Quantification of activity during wheelchair basketball and rugby at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games: A pilot study


Sporner, M.L.; Grindle, G.G.; Kelleher, A.; Teodorski, E.E.; Cooper, R.; Cooper, R.A.

Prosthetics and Orthotics International 33(3): 210-217

2009


To date, no published data exists on distances and speeds traveled by rugby or basketball players during game play. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative information of selected characteristics of wheelchair basketball and rugby game play. A miniaturized data logger was used to collect the distance traveled, average velocity, activity time, and number of starts and stops during basketball and rugby games. Participants were recruited prior to wheelchair basketball and rugby tournaments during the 2007 and 2008 National Veterans Wheelchair Games. Inclusion criteria were age 18 years or older and been participating in wheelchair basketball or rugby. The wheelchair rugby athletes on average traveled 2364.78 +/- 956.35 meters at 1.33 +/- 0.25 m/sec with 242.61 +/- 80.31 stops and starts in 29.98 +/- 11.79 min of play per game. The wheelchair basketball athletes on average traveled 2679.52 +/- 1103.66 m at 1.48 +/- 0.13 m/sec with 239.78 +/- 60.61 stops and starts in 30.28 +/- 9.59 min of play per game. Previous research has not reported basketball or rugby game play variables such as these, making this data set unique. The information could be used by players and coaches to create training protocols to better prepare for game conditions.

Prosthetics
and
Orthotics
International
September
2009;
33(3):
210-217
informa
healthcare
Quantification
of
activity
during
wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
at
the
National
Veterans
Wheelchair
Games:
A
pilot
study
MICHELLE
L.
SPORNER,
GARRETT
G.
GRINDLE,
ANNMARIE
KELLEHER,
EMILY
E.
TEODORSKI,
ROSEMARIE
COOPER,
&
RORY
A.
COOPER
Human
Engineering
Research
Laboratories,
Department
of
Veterans
Affairs,
Pittsburgh,
and
Department
of
Rehabilitation
Science
and
Technology,
University
of
Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania,
USA
Abstract
To
date,
no
published
data
exists
on
distances
and
speeds
traveled
by
rugby
or
basketball
players
during
game
play.
The
purpose
of
this
study
was
to
provide
quantitative
information
of
selected
characteristics
of
wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
game
play.
A
miniaturized
data
logger
was
used
to
collect
the
distance
traveled,
average
velocity,
activity
time,
and
number
of
starts
and
stops
during
basketball
and
rugby
games.
Participants
were
recruited
prior
to
wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
tournaments
during
the
2007
and
2008
National
Veterans
Wheelchair
Games.
Inclusion
criteria
were
age
18
years
or
older
and
been
participating
in
wheelchair
basketball
or
rugby.
The
wheelchair
rugby
athletes
on
average
traveled
2364.78
±
956.35
meters
at
1.33
±
0.25
m/sec
with
242.61
±
80.31
stops
and
starts
in
29.98
±
11.79
min
of
play
per
game.
The
wheelchair
basketball
athletes
on
average
traveled
2679.52
±
1103.66
m
at
1.48
±
0.13
m/sec
with
239.78
±
60.61
stops
and
starts
in
30.28
±
9.59
min
of
play
per
game.
Previous
research
has
not
reported
basketball
or
rugby
game
play
variables
such
as
these,
making
this
data
set
unique.
The
information
could
be
used
by
players
and
coaches
to
create
training
protocols
to
better
prepare
for
game
conditions.
Keywords:
Wheelchairs
and
seating,
basketball,
rugby,
data
logging,
veterans
Background
Wheelchair
sporting
events
were
first
introduced
as
part
of
a
rehabilitation
program
for
individuals
following
spinal
cord
injury
during
the
Second
World
War
era'
and,
over
time,
have
increased
to
worldwide
competitive
events.
Competitions
such
as
the
National
Veterans
Wheelchair
Games
(NVWG)
and
the
Paralympics
are
the
largest
sporting
events
for
individuals
with
disabilities,
and
wheelchair
basketball
and
wheelchair
rugby
are
two
of
the
more
popular
competitive
team
sports.
