Profile and artificial insemination practices of technicians and the artificial insemination success rates in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran, Philippines (2011-2015)


Ybañez, A.P.; Ybañez, R.Haidee.D.; Caindec, M.O.; Mani, L.V.; Abela, J.V.; Nuñez, E.S.; Royo, J.T.; Lopez, I.Fe.M.

Veterinary World 10(2): 181-186

2017


Artificial insemination (AI) is a reproductive biotechnology that may be influenced by several factors, including the profile of the technicians and the practices used. Assessing technician's profile and their AI practices can be significant in improving AI success rate. This study aimed to know the profile and current practices used by AI technicians (AITs), to determine the success rates of AI in water buffaloes in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran from 2011 to 2015, and to evaluate the possible association between the parameters investigated. A total of 50 AITs from Leyte, Samar and Biliran, Philippines, were interviewed using a fixed questionnaire about their profile and employed AI practices, and 20,455 AI-related records of the Philippine Carabao Center (PCC) at Visayas State University (VSU), Baybay City, Leyte, were screened and analyzed. AI success rates were determined by retrospective analysis of the gathered data. Statistical analysis was performed between the technician profile and practices and the AI success rates. Results revealed that most of the technicians were male, around 31-40 years old, married, college graduates, working under local government units, had other sources of income, and with 1-5 years of continuous AI practice averaging 51-100 inseminations per year. Most of them attended only one basic training seminar, which was conducted more than 3 years ago in PCC in VSU. AI success rates were recorded highest in 2011 and lowest in 2015. Statistical analyses showed that some technician profile parameters (civil status, average AI per year, and the training center) and several practices (checking of soft cervix, rectal palpation, thawing temperature method, straw cutting method, and semen deposition) might have an influence on the success of AI. This study documents the first report on AIT's profile and their employed AI practices and the AI success rates in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran, Philippines. Selected profile parameters and AI practices may influence AI success rates. AITs should perform more AI services and revisit the employed practices.

