A comparison of heart rate response and frequencies of technical actions between half-court and full-court 3-a-side games in high school female basketball players


Atlı, H.; Köklü, Y.; Alemdaroğlu, U.; Koçak, F.Ünver.

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 27(2): 352-356

2013


The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate (HR) response and frequency of technical actions between half-court and full-court 3-a-side games in female high school basketball players. Twelve young female basketball players (age 15.5 ± 0.5 years; height 165.1 ± 5.7 cm; body mass 57.3 ± 7.2 kg; training age 4.2 ± 0.7 years; HRmax 202.9 ± 5.6 b·min(-1)) participated in this study voluntarily. On the first day, anthropometric measurements (height and body mass) were taken for each player; this was followed by the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YIRT) level 1 for the subjects. Then, half-court and full-court 3-a-side games were organized in random order at 2-day intervals. The HRmax for each player was determined during the YIRT, after which the HR was measured during the 3-a-side games. In addition, the frequencies of different categories of technical actions were counted manually during the 3-a-side games. A paired t-test was calculated for each dependent variable, including HR, percentage of maximum HR (%HRmax), and the frequencies of different technical actions to compare half-court and full-court 3-a-side games. The study results indicate that the full-court 3-a-side games produced significantly higher responses than the half-court 3-a-side games in terms of HR and %HRmax (p < 0.05), whereas the half-court games resulted in significantly higher frequencies of technical actions (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that, if coaches want to achieve greater HR responses, coaches of female high school basketball players should organize full-court 3-a-side games, whereas coaches who want to focus on technical actions should arrange half-court 3-a-side games.

A
COMPARISON
OF
HEART
RATE
RESPONSE
AND
FREQUENCIES
OF
TECHNICAL
ACTIONS
BETWEEN
HALF-COURT
AND
FULL-COURT
3-A-SIDE
GAMES
IN
HIGH
SCHOOL
FEMALE
BASKETBALL
PLAYERS
HAUL
ATL1,
1
YUSUF
KoKLU,
2
UTKU
ALEMDAROOLU,
2
AND
FATMA
UNVER
KOCAK
2
1
Pamukkale
University
Basketball
Team,
Denizli,
Turkey;
ancP
School
of
Sport
Sciences
and
Technology,
Pamukkale
University,
Denizli,
Turkey
ABSTRACT
Atli,
H,
Koklii,
Y,
Alemdaroglu,
U,
and
Unver
Kogak,
F.
A
com-
parison
of
heart
rate
response
and
frequencies
of
technical
actions
between
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
in
high
school
female
basketball
players.
J
Strength
Cond
Res
27(2):
352-356,
2013-The
purpose
of
this
study
was
to
compare
heart
rate
(HR)
response
and
frequency
of
technical
actions
between
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
in
female
high
school
basketball
players.
Twelve
young
female
basketball
players
(age
15.5
±
0.5
years;
height
165.1
±
5.7
cm;
body
mass
57.3
±
7.2
kg;
training
age
4.2
±
0.7
years;
HRmax
202.9
±
5.6
b•min
-1
)
participated
in
this
study
voluntarily.
On
the
first
day,
anthropometric
measurements
(height
and
body
mass)
were
taken
for
each
player;
this
was
followed
by
the
Yo-Yo
intermittent
recovery
test
(YIRT)
level
1
for
the
subjects.
Then,
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
were
organized
in
random
order
at
2-day
intervals.
The
HRmax
for
each
player
was
determined
during
the
YIRT,
after
which
the
HR
was
measured
during
the
3-a-side
games.
In
addition,
the
frequencies
of
dif-
ferent
categories
of
technical
actions
were
counted
manually
during
the
3-a-side
games.
A
paired
t-test
was
calculated
for
each dependent
variable,
including
HR,
percentage
of
maxi-
mum
HR
(%HRmax),
and
the
frequencies
of
different
technical
actions
to
compare
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games.
