Energy cost of wheelchair basketball


Burke, E.J.; Auchinachie, J.A.; Hayden, R.; Loftin, J.M.

Physician and Sportsmedicine 13(3): 99-105

1985


The energy cost of wheelchair basketball in 4 wheelchair athletes was determined during a 30-min full-court practice session. During arm cranking these men had an average maximum heart rate (HR max) of 181.5 beats .cntdot. min-1 and .ovrhdot.VO2max of 29.5 ml .cntdot. kg-1 .cntdot. min-1. During basketball their average heart rate was 141.5, and their average .ovrhdot.VO2max was 22.6 ml .cntdot. kg-1 .cntdot. min-1. The average intensity was equivalent to 78% of .cntdot. HR max and 77% of .ovrhdot.VO2max. Average energy expenditure was 8.6 kcal .cntdot. min-1. The intensity of wheelchair basketball apparently meets the guidelines for intensity in the American College of Sports Medicine position statement on enhancement and maintenance of cardiovascular function in able-bodied people.

181
at
RV
is
more
difficult
for
the
subject
than
measurement
of
underwater
weight
at
TLC;
and
4)
determination
of
underwater
weight
by
the
investigator
is
more
difficult
at
RV
than
at
TLC.
Supported
by
NIH
Grant
115
S06
RR08202-02
#24
COMPARISON
OF
THREE
HYDROSTATIC
WEIGHING
METHODS
J.M.
McGarty,
N.K.
Butts,
L.K,
Hall
and
R.A.
Fletcher*.
Human
Performance
Lab.,
University
of
Wisconsin
-
LaCrosse,
LaCrosse,
WI
54601
This
study
compared
hydrostatic
weighing
(HW)
at
residual
volume
(RV),
total
lung
capacity
(TLC)-dry
and
TLC-wet
in
the
determination
of
body
density
(BD)
and
percent
body
fat
(%BF).
Considering
the
comfort
of
the
submerged
Ss,
it
was
the
aim
of
this
study
to
establish
a
HW
method
which
was
reliable.
The
Ss
included
44
competitive
swimmers
(25
females;
19
males)
and
55
noncompetitive
swimmers
(31
females;
24
males)
ages
17-34.
All
Ss
underwent
HW
at
RV
and
TLC.
Three
BD
and
%BF
were
calculated
for
Ss
by
apply-
ing
lung
measurements
of
RV,
TLC-dry
and
TLC-wet.
The
Ss
noted
method
preference;
at
RV,
TLC
or
neither.
A
3
way
ANOVA
with
repeated
measures
followed
by
a
Scheffe
Post
Hoc
Test
analyzed:
forced
vital
capacity
(FVC)-dry,
FVC-wet,
TLC-dry,
TLC-wet,
BD
and
%BF
by
HW
at
RV,
TLC-dry
and
TLC-
wet.
A
Chi
Square
analyzed
Ss
HW
method
preference.
There
was
a
sig
(p<.01)
reduction
in
FVC-wet
and
TLC-wet
when
compared
to
those
measurements
dry
in
Ss
combined.
There
were
sig
(p<
.01)
diff
between
HW
at
RV
vs
HW
at
TLC-dry
and
HW
at
RV
vs
HW
at
TLC-wet
(R
%BF
differences
=
3.64%
and
1.77%,
respectively)
in
Ss
combined.
%BF
with
HW
at
RV>
at
TLC-wet>
at
TLC-dry.
All
subgroups
and
Ss
combined
preferred
HW
at
TLC
(p
4.05).
The
sig
diff
in
HW
methods
may
be
due
to
an
underestimation
of
RV
during
HW
at
RV
and
an
overestimation
of
TLC
during
HW
at
TLC-dry.
It
was
concluded
that
HW
is
not
equivocal
at
RV,
TLC-dry
and
TLC-wet.
NW
at
TLC-wet
may
be
most
accurate
in
%BF
deter-
mination.
Previous
research
supports
the
conclusion
that
pulmonary
air
trapping
was
reduced
or
eliminated
and
TLC
was
truly
represented
during
HW
at
TLC-wet.
SECTION
F-8
Saturday,
May
21
10:30
a.m.-12:00