In
the
United
States,
wheelchair
basketball
is
directed
by
the
National
Wheelchair
Basketball
Association
and
athletic
classification
is
Correspondence:
Dr
Rory
A.
Cooper,
Human
Engineering
Research
Laboratories,
Department
of
Veterans
Affairs,
Pittsburgh,
USA.
E-mail:
Rcooper@Pitt.Edu
ISSN
0309-3646
print/ISSN
1746-1553
online
©
2009
ISPO
1301:
10.1080/03093640903051816
Special
Sports
Edition
Wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
211
broken
into
three
groups
(I,
II,
III)
depending
upon
spinal
cord
injury
level
and
functional
ability.
Amputees
are
classified
into
Class
III.
Wheelchair
basketball
rules
follow
National
Collegiate
Athletic
Association
rules
for
basketball,
but
are
modified
as
appropriate
for
the
use
of
wheelchairs.
The
maximum
point
value
allowed
on
the
court
per
team
is
12
points.
2
Wheelchair
rugby
is
overseen
by
the
US
Quad
Rugby
Association
and
like
basketball,
wheelchair
rugby
participants
are
classified
into
one
of
seven
player
classifications
from
0.5
to
3.5,
depending
upon
functional
ability.
Participation
in
wheelchair
rugby
requires
athletes
have
some
functional
limitations
in
all
four
limbs. The
maximum
number
of
points
allowed
on
the
court
per
team
is
8.0.
3
In
both
sports,
a
higher
classification
value
reflects
higher
levels
of
functional
ability.
Technology
advances
and
increased
opportunities
have
had
a
positive
impact
on
the
participation
of
individuals
with
disabilities
in
adaptive
sports.
Participating
in
wheelchair
sports,
such
as
wheelchair
rugby
and
basketball,
has
numerous
benefits
for
individuals
with
disabilities
and
to
date,
several
research
studies
have
been
conducted
finding
multiple
benefits
from
exercise
and
participating
in
sporting
events:
4-8
Increased
physical
activity
can
lead
to
a
reduced
risk
of
cardiovascular
disease
in
individuals
with
spinal
cord
injury
(SCI)
4
and
studies
report
that
individuals
with
SCI
who
participated
in
physical
activity
had
a
higher
satisfaction
with
life
and
greater
health
related
quality
of
life
in
general
than
persons
who
did
not
participate.
8
.
8
While
the
benefits
of
exercise
are
well documented,
research
has
also
shown
persons
with
disabilities
are
less
likely
to
engage
in
regular
moderate
physical
activity
than
individuals
without
disabilities.
In
order
to
maintain
a
healthy
lifestyle,
the
Center
for
Disease
Control
and
Prevention
(CDC)
recommended
that
individuals
with
disabilities
complete
a
moderately
intense
activity,
such
as
pushing
ones
wheelchair,
for
30-40
min
or
a
strenuous
activity,
such
as
wheelchair
basketball,
for
roughly
20
minutes
most
days.'
Studies
have
been
conducted
to
measure
the
performance
of
wheelchair
athletes;
however,
to
date
no
studies
have
been
conducted
specifically
with
actual
wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
game
play.
There
have
been
few
studies
specific
to
wheelchair
rugby
athletes."
Goosey-Tolfrey
et
al.
found
the
peak
power
output,
peak
V02,
peak
heart
rate,
and
maximal
power
output
of
well
trained
wheelchair
rugby
athletes
during
arm
ergometer
tests
and
concluded
that
they
had
high
levels
of
aerobic
fitness.
8
Abel
et
al.
used
metabolic
testing
to
determine
the
energy
expenditure
of
wheelchair
basketball,
tennis,
and
rugby
players
during
practice
sessions.
9
Several
studies
have
focused
on
the
physiological
responses
of
wheelchair
basketball
athletes
but
these
are
limited
to
game-related
data
and
are
qualitative
in
nature.
For
example,
Nyland
et
al.
studied
shoulder
rotator
torque
of
individuals
who
participated
at
a
National
Wheelchair
Basketball
Tournament
and
found
class
I
players
had
asymmetric
shoulder
torque
with
respect
to
dominant/non-dominant
shoulder,
while
class
II
and
III
player
were
symmetrica1.