The
study
results
indicate
that
the
full-court
3-a-side
games
produced
significantly
higher
responses
than
the
half-court
3-a-side
games
in
terms
of
HR
and
%HRmax
(p
<
0.05),
whereas
the
half-court
games
resulted
in
significantly
higher
frequencies
of
technical
actions
(p
<
0.05).
The
results
of
this
study
suggest
that,
if
coaches
want
to
achieve
greater
HR
responses,
coaches
of
female
high
school
basketball
players
Address
correspondence
to
Yusuf
Koichi,
ykoklu@pau.edu.tr
.
27(2)/352-356
Journal
of
Strength
and
Conditioning
Research
©
2013
National
Strength
and
Conditioning
Association
352
Antal
of
Strength
and
Conditioning
Research
should
organize
full-court
3-a-side
games,
whereas
coaches
who
want
to
focus
on
technical
actions
should
arrange
half-
court
3-a-side
games.
KEY
WORDS
game
specific
training,
aerobic
endurance,
percentage
of
maximum
heart
rate
INTRODUCTION
D
wring
a
basketball
game,
players
generally
cover
about
3,500-5,000
m
(14).
Each
player
also
performs
close
to
1,000
short
movements,
such
as
jumping
(for
rebounds,
blocks,
and
shots),
turns,
dribbles,
sprints,
walking,
and
jogging
(6,17-19).
Mean
heart
rate
(HR)
of
165
±
9
b•min
-1
or
89.1
of
maximum
HR
(HRmax)
have
been
recorded
in
female
basketball
players
during
competition
(17).
Therefore,
effective
performance
in
basketball
is
dependent
upon
both
aerobic
and
anaerobic
metabolism
to
generate
and
maintain
power
output
during
these
repeated
high-intensity
efforts
and
to
be
able
to
recover
(7,25).
Moreover,
basketball
players
are
required
to
have
well-developed
technical
skills
and
decision-making
ability
and
to
demonstrate
these
qualities
under
high
levels
of
pressure
and
fatigue
(10).
Traditionally,
most
coaches
have
used
running
drills
without
the
ball
to
develop
players'
aerobic
endurance
in
team
sports
such
as
soccer,
rugby,
handball,
and
basketball.
However,
it
is
now
thought
that
one
can
develop
technical
ability
and
endurance
in
the
same
training
session
by
using
sport-specific
training,
which
both
contributes
to
the
level
of
physical
exertion
and
ensures
more
efficient
use
of
the
training
time
available
(16).
For
example,
Impellizzeri
et
al.
(13)
compared
the
effects
of
small-sided
games
(SSGs)
vs.
traditional
aerobic
interval
training
on
physical
fitness
and
objective
measures
of
match
performance
in
soccer.
The
results
of
this
study
showed
that
SSGs
and
traditional
aerobic
interval
training
make
similar
contributions
to
aerobic
endur-
ance
in
young
soccer
players.
Similarly,
Buchheit
et
al.
(2)
compared
the
effects
of
high-intensity
interval
training
versus
handball-specific
SSG
training
on
handball
performance
TABLE
1.
Heart
rate
and
%HRmax
responses
of
female
high
school
basketball
players
for
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games,
respectively.*t
3-a-Side
games
Half-court
Mean
±
SDt
CV
(%)
Full-court
Mean
±
SD
CV
(%)
HR
161.8
±
6.2
3.8
180.9
±
5.7
3.2
%HRmax
76.3
±
2.5
3.3
85.6
±
3.1
3.6
*CV
=
coefficient
of
variation;
HR
=
heart
rate;
%HRmax
=
percentage
of
maximum
heart
rate.
tp
<
0.05.
Journal
of
Strength
and
Conditioning
Research
I
www.nsca.com
examined
differences
in
physi-
ological
responses
among
male
basketball
players
when
they
were
involved
in
3
vs.
3
and
4
vs.
4
basketball
SSGs
with
12-
and
16.8-m
2
relative
court
size
per
player,
respectively.
They
found
that
both
SSG
condi-
tions
made
high
physiological
demands
on
the
players,
with
responses
at
>80%
of
HRmax.