noon
Exercise
by
Special
Populations
Jolliet
10:30
a.m.
EXERCISE
CAPACITY
OF
UNILATERAL
AMPUTEES
D.B.
Bernhardt
and
R.
J.
McMurray,
FACSM.
Human
Performance
Lab.,
University
of
North
Carolina,
Chapel
Hill,
NC
27514
To
evaluate
the
effects
of
an
above-knee
amputation
on
exercise
capacity,
four
untrained
males
with
unilateral
above-knee
amputations
were
compared
to
four
untrained
normal
males
during
arm
crank
and
single
leg
bicycle
ergometry.
Discontinuous
incremental
testing
in
five
minute
stages
to
maximal
capacity
was
utilized.
During
arm
exercise
the
VO
2
max
of
amputees
(X=2.06
+
0.251/min)
was
not
significantly
different
(00.05)
from
the
VO2max
of
the
normal
subjects.
Similarly,
maximal
heart
rate
(173.3
+
7.2
beats/min)
was
not
significantly
different
for
the
groups.
Net
efficiency
of
amputees
during
arm
exercise
was
13.5
+
2.1%,
significantly
lower
(p<0.05)
than the
normals
(14.9
+
1.2%).
The
amputees'
maximal
mean
blood
pressure
was
significantly
higher
than
the
normals
(97.6
+
9.8vs
84.4
+
1.0
mmHg).
Single
leg
exercise
followed
a
similar
pattern.
V02max
(2.22
+
0.15
1/min)
and
heart
rate
(173.5
+
2.6
beats/min)
were
similar
for
both
groups.
The
amputees
exhibited
a
lower
net
efficiency
(1.84
+
2.9
vs
22.1
+
5.4%)
and
a
higher
mean
blood
pressure
(103.7
+
6.2
vs
91.2
+
3.0mmHg)
than
the
normals.
Comparison
of
arm
to
leg
testing
in
the
amputees
indicated
that
VO2max
was
significantly
greater
in
single
leg
exercise
(2.22
+015
vs
2.06
+
0.25
1/min).
Both
net
efficiency
and
mean
blood
pressure
were
greater
during
leg
exercise.
The
normals
had
similar
V0
2
max
for
the
arms
and
leg,
while
net
efficiency
and
mean
blood
pressure
were
higher
during
single
leg
ergometry.
These
results
imply
that
although
unilateral
above-knee
amputees
and
normals
exhibited
similar
maximal
metabolic
rate,
the
amputees
were
less
efficient
on
both
tests.
10:45
a.m.
ENERGY
COST
OF
WHEELCHAIR
BASKETBALL
J.A.
Auchinachie*,
E.J.
Burke,
J.M.
Loftin,
and
R.
Hayden*.
Department
of
Physical
Education,
Springfield
College,
Springfield,
MA
01109.
The
purpose
of
this
study was
to
determine
the
energy
cost
of
wheelchair
basketball.
Four
males,
(3
paraplegics,
1
double
amputee)
chronically
participating
in
wheelchair
basketball
volunteered
for
the
study.
The
subjects'
51
age
was
29.25
±
3.2
years
with
R
weight
of
76.6
1:
18.8
kg.
Prior
to
data
collection
for
wheelchair
basketball
subjects
warmed
up
for
20
min
by
performing
standard
basketball
drills.
Dur-
ing
gas
collection
the
subject
participated
in
full
court
basketball
scrimmaging
over
a
30
min
session.
Energy
cost
was
assessed
with
the
use
of
Douglas
bags
attached
to
the
wheelchair
and
later
analyzed
with
a
gasometer
and
standard
electronic
analyzers.
Gas
collections
were
separated
over
3
time
intervals
during
the
scrimmage
with
the
intent
of
approximating
steady
state
/0
2
levels
during
each
of
the
three
2
min
samples.
On
a
separate
day,
the
subjects
were
administered
a
progressive
intermittent
arm
crank
test
of
/02
max.
Following
a
10
min
warm-up,
workloads
of
3
min
were
separated