10
Vanlandewijck
et
al.
videotaped
wheelchair
basketball
games
and
analyzed
female
athletic
performance
in
the
quality
of
game
performance
using
the
Comprehensive
Basketball
Grading
System."
Coutts
evaluated
short
periods
of
a
wheelchair
basketball
game
and
simulated
game
activities
to
determine
factors
including
maximum
speed,
acceleration,
and
force
of
two
basketball
athletes
for
6
min
each.
However,
this
study's
conclusions
are
limited
due
to
small
sample
size,
limited
data
collection
time,
and
the
subjects
were
not
using
their
wheelchair.
12
No
published
data
currently
exists
on
distances
and
speeds
traveled
by
rugby
or
basketball
players
during
game
play.
A
miniaturized
data
logger
(MDL)
13
for
collecting
manual
wheelchair
activity
has
been
successfully
used
in
several
community-based
studies.
Fitzgerald
et
al.
utilized
a
MDL
to
compare
activity
with
push-rim
activated
power
assist
wheelchairs
to
manual
wheelchairs;
14
Cooper
et
al.
used
it
to
track
activity
in
children
who
used
manual
wheelchairs;
15
and
212
Special
Sports
Edition
M.
Sporner
et
al.
Tolerico
et
al.
used
it
to
quantify
manual
wheelchair
utilization
among
veterans.
16
The
purpose
of
this
descriptive
study
was
to
provide
quantitative
information
about
some
of
the
characteristics
of
wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
game
play.
The
MDL
was
used
to
collect
the
distance
traveled,
average
velocity,
activity
time,
and
number
of
starts
and
stops
during
rugby
and
basketball
games.
Methodology
Participants
were
recruited
prior
to
the
wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
tournaments
during
the
2007
and
2008
NVWG
in
Milwaukee,
WI,
and
Omaha,
NE,
respectively.
The
NVWG
is
the
world's
largest
annual
wheelchair
sporting
event
and
has
been
expanded
to
include
multiple
amputee
events.
Individuals
recruited
in
2008
were
unique
from
the
athletes
in
2007.
To
be
eligible
for
the
study,
the
participants
had
to
be
18
years
of
age
or
older
and
must
be
participating
in
wheelchair
basketball
or
rugby.
All
athletes
were
military
veterans.
Those
athletes
who
expressed
interest
to
researchers
and
met
inclusion
criteria
were
invited
to
participate
in
this
research
study.
After
providing
informed
consent,
each
participant
completed
a
brief
survey
which
contained
questions
regarding
their
demographic
information
(age,
disability,
and
years
since
injury
or
diagnosis)
and
information
specific
to
their
wheelchair
basketball
or
rugby
participation
(classification,
type
of
wheelchair,
participation
in
organized
wheelchair
basketball
or
rugby
outside
of
the
NVWG
and
training
habits).
Prior
to
protocol
initiation,
this
study
was
approved
by
the
VA
Pittsburgh
Healthcare
System
Institutional
Review
Board.
Instrumentation
Prior
to
the
start
of
the
basketball
and
rugby
games,
a
MDL
was
installed
on
a
wheel
of
each
athlete's
sports
wheelchair
to
record
time
stamped
wheel
rotation
data
during
the
tournament.
The
MDL
was
attached
to
the
spokes
of
the
wheelchair
in
a
location
that
would
not
interfere
with
propulsion
and
game
activity.
Following
the
participant's
exit
from
the
tournament,
the
MDL
was
removed
and
the
data
were
downloaded
for
analysis.
The
computation
of
the
game
play
variables
were
calculated
using
MATLAB
2007b
(The
MathWorks
Inc.
Natick,
MA).
Since
the
number
of
games
recorded
for
each
participant
varied
according
to
how
far
they
progressed
in
the
tournament,
the
first
two
recorded
games
were
selected
for
investigation.
For
the
purpose
of
this
analysis
activity
time
was
defined
as
the
sum
of
time
the
wheelchair
was
in
motion
and
a
stop
and
start
was
defined
as
2
sec
or
more
with
no
wheelchair
motion.
The
average
speed
was calculated
by
dividing
the
total
distance
by
the
activity
time.