However,
none
of
the
studies
that
have
investigated
physio-
logical
responses
under
various
half-court
training
conditions
have
also
conducted
technical
analysis
of
the
half-court
and
parameters.
They
found
that
both
high-intensity
interval
training
and
handball-specific
SSG
training
were
effective
training
modes
for
adolescent
handball
players.
In
addition,
Foster
et
al.
(9)
investigated
the
influence
of
player
numbers
and
playing
area
size
on
the
HR
responses
elicited
by
male
junior
rugby
league
players
during
SSGs,
revealing
that
SSGs
generate
physiological
responses
suitable
for
aerobic
conditioning.
Sport-specific
training
has
also
frequently
been
used
in
basketball
training
to
improve
the
technical
and
tactical
skills
of
basketball
players
while
also
developing
their
aerobic
endurance.
It
is
therefore
necessary
to
establish
whether
the
exercise
intensity
elicited
during
sport-specific
training
in
basketball
is
sufficient
to
develop
aerobic
conditioning.
One
of
the
most
important
sport-specific
training
in
basketball
is
half-
court
and
full-court
games,
which
are
played
by
reducing
the
number
of
players
over
the
same
playing
court.
Moreover,
Castagna
et
al.
(4)
reported
that
because
most
parts
of
competitive
games
are
played
with
3
vs.
3
and
2
vs.
2
strat-
egies
in
basketball.
However,
few
studies
have
examined
physiological
responses
to
half-court
and
full-court
games
in
basketball.
In
one
of
these
studies,
Montgomery
et
al.
(20)
have
compared
the
physical
and
physiological
responses
during
half-court
5
vs.
5
scrimmage
game
and
competition
game
in
male
basketball
players.
The
study
results
showed
that
the
HR
of
competition
game
(162
±
7
b•min
-1
)
is
substantially
more
demanding
than
5
vs.
5
scrimmage
game
(147
±
10
b•min
-1
).
In
another
study,
Castagna et
al.
(4)
compared
the
physiological
responses
of
male
basketball
players
during
2
vs.
2,
3
vs.
3,
and
5
vs.
5
full-court
games.
Their
results
indicate
that
these
games
are
also
suited
to
improving
aerobic
and
anaerobic
capacity
of
basketball
players
and
reducing
the
number
of
players
over
the
same
playing
court
resulted
in
increments
in
physiological
demands.
Moreover,
Castagna et
al.
(3)
have
reported
the
percentage
of
HRmax
responses
of
2
vs.
2,
3
vs.
3,
and
5
vs.
5
full-court
basketball
drills
were
92.1
±
5.6,
88.2
±
8.4,
and
84.0
±
9.2%,
respectively.
In
addition,
Sampaio
et
al.
(24)
full-court
games,
which
is
a
serious
shortcoming.
Findings
resulting
from
a
study
that
considers
both
physiological
and
technical
aspects
of
training
are
likely
to
be
useful
to
basket-
ball
coaches
who
are
interested
in
using
half-court
and
full-
court
games
to
improve
the
efficiency
of
their
training
regimes
by
helping
players
develop
technical
capacity
and
basketball-
specific
aerobic
endurance
simultaneously.
The
purpose
of
this
study
was
thus
to
compare
the
HR
responses
and
frequencies
of
various
technical
actions
between
the
half-
court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
in
female
high
school
basketball
players
to
evaluate
the
usefulness
of
such
training.
METHODS
Experimental
Approach
to
the
Problem
Half-court
and
full-court
games
have
frequently
been
used
in
basketball
training
by
coaches.
However,
no
previous
study
has
compared
both
HR
responses
and
frequencies
of
tech-
nical
actions
in
half-court
and
full-court
training
games.
With
this
gap
in
our
current
knowledge
in
mind,
this
study
aimed
to
compare
the
HR
responses
and
the
frequencies
of
vari-
ous
technical
actions
between
the
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
among
female
high
school
basketball
players.