by
5
min
rest
intervals.
Energy
cost
values
for
wheelchair
basketball
were
as
follows:
VE
/0
2
/0
2
Kcal/
m
i
n
HR
1.min
-
I
1.min
-
I
ml/kg.min
-1
44.2
1.70
22.6
8.6
141.5
SD
14.2
.47
6.6
2.4
25.1
Maximal
teat
data
included:
V02
max
1.min
-1
,R
=
2.21
.25;
902
max
ml/kg.min
-
I,
X
=
29.5
4-
3.6;
HR
max,
X
=
181.5
±
3.0.
Relative
intensity
of
wheelchair
basketball
represented
approximately
77%
of
V0
2
max
and
78%
of
HR
max.
Total
cal-
orie
cost
of
the
thirty
min
basketball
scrimmage
was
estima-
ted
to
be
approximately
257
Kcal.
These
data
suggest
that
a
typical
wheelchair
basketball
practice
session
approximates
the
guidelines
established
by
the
ACSM
for
prescription
of
exercise
in
healthy
adults.
11:00
a.m.
PREDICTION
OF
OXYGEN
UPTAKE
FROM
POWER
OUTPUT
IN
TETRAPLEGICS
AND
PARAPLEGICS
DURING
WHEELCHAIR
ERGOMETRY
K.D.
Coutts,
Department
of
Sport
Sciences,
University
of
British
Columbia,
Vancouver,
B.C.,
V6T
1W5
Twenty-one
disabled
subjects
with
at
least
six
months
experience
using
a
wheelchair
as
a
normal
means
of
locomotion
completed
a
continuous,
increasing
work-
load
test
to
subjective
exhaustion
on
a
wheelchair
ergometer.
The
subjects
were
classified
into
tetra-
plegic
(n=8),
high
lesion
paraplegic
(n=6),
and
low
lesion
paraplegic
(n=7)
groups.
Work
rate
was
increased
each
minute
by
approximately
3-10
watts
with
the
lower
increases
used
primarily
for
the
tetraplegic
group.
Power
output
(watts)
and
oxygen
uptake
(R./min)
were
measured
during
each
minute,
and
linear
regression
analysis
was
carried
out
to
determine
the
predict-
ability
of
oxygen
uptake
from
work
rate
in
each
group.
Tetraplegics
exhibited
a
non-significant
correlation
(r=.21)
between
power
output
and
oxygen
uptake,
while
both
paraplegic
groups
had
a
significant
relationship
(r=.93)
between
these
variables.
Comparison
of
the
two
regression
equations
for
the
paraplegic
groups
in-
dicated
a
lack
of
significant
differences
(p=.88),
and
a
single
regression
equation
was
calculated
for
the
com-
bined
paraplegic
groups.
The
equation
for
predicting
oxygen
uptake
from
power
output
in
paraplegics
during
wheelchair
ergometry
was
V02(t/min)=.108
+
.0267
X
Power
(watts)
and
had
a
standard
error
of
estimate
of
.21
1/
min.
The
correlation
for
the
tetraplegic
group
may
be
spuriously
low
due
to
their
relatively
narrow
range
of
values
for
power
output
and
oxygen
uptake.
Supported
by
a
grant
from
the
British
Columbia
Health
Care
Research
Foundation.
11:15
a.m.
PHYSIOLOGICAL
MONITORING
DURING
INTENSIVE
TRAINING
OF
CANADIAN
NATIONAL
TRACK
WHEELCHAIR
ATHLETES
A.
L.
Millar
and
G.
R.
Ward.
Variety
Village
Sport
Training
&
Fitness
Centre,
Scarborough,
Ont.
MIN
2G2
Male
wheelchair
track
athletes
from
the
Canadian
team
were
tested
at
least
twice
during
the
competitive
year.
The
major
purpose
of
the
monitoring
was
to
direct
relevant
physiological
and
anthropometric
data
collected,
to
the
coaches
and
athletes
with
the
view
of
improving
performance.
We
also
wished
to
identify
the
responses
to
heavy
training
in
high
calibre
athletes.
Measurements
included
maximal