All
data
in
this
manuscript
are
presented
on
a
per
game
basis.
Data
analysis
Demographic
data
were
described
using
frequencies
and
percentages
for
categorical
variables
(e.g.,
disability,
gender,
and
race)
and
means
and
standard
deviations
for
continuous
variables
(e.g.,
age
and
years
since
diagnosis
or
injury).
Since
this
is
a
pilot
study,
descriptive
statistics
were
run
to
describe
activity
levels
during
wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
games.
To
provide
additional
descriptions
of
this
data
set,
the
athletes
data
collected
from
the
MDL
were
subdivided
into
different
age
and
weight
ranges.
Based
on
visual inspection
of
the
data,
age
ranges
and
weight
categories
were
set
to
optimize
the
distribution
of
the
basketball
and
rugby
athletes.
SPSSv15.0
was
used
for
all
analyses
(SPSS
Inc.
Chicago,
IL,
USA).
Special
Sports
Edition
Wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
213
Results
Basketball
Data
were
available
for
20
individuals
who
participated
in
wheelchair
basketball
at
the
2007
and
2008
NVWG.
The
mean
age
of
participants
in
this
study
was
38.75
±
10.92
years
and
time
since
injury
or
onset
of
disability
was
11.15
±
8.47
years.
Disability
and
demographic
characteristics
are
presented
in
Table
I.
With
respect
to
wheelchair
basketball
character-
istics,
three
of
the
participants
were
Class
I,
eight
were
Class
II,
and
nine
were
Class
III.
Twelve
athletes
participated
in
organized
wheelchair
basketball
outside
of
the
NVWG
with
a
mean
training
time
of
8.17
±
6.82
h
per
week.
Table
II
provides
the
means
for
distance
travel,
the
average
speed,
the
number
of
stops
and
starts,
and
the
activity
time
grouped
by
player
classification.
As
a
single
group,
the
wheelchair
basketball
athletes
traveled
on
average
2679.52
±
1103.66
m
at
1.48
±
0.13
m/
sec
with
239.78
±
60.61
stops
and
starts
in
30.28
±
9.59
min
of
motion
per
game.
Tables
V,
VII,
and
IX
are
alternative
summaries
of
the
data
with
the
participants
being
grouped
by
age,
weight,
and
geographical
residence,
respectively.
The
age
groups
for
the
basketball
athletes
were
set
at
32
years
and
younger,
33-42
years,
and
43
years
and
older.
The
weight
groups
were
set
at
185
lbs
and
less
and
greater
than
185
lbs.
Rugby
Data
were
available
for
18
individuals
who
participated
in
wheelchair
rugby
at
the
2007
and
2008
NVWG.
The
participants
had
a
mean
age
of
41.00
±
10.33
years
and
a
mean
of
Table
I.
Demographic
data
for
all
basketball
and
rugby
athletes*.
Measure
Basketball
(n
=
20)
Rugby
(n
=
18)
Age
38.75
(10.92)
41.00
(10.33)
Years
post
injury
of
onset
of
disability
11.15
(8.47)
13.26
(9.27)
Disability
Cervical
SCI
1
(5.0)
14
(77.8)
Thoracic
SCI
6
(30.0)
1
(5.6)
Lumbar
SCI
6
(30.0)
0
(0.0)
Amputation
5
(25.0)
1
(5.6)
Arthritis
1
(5.0)
0
(0.0)
Multiple
sclerosis
0
(0.0)
1
(5.6)
Other
1
(5.0)
1
(5.6)
Ethnic
African
American
8
(40.0)
3
(16.7)
Caucasian
8
(40.0)
14
(77.8)
Hispanic
3
(15.0)
0
(0.0)
Other
1
(5.0)
1
(5.6)
n
(%)
Male
19
(95.0)
17
(94.4)
Residence
Rural
5
(25.0)
5
(27.8)
Urban
8
(40.0)
5
(27.8)
Suburban
7
(35.0)
7
(38.9)
Organized
basketball
or
rugby
12
(60.0)
1
9
(50.0)
Training
time
2
8.2
(6.8)
5.3
(2.9)
*All
numbers
displayed
as
mean
(standard
deviation)
or
n
(%);
'Missing
1
basketball
athlete
response;
2
Based
upon
those
who
participate
in
organized
basketball
(n=
12)
or
rugby
(n=
9).