The
4-week
preseason
training
period
served
as
a
familiar-
ization
period
to
half-court
and
full-court
games
and
to
the
Yo-Yo
intermittent
recovery
test
level
1
(YIRT)
for
the
sub-
jects.
During
this
period,
the
training
regime
was
established.
This
involved
balancing
each
3-a-side
team
in
terms
of
the
players'
playing
positions;
each
team
consisted
of
a
guard,
a
forward
and
a
center.
In
addition,
to
standardize
the
tactical-
technical
strategies,
only
a
man-to-man
defense
system
was
used
in
each
3-a-side
game.
After
the
familiarization
period,
the
study
was
carried
out
over
the
course
of
1
week
in
the
October
2010-2011
season.
On
the
first
test
day,
anthropometric
measurements
(height
and
body
mass)
were
taken
for
each
player.
They
then
took
the
Yo-Yo
intermittent
recovery
test
level
1
(YIRT)
indoors,
which
enabled
their
individual
HRmax
to
be
determined.
Then,
half-court
and
full-court
indoor
3-a-side
games
were
VOLUME
27
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NUMBER
2
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FEBRUARY
2013
I
353
TABLE
2.
Frequencies
of
technical
actions
performed
by
female
high
school
basketball
players
for
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games.*
3-a-Side
games
Half-court
Full-court
Frequencies
CV
(%)
Frequencies
CV
(%)
Shots
18.4
±
6.8
36.7
11.7
±
4.5
38.7
Assists
2.7
±
1.9
73.9
1.4
±
1.4
101.9
Rebounds
10.4
±
4.5
42.8
6.0
±
2.7
44.9
Steals
2.3
±
1.6
69.2
1.3
±
1.7
132.7
Passes
16.8
±
3.1
18.6
11.3
±
2.5
21.8
Turnovers
2.8
±
2.0
71.9
1.7
±
1.3
78.2
Comparison
of
Half
and
Full
Court
Games
*CV
=
coefficient
of
variation.
organized
in
random
order
with
2-day
intervals
between
games.
Each
3-a-side
game
was
played
after
a
20-minute
warm-up
session,
which
consisted
of
low-intensity
running,
striding,
and
stretching.
During
the
games,
each
player's
HR
was
measured
and
the
total
frequencies
of
various
technical
actions
were
counted
manually.
Subjects
Twelve
young
female
basketball
players
(age
15.5
±
0.5
years;
height
165.1
±
5.7
cm;
body
mass
57.3
±
7.2
kg;
training
age
4.2
±
0.7
years;
HRmax
202.9
±
5.6
b•min
-1
)
participated
in
this
study
voluntarily.
All
the
players
were
members
of
the
same
high
school
team,
which
trained
for
2
hours
4
d•wk
-1
.
Written
informed
consent was
obtained
from
all
the
subjects
and
parents.
All
the
players
and
parents
were
notified
of
the
research
procedures,
requirements,
benefits,
and
risks
before
giving
written
informed
consent.
This
study
was
approved
by
the
Research
Ethics
Committee
of
Pamukkale
University
and
was
consistent
with
the
institutional
ethical
requirements
for
human
experimentation
in
accordance
with
the
Helsinki
Declaration.
Procedures
Yo-Yo
Intermittent
Recovery
Test
The
YIRT
consists
of
repeated
20-m
runs
back
and
forth
between
the
starting,
turning,
and
finishing
lines
at
a
progressively
increased
speed,
which
is
con-
trolled
by
audio
bleeps
from
a
tape
recorder.
The
test
was
performed
on
a
basketball
court
in
groups
of
6
players,
as
sug-
gested
by
Bangsbo
et
aL
(1).
Each
player's
HR
was
measured
and
stored
using
Polar
S810
HR
monitors
(Polar
Electro
OY,
Kempele, Finland)
throughout
the
test.
The
stored
data
were
transferred
to
computer
and
filtered
using
Polar
Precision
Performance
SoftwareTM
(PPP4,
Finland).
The
highest
HR
measurement
was
recorded
as
the
Yo-Yo
HRmax.
