis,
reports
of
WHO
meeting
of
investigators.
Wld
Hlth.
Org
.
tech.
Rep.
Ser.
No.
431,
Geneva
Zuckerman,
A.
(1975)
:
Parasitological
review.
Current
states
of
immunology
of
blood
and
tissue
protozoa
I.
Leishmania.
Exp.
Parasit.,
38:
370.
585