214
Special
Sports
Edition
M.
Sporner
et
al.
13.26
±
9.27
years
since
injury
or
onset
of
disability.
Disability
and
demographic
characteristics
are
presented
in
Table
I
and
the
distribution
of
rugby
classes
are
provided
in
Table
III.
Nine
of
the
participants
reported
playing
organized
wheelchair
rugby
outside
of
the
NVWG
with
a
mean
training
time
of
5.33
±
2.92
h
per
week.
Table
III
displays
the
means
for
distance
travel,
the
average
speed,
the
number
of
stops
and
starts,
and
the
activity
time
grouped
by
player
classification.
As
a
single
group
the
participants
on
average
traveled
2364.78
±
956.35
m
at
1.33
±
0.25
m/sec
with
242.61
±
80.31
stops
and
starts
in
29.98
±
11.79
min.
Tables
IV,
VI,
and
VIII
are
alternative
summaries
of
the
data
with
the
participants
being
grouped
by
age,
weight,
and
geographical
residence
respectively.
The
age
groups
for
the
rugby
athletes
were
set
at
39
years
and
younger,
40-49
years,
and
50
years
and
older.
The
weight
groups
were
set
at
less
than
175
Ibs,
176-200
Ibs,
and
201
Ibs
and
above.
Discussion
While
similar
data
are
available
for
basketball
and
rugby
athletes,
the
two
sports
are
different
games
utilizing
different
strategies
with
two
different
populations
of
athletes
and
are
Table
II.
Mean
(standard
deviation)
total
distance,
speed,
stops
and
starts,
and
activity
time
per
game
by
basketball
classification.
Class
Distance
(m)
Speed (m/s)
Stops
Time
(min)
I
(n
=
3)
2585.43
(1492.16)
1.50
(0.17)
210.17
(49.12)
30.70
(13.56)
II
(n
=
8)
2768.46
(959.18)
1.45
(0.08)
240.94
(64.66)
31.01
(8.70)
Ill
(n
=
9)
2631.82
(1231.86)
1.49
(0.19)
248.61
(63.60)
29.49
(10.23)
Overall
group
average
(n
=
20)
2679.52
(1103.66)
1.48
(0.13)
239.78
(60.61)
30.28
(9.59)
Table
Ill.
Mean
(standard
deviation)
total
distance,
speed,
stops
and
starts,
and
activity
time
per
game
by
rugby
classification.
Class
Distance
(m)
Speed
(m/s)
Stops
Time
(min)
0.5
(n
=
1)
2271.20
1.08
271.50
35.25
1.0
(n
=
3)
2406.61
(1866.40)
1.11
(0.24)
262.67
(124.34)
33.27
(22.07)
1.5
(n
=
3)
2713.45
(548.23)
1.29
(0.06)
285.50
(2.62)
34.81
(5.61)
2.0
(n
=
4)
1904.90
(975.97)
1.22
(0.09)
262.50
(114.80)
26.32
(14.92)
2.5
(n
=
2)
2532.40
(489.74)
1.30
(0.27)
226.00
(80.61)
35.52
(0.38)
3.0
(n
=
3)
2976.47
(829.48)
1.71
(0.21)
185.00
(43.99)
30.49
(9.94)
3.5
(n
=
2)
1660.40
(333.61)
1.49
(0.16)
197.00
(70.71)
19.18
(5.45)
Overall
group
average
(n
=
18)
2364.78
(956.35)
1.33
(0.25)
242.61
(80.31)
29.98
(11.79)
Table
IV.
Mean
(standard
deviation)
total
distance,
average
speed,
number
of
stops
and
starts,
and
activity
time
per
rugby
game
grouped
by
age.
Age
Distance
(m)
Speed
(m/s)
Stops
Time
(min)
<
=
39
(n
=
9)
2608.17
(1003.80)
1.45
(0.28)
228.61
(80.15)
31.29
(12.78)
40-49
(n
=
5)
2010.54
(1205.34)
1.15
(0.19)
247.70
(114.52)
27.89
(15.15)
50
+
(n
=
4)
2259.93
(396.47)
1.27
(0.07)
267.75
(21.27)
29.65
(5.82)
Special
Sports
Edition
Wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
215
Table
V.