Half-Court
and
Full-Court
3-a-Side
Games.
14-m
X
15-m
and
28-m
X
15-m
court
sizes
(length
x
width)
were
used
for
the
354
Antal
of
Strength
and
Conditioning
Research
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games,
respectively.
Each
3-a-side
game
consisted
of
4
bouts
of
4
minutes'
dura-
tion,
with
2
minutes
of
passive
recovery
time
between
bouts,
and
followed
a
20-minute
warm-up
consisting
of
low-
intensity
running,
striding,
and
stretching.
The
players
were
asked
to
put
in
the
maximum
effort
during
the
games.
No
specific
rules
were
used
in
the
games
to
influence
their
inten-
sity,
but
extra
balls
were
placed
along
the
boundary
line
sur-
rounding
the
entire
court
to
ensure
that
there
were
no
breaks
in
play.
Moreover,
the
coaches
constantly
encouraged
the
players
verbally
during
the
games.
The
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
were
performed
at
the
same
time
of
the
day
to
avoid
any
effect
of
circadian
rhythms
on
the
measured
variables
(8),
with
exactly
2
days
separating
each
session.
The
players
were
allowed
to
consume
drinking
water
during
the
recovery
periods
between
each
bout
during
the
3-a-side
games.
All
the
measurements
were
carried
out
on
an
indoor
basketball
court.
Heart
Rate
Monitoring.
The
HR
was
recorded
at
5-second
intervals
during
each
3-a-side
game
via
short-range
radio
telemetry
(Polar
Team
Sport
System,
Polar
Electro
Oy,
Finland).
The
HR
monitors
were
also
worn
during
the
YIRT
to
determine
each
player's
HRmax.
The
HR
measurements
were
stored
by
Polar
S810
HR
monitors
throughout
the
games
and
transferred
to
computer
and
filtered
using
Polar
Precision
Performance
SoftwareTM
(PPP4,
Finland).
The
mean
HR
for
each
3-a-side
game
was
calculated
by
taking
the
means
of
the
4
bouts
played
(HRgame).
The
%HRmax
was
then
calculated
for
each
3-a-side
game
using
equation
1:
%HRmax
=
(HRgame/YoYo
HRmax)
X100.
(1)
Statistical
Analyses
The
frequencies
of
different
technical
actions
were
counted
manually
during
the
3-a-side
games.
These
actions
were
classified
into
6
discrete
categories
(rebound,
shot,
assist,
steal,
pass,
and
turnover),
based
on
those
frequently
performed
in
basketball
matches.
Each
technical
action
performed
by
each
individual
subject
during
the
3-a-side
games
was
analyzed.
These
were
cumulated
for
each
4-minute
bout
and
for
the
total
16-minute
game
period
for
analysis.
The
data
are
reported
as
means
and
SDs.
Before
using
parametric
tests,
the
assumption
of
normality
was
verified
using
the
Shapiro-Wilk
test.
A
paired
t-test
was
performed
on
0
HO
Cart
Full
Cat
24
24)
4
SIr1
Rehm,'
Ste:11
ver
Figure
1.
Comparison
of
female
high
school
basketball
players'
frequencies
of
technical
actions
for
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games.
Journal
of
Strength
and
Conditioning
Research
I
www.nsca.com
each
dependent
variable—HR,
%HRmax
and
technical
action
frequencies—to
compare
differences
between
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games.
The
level
of
statistical
significance
was
set
at
p
0.05.
Effect
sizes
(Coden's
el)
were
also
calculated
to
determine
the
practical
difference
between
half-
court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games.
Effect
size
values
of
0.20-0.49,
0.50-0.79,
and
0.8
and
above
were
considered
to
represent
small,
medium,
and
large
differences,
respectively
(5).
Interindividual
variability
of
HR
responses
and
frequen-
cies
of
different
technical
actions
between
the
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
was
quantified
using
the
coefficient
of
variation.
RESULTS
Table
1
shows
average
HR
and
%HRmax
responses
of
the
subjects
during
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games.
