Effect of sodium chloride- and sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water on blood pressure and metabolic parameters in elderly normotensive individuals: a randomized double-blind crossover trial

Schorr, U.; Distler, A.; Sharma, A.M.

Journal of Hypertension 14(1): 131-135


Objective: To examine the effect of sodium chloride- and sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water on blood pressure and parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism in elderly normotensive individuals. Methods: We examined 21 healthy men and women aged 60-72 years in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. After reducing dietary salt intake to below 100 mmol/day, study participants were randomly assigned to drink 1.51 daily of a sodium chloride-rich (sodium 84.5 mmol/l, chloride 63.7 mmol/l, bicarbonate 21.9 mmol/l), a sodium bicarbonate-rich (sodium 39.3 mmol/l, chloride 6.5 mmol/l, bicarbonate 48.8 mmol/l) and a low-sodium (placebo: sodium, chloride and bicarbonate lt 0.02 mmol/l) mineral water for 4 weeks each in a three-phase crossover order. Each phase was separated by a 2-week washout period in which the study participants remained on a low-salt diet. Compliance was assessed by biweekly urinary electrolyte excretion and five study participants were excluded from analysis for failing to complete the trial or to fulfil the compliance criteria. Results: Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower during the periods of consuming low-sodium (-70 +- 72 mmHg, P lt 0.001) or sodium bicarbonate-rich (-5.7 +- 6.4 mmHg, P lt 0.05) water than at baseline. In contrast blood pressure during the phase of drinking sodium chloride-rich water was identical to that at baseline. Ambulatory 24 h blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance and plasma lipids were not affected by the different regimens. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly reduced by drinking low-sodium or sodium bicarbonate-rich water but was unchanged under the sodium chloride-rich water. Conclusion: Consumption of sodium chloride-rich mineral water can abolish the blood pressure reduction induced by dietary salt restriction in elderly individuals. Sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water in conjunction with a low-salt diet may have a beneficial effect on calcium homeostasis.