Mean
(standard
deviation)
total
distance,
average
speed,
number
of
stops
and
starts,
and
activity
time
per
basketball
game
grouped
by
age.
Age
Distance
(m)
Speed
(m/s)
Stops
Time
(min)
<
=32
(n
=
7)
2305.16
(1105.21)
1.49
(0.16)
215.00
(72.03)
26.44
(10.01)
33-42
(n
=
7)
3065.06
(845.21)
1.53
(0.08)
261.79
(47.54)
32.67
(6.89)
43
+
(n
=
6)
2666.47
(1378.82)
1.40
(0.12)
243.00
(58.91)
31.97
(11.83)
Table
VI.
Mean
(standard
deviation)
total
distance,
average
speed,
number
of
stops
and
starts,
and
activity
time
per
rugby
game
grouped
by
body
weight.
Body
weight
Distance
(m)
Speed
(m/s)
Stops
Time
(min)
<=175
(n=
7)
2047.58
(713.29)
1.32
(0.23)
239.43
(97.14)
27.21
(11.66)
176-200
(n
=
8)
2667.04
(1233.33)
1.29
(0.22)
254.63
(77.36)
33.27
(13.90)
201+
(n
=
3)
2298.87
(447.10)
1.43
(0.46)
218.00
(63.55)
27.67
(4.43)
Table
VII.
Mean
(standard
deviation)
total
distance,
average
speed,
number
of
stops
and
starts,
and
activity
time
per
basketball
game
grouped
by
body
weight*.
Body
weight
Distance
(m)
Speed
(m/s)
Stops
Time
(min)
<
=
185
(n
=
8)
2248.97
(944.55)
1.47
(0.11)
199.56
(57.69)
26.37
(9.31)
>
185
(n
=
11)
3046.21
(1165.71)
1.49
(0.15)
272.64
(44.84)
33.58
(9.33)
*Missing
one
subject.
Table
VIII.
Mean
(standard
deviation)
total
distance,
average
speed,
number
of
stops
and
starts,
and
activity
time
per
rugby
game
grouped
by
geographical
residence.
Residence*
Distance
(m)
Speed
(m/s)
Stops
Time
(min)
Rural
(n
=
5)
2241.65
(611.19)
1.45
(0.30)
206.40
(42.49)
26.05
(5.59)
Urban
(n
=
5)
2622.52
(1085.33)
1.29
(0.17)
250.60
(51.43)
33.08
(10.84)
Suburban
(n
=
7)
2513.47
(986.76)
1.33
(0.22)
276.86
(105.69)
33.00
(14.67)
*Missing
one
subject.
Table
IX.
Mean
(standard
deviation)
total
distance,
average
speed,
number
of
stops
and
starts,
and
activity
time
per
basketball
game
grouped
by
geographical
residence.
Residence
Distance
(m)
Speed
(m/s)
Stops
Time
(min)
Rural
(n
=
5)
2444.39
(695.05)
1.49
(0.19)
218.90
(40.64)
27.17
(4.32)
Urban
(n
=
8)
3149.97
(1218.21)
1.51
(0.07)
269.94
(62.75)
34.70
(10.25)
Suburban
(n
=
7)
2309.81
(1141.56)
1.43
(0.15)
220.21
(62.57)
27.44
(10.60)
therefore
not
comparable.
Several
patterns
emerged
from
the
rugby
data.
Higher
point
rugby
athletes
(greater
functional
ability)
had
higher
average
speeds
and
stopped
and
started
less
than
lower
point
players
as
expected;
however,
less
expected
was
that
the
overall
distances
traveled
did
not
vary
greatly
between
classifications.
When
summarized
by
216
Special
Sports
Edition
M.
Sporner
et
al.
age,
the
younger
players
traveled
farther
and
faster
while
stopping
and
starting
less
than
older
players.