There
were
significant
differences
between
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
in
terms
of
HR
(t
=
—8.904;
p
<
0.05;
large
effect:
2.57)
and
%HRmax
(t
=
—9.041;
p
<
0.05;
large
effect:
2.61).
The
HR
and
%HRmax
measurements
during
full-court
3-a-side
games
were
significantly
higher
than
those
during
half-court
3-a-side
games
(p
<
0.05),
and
the
difference
was
found
to
be
large.
Table
2
shows
average
frequencies
of
different
types
of
technical
actions
for
the
players
for
half-court
compared
with
full-court
3-a-side
games.
There
were
significant
differences
between
half-court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
in
terms
of
numbers
of
shots
(t
=
4.666;
p
<
0.05;
large
effect:
1.35),
rebounds
(t
=
3.339;
p
<
0.05;
large
effect:
0.96)
and
passes
(t
=
5.549;
p
<
0.05;
large
effect:
1.31).
The
study
results
showed
that
numbers
of
shots,
rebounds,
and
passes
during
half-court
3-a-side
games
were
significantly
higher
(Figure
1).
Moreover,
during
the
full-
court
games,
there
were
fewer
assists
(1.4
±
1.4
vs.
2.7
±
1.9;
medium
effect:
0.56),
steals
(1.3
±
1.7
vs.
2.3
±
1.6;
medium
effect:
0.59),
and
turnovers
(1.7
±
1.3
vs.
2.8
±
2.0;
medium
effect:
0.63),
when
compared
with
the
half-court
games.
DISCUSSION
The
aim
of
this
study
was
to
investigate
the
effects
of
half-
court
and
full-court
3-a-side
games
on
HR
responses
and
on
frequencies
of
various
technical
actions
among
female
high
school
basketball
players.
The
study
results
indicate
signif-
icantly
higher
responses
in
terms
of
HR
and
%HRmax
to
full-
court
3-a-side
games
compared
with
the
half-court
3-a-side
games.
In
contrast,
half-court
3-a-side
games
were
found
to
result
in
higher
numbers
of
technical
actions
compared
to
full-
court
3-a-side
games.
Sport-specific
training,
traditionally
used
for
technical
and
tactical
development,
is
nowadays
also
used
to
enhance
aerobic
endurance
in
sports
such
as
football,
handball,
and
rugby
(2,9,13).
It
is
thought
that
this
type
of
training
results
in
players
trying
to
perform
high-intensity
activities
under
pressure
and
so
causes
them
to
be
placed
under
high
physi-
ological
stress.
Coaches
make
various
modifications
during
sport-specific
training
to
produce
the
conditions
that
pro-
voke
the
physiological
responses
suitable
for
developing
aerobic
endurance.
One
such
modification
is
to
change
the
size
of
the
playing
area.
Previous
studies
have
shown
that
changing
the
size
of
the
playing
area
can
influence
physi-
ological
response
to
the
training.
For
example,
Hill
Haas
et
al.
(12)
reported
that
the
total
playing
area,
in
both
absolute
and
relative
terms,
can
be
varied
and
this
may
influence
the
intensity
of
SSGs.
In
addition,
Rampinini
et
al.
(23)
revealed
that
soccer
SSGs
played
on
a
larger
pitch
were
more
intense
than
the
same
drills
played
on
smaller
pitches.
Montgomery
et
al.
(20)
reported
that
reduced
court
size
(half-court)
drills
such
as
a
5
vs.
5
scrimmage
elicit
lower
physical
and
physi-
ological
demands
than
competition
game
in
male
basketball
players.
Similarly,
this
study
has
demonstrated
that
full-court
3-a-side
basketball
games
elicit
significantly
higher
HR
and
%HRmax
responses
than
half-court
3-a-side
games
amongst
female
high
school
players.
Greater
relative
court
size
seems
the
likely
reason
for
the
variation
in
HR
and
%HRmax
responses,
because,
when
the
court
size
per
player
is
increased,
intensity
and
the
involvement
in
the
game
are
very
likely
to
be
increased.
These
results
suggest
that
full-
court
3-a-side
games
are
more
effective
than
half-court
games
in
terms
of
bringing
about
the
physiological
adaptations
required
for
the
development
of
basketball-specific
aerobic
endurance,
because
HR
and
%HRmax
responses
to
half-
court
3-a-side
games
tend
to
remain
relatively
low.
The
results
are
in
line
with
those
of
Castagna et
al.
(4),
who
found
responses
of
>85%
of
HRmax
to
2
vs.
2
and
3
vs.
3
full-court
games.
They
also
match
the
results
of
Sampaio
et
al.
(24)
in
terms
of
HR
responses
to
full-court
game;
however,
in
terms
of
the
half-court
results,
they
found
higher
responses
for
3-a-side
and
4-a-side
basketball
games
with
12
and
16.8-m
2
relative
court
sizes
per
player,
respectively.
Gabbett
and
Mulvey
(11)
demonstrated
that
SSGs
can
be
used
to
effectively
simulate
the
overall
movement
patterns
in
domestic,
national,
and
international
competitions
for
VOLUME
27
I
NUMBER
2
I
FEBRUARY
2013
1
355
Comparison
of
Half
and
Full
Court
Games
women
soccer
players.
Thus,
the
inclusion
of
frequent
match-specific
activities
makes
the
training
stimulus
more
specific
to
the
demands
of
the
sport
and
hence
increases
the
efficiency
of
training
and
technical
performance
(22,23).
Although
the
development
of
technical
performance
is
accepted
as
an
important
practical
benefit
of
SSGs,
few
studies
have
examined
technical
actions
in
SSGs.
In
one
study,
Owen
et
at
(21)
showed
that,
as
pitch
size
became
larger,
fewer
passes
and
receptions
were
made,
although
the
difference
was
not
found
to
be
significant
for
soccer
players.
Moreover,
Kelly
and
Drust
(15)
demonstrated
that
technical
actions
in
terms
of
the
number
of
both
tackles
and
shots
performed
by
players
were
significantly
increased
when
smaller-size
pitches
were
used
for
soccer.
In
line
with
Kelly
and
Drust's
study,
this
study
indicates
that
enlarging
the
court
size
used
for
3-a-side
games
had
a
significant
decrease
in
the
number
of
shots,
passes,
and
rebounds
the
players
performed.
It
is
thought
that
the
increased
pressure
from
opposing
players
brought
about
by
the
decrease
in
court
size
may
lead
to
this
increase
in
technical
actions
performed.
It
is
further
hypothesized
that,
because
the
decrease
in
court
size
leads
to
a
decrease
in
average
court
area
per
player,
players
may
experience
more
pressure
forcing
them
to
try
more
passes,
which
in
turn
may
result
in
more
errors
and
thus
a
higher
number
of
steals
and
turnovers.
The
increase
in
the
number
of
shots
and
rebounds
seems
to
be
linked
to
the
fact
that
the
baskets
in
half-court
games
are
closer
to
each
other,
encouraging
players
to
take
more
shots,
which
also
results
in
a
higher
number
of
rebounds.
PRACTICAL
APPLICATIONS
The
results
of
this
study
demonstrate
that
changes
in
court
size
result
in
differences
in
the
HR
and
the
number
of tech-
nical
actions
performed
in
3-a-side
basketball
games
between
female
high
school
basketball
players.
Full-court
3-a-side
games
result
in
higher
HR
responses
but
lower
frequencies
of
technical
actions
compared
with
half-court
3-a-side
games.
The
results
of
this
study
therefore
show
that
when
the
relative
court
size
per
player
is
decreased,
the
number
of
technical
actions
in
the
game
increase
but
HR
responses
decreased.
These
results
suggest
that
coaches
who
want
to
achieve
greater
HR
responses
should
organize
full-court
3-a-side
games,
whereas
those
aiming
to
increase
the
frequencies
of
technical
actions
should
set
up
half-court
3-a-side
games.
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