Athletes
who
live
in
urban
or
suburban
locations
traveled
greater
distances
and
played
for
longer
time
periods
but
at
lower
velocities
and
started
and
stopped
more
frequently
than
individuals
from
rural
locations.
For
the
weight
subcategories
no
clear
pattern
was
present
and
all
players
had
roughly
the
same
activity
time.
Fewer
patterns
emerged
within
the
basketball
athletes,
but
some
differences
were
observed.
With
respect
to
the
basketball
classification,
Class
II
and
III
athletes
traveled
farther
with
more
starts
and
stops
than
the
Class
I
athletes.
All
three
classes
traveled
at
roughly
the
same
velocity
and
played
for
the
same
amount
of
time
during
the
game.
When
looking
at
these
athletes
based
upon
age,
individuals
who
were
between
33
and
42
years
traveled
the
farthest and
at
a
greater
velocity
than
individuals
who
were
32
years
or
younger
or
43
and
older.
For
the
weight
subcategories,
individuals
greater
than
185
lbs
traveled
farther
and
played
for
longer
time
than
the
individuals
who
weighed
185
lbs
or
less.
Similar
to
rugby
games,
the
athletes
who
live
in
urban
locations
traveled
farther
and
faster,
and
played
for
longer
time
periods
as
compared
to
rural
and
suburban
residences.
While
the
aforementioned
patterns
make
sense
intuitively
and
support
the
context
validity
of
the
methods,
it
is
the
quantitative
values
that
are
most
important
and
interesting.
No
previous
research
has
reported
basketball
or
rugby
game
play
variables
such
as
these,
making
this
data
set
unique.
The
information
provided
could
be
used
by
players
and
coaches
to
create
training
protocols
that
more
accurately
reflect
game
conditions.
One
should
also
note
the
overall
intensity
of
game
play.
Tolerico
et
al.
reported
that
veterans
in
their
everyday
wheelchairs
traveled
2456.95
±
1195.73
m
per
day
at
a
speed
of
0.79
±
0.19
m/sec;
16
the
rugby
participants
in
this
study
traveled
almost
the
same
distance
and
the
basketball
athletes
traveled
farther
in
roughly
an
hour.
The
implication
of
this
is
that
everyday
propulsion
is
not
likely
to
adequately
prepare
a
player
for
competition;
therefore
appropriate
training
techniques
need
to
be
further
developed
and
implemented.
The
study
population
consisted
of
a
relatively
homogenous
population
of
veterans
from
the
NVWG,
and
as
a
result,
the
data
might
not
be
generalized
to
other
populations.
Future
studies
should
aim
to
include
more
women
and
elite
athletes.
Additionally,
the
number
of
participants
and
number
of
games
collected
per
participant
was
limited.
If
more
athletes
and
more
games
were
included,
the
data
would
be
less
influenced
by
an
individual
player
in
a
single
game,
making
the
data
more
generalized.
Lastly,
the
data
logging
technology
could
be
improved
by
having
the
ability
to
add
event
markers
to
the
data
and
improving
the
time
resolution,
so
variables
like
instantaneous
speed
and
acceleration
could
be
calculated
more
accurately.
These
improvements
would
also
allow
immediate
feedback
to
the
athletes
and
coaches
of
athletic
performance
during
practice
and
training.
Overall,
the
results
of
this
study
show
that
the
majority
(>75%)
of
the
wheelchair
athletes
in
this
study
(n=14
rugby,
n=16
basketball)
reach
the
CDC
recommended
20
min
of
activity
during
a
wheelchair
basketball
or
rugby
game.
The
benefits
of
participating
in
organized
sporting
events
and
recreation
have
been
well
documented"
and
promoting
participation
in
wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
may
influence
activity
levels
and
help
reach
the
CDC's
recommended
activity
levels.'
Acknowledgement
This
material
is
based
upon
work
supported
by
the
Department
of
Veterans
Affairs
Office
of
Research
and
Development,
Rehabilitation
Research
&
Development
Service,
Grant
#
B3142C.
Special
Sports
Edition
Wheelchair
basketball
and
rugby
217
Declaration
of
interest:
The
authors
report
no
conflicts
of
interest.
The
authors
alone
are
responsible
for
the
content
and
writing
of
the
paper.
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