Veterinary
World,
EISSN:
2231-0916
RESEARCH
ARTICLE
Available
at
www.veterinaryworld.org/Vol.10/February-2017/8.pdf
Open
Access
Profile
and
artificial
insemination
practices
of
technicians
and
the
artificial
insemination
success
rates
in
Leyte,
Samar,
and
Biliran,
Philippines
(2011-2015)
Adrian
P.
Ybaliez
1
-
2
,
Rochelle
Haidee
D.
Ybaliezi,
Maxine
0.
Caindecl,
Louie
V.
Mani',
Julius
V.
Abela
3
,
Edgar
S.
Nufiez
3
,
Johnson
T.
Royo
Jr
3
and
Ivy
Fe
M.
Lopez
3
1.
Department
of
Biology
and
Environmental
Science,
College
of
Science
,
University
of
the
Philippines
Cebu,
Lahug,
Cebu
City
6000,
Philippines;
2.
Department
of
Research,
Gullas
College
of
Medicine,
University
of
the
Visayas,
Banilad,
Mandaue
City
6014,
Cebu,
Philippines;
3.
Philippine
Carabao
Center
at
Visayas
State
University,
Visca,
Baybay
City
6521-A,
Leyte,
Philippines.
Corresponding
author:
Adrian
P.
Ybaliez,
e-mail:
dr.adrianpybanez@gmail.com,
Co-authors:
RHDY:
rochelledybanez@gmail.com
,
MOC:
mocaindec@gmail.com
,
LVM:
manilouie@gmail.com
,
JVA:
docjulsgrebitabela@gmail.com
,
ESN:
edgarnunezpccvsu@gmail.com
,
JTR:
johnsonpccvsu95@gmail.com
,
IFML:
ivy_fe_lopez@yahoo.com
Received:
14-08-2016,
Accepted:
17-01-2017,
Published
online:
13-02-2017
doi:
10.14202/vetworld.2017.181-186
How
to
cite
this
article:
Ybaliez
AP,
Ybaliez
RHD,
Caindec
MO,
Mani
LV,
Abela
JV,
Nunez
ES,
Royo
JT,
Lopez
IFM
(2017)
Profile
and
artificial
insemination
practices
of
technicians
and
the
artificial
insemination
success
rates
in
Leyte,
Samar,
and
Biliran,
Philippines
(2011-2015),
Veterinary
World,
10(2):
181-186.
Abstract
Background:
Artificial
insemination
(AI)
is
a
reproductive
biotechnology
that
may
be
influenced
by
several
factors,
including the
profile
of
the
technicians
and
the
practices
used.
Assessing
technician's
profile
and
their
AI
practices
can
be
significant
in
improving
AI
success
rate.
Aim:
This
study
aimed
to
know
the
profile
and
current
practices
used
by
AI
technicians
(AITs),
to
determine
the
success
rates
of
AI
in
water
buffaloes
in
Leyte,
Samar,
and
Biliran
from
2011
to
2015,
and
to
evaluate
the
possible
association
between
the
parameters
investigated.
Materials
and
Methods:
A
total
of
50
AITs
from
Leyte,
Samar
and
Biliran,
Philippines,
were
interviewed
using
a
fixed
questionnaire
about
their
profile
and
employed AI
practices,
and
20,455
AI-related
records
of
the
Philippine
Carabao
Center
(PCC)
at
Visayas
State
University
(VSU),
Baybay
City,
Leyte,
were
screened
and
analyzed.
AI
success
rates
were
determined
by
retrospective
analysis
of
the
gathered
data.
Statistical
analysis
was
performed
between
the
technician
profile
and
practices
and
the
AI
success
rates.
Results:
Results
revealed
that
most
of
the
technicians
were
male,
around
31-40
years
old,
married,
college graduates,
working
under
local
government
units,
had
other
sources
of
income,
and
with
1-5
years
of
continuous
AI
practice
averaging
51-100
inseminations
per
year.
Most
of
them
attended
only
one
basic
training
seminar,
which
was
conducted
more
than
3
years
ago
in
PCC
in
VSU.
AI
success
rates
were
recorded
highest
in
2011
and
lowest
in
2015.
Statistical
analyses
showed
that
some
technician
profile
parameters
(civil
status,
average AI
per
year,
and
the
training
center)
and
several
practices
(checking
of
soft
cervix,
rectal
palpation,
thawing
temperature
method,
straw
cutting
method,
and
semen
deposition)
might
have
an
influence
on
the
success
of
AI.
Conclusion:
This
study
documents
the
first
report
on
AIT's
profile
and
their
employed
AI
practices
and
the
AI
success
rates
in
Leyte,
Samar,
and
Biliran,
Philippines.
Selected
profile
parameters
and
AI
practices
may
influence
AI
success
rates.
AITs
should
perform
more
AI
services
and
revisit
the
employed
practices.
Keywords:
artificial
insemination,
artificial
insemination technician,
Philippines,
profile,
water
buffalo.
Introduction
Artificial
insemination
(AI)
is
among
the
most
effective
breeding
methods
that
afford
wide-
spread
propagation
of
genes
carried
by
superior
males
[1].
It
is
more
profitable
than
the
natural
ser-
vice
method
[2].
The
success
of
AI
depends
on
sev-
eral
factors,
including
the
technician
and
practices
employed
[3,4].
Assessing
technician's
profile
and
Copyright:
Ybaliez,
et
a/.
Open
Access.
This
article
is
distributed
under
the
terms
of
the
Creative
Commons
Attribution
4.0
International
License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
by/4.0/),
which
permits
unrestricted
use,
distribution,
and
reproduction
in
any
medium,
provided
you
give
appropriate
credit
to
the
original
author(s)
and
the
source,
provide
a
link
to
the
Creative
Commons
license,
and
indicate
if
changes
were
made.
The
Creative
Commons
Public
Domain
Dedication
waiver
(http://
creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)
applies
to
the
data
made
available
in
this
article,
unless
otherwise
stated.
their
AI
practices
can
be
significant
in
improving
AI
success
rate.
In
the
Philippines,
the
use
of
AI
for
livestock
started
on
the
establishment
of
the
Philippine
Carabao
Center
(PCC)
in
1993
[5].
Water
buffaloes
(Bubalus
bubalis)
are
considered
integral
to
the
Philippine
agri-
cultural
industry.
Although
these
animals
are
mostly
used
for
draft,
its
utilization
as
a
food
source
may
have
increased,
which
may
have
contributed
to
its
popula-
tion
decline.
According
to
the
Philippine
Bureau
of
Agricultural
Statistics,
the
total
buffalo
population
in
2004
was
3.28
million,
which
decreased
to
2.96
million
in
2011.
Despite
the
Carabao
Development
Program
of
PCC
[6],
the
water
buffalo
popula-
tion
has
been
declining.
In
Eastern
Visayas
Region
(EVR),
Typhoon
Haiyan
may
have
also
contributed
Veterinary
World,
EISSN:
2231-0916
181
Available
at
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to
its
reduction.
Recent
reports
indicated
that
EVR
accounted
for
9.7%
of
the
total
water
buffalo
popu-
lation
in
the
country.
To
help
improve
the
declining
water
buffalo
population,
AI
has
been
practiced
in
the
region.
However,
on
a
national
scale,
the
success
rates
are
considered
low
[7].
While
studies
on
AI
appear
to
be
well
reported
in
other
countries,
reports
and
studies
in
the
Philippines
remain
limited
or
are
unpublished
and
are
usu-
ally
difficult
to
access.
Environment
and
manage-
ment
[8,9],
which
have
been
shown
to
affect
AI,
may
differ
depending
on
the
location,
economic
condition,
and
culture.
Studying
the
profile
of
technicians
and
practices
employed
and
the
success
of
AI
in
a
selected
area
will
be
beneficial
not
only
to
the
Philippines
but
also
to
other
countries
having
similar
conditions.
Hence,
this
study
was
conducted.
Materials
and
Methods
Ethical
approval
The
study
was
conducted
in
accordance
with
the
principles
of
Helsinki
declaration
developed
by
the
World
Medical
Association.
Informed
consent
was
obtained
from
the
respondents.
No
live
animal
was
used
in
this
study.
Study
design,
selection
of
respondents
and
study
area
This
study
utilized
a
descriptive-analytical
design
and
was
conducted
in
five
areas
from
the
VSU,
Philippines
(Leyte,
Southern
Leyte,
Biliran,
Western
Samar
and
Northern
Samar)
from
March
to
May
2016.
Out
of
the
250
AI
technicians
(AITs)
(regardless
of
sex,
status,
educational
attainment,
employment,
and
age)
contacted,
only
50
were
able
to
complete
the
questionnaires.
Survey
questionnaire
and
AI
records
The
pre-tested,
researcher-made,
fixed
question-
naire
composed
of
two
parts.
The
first
part
covered
the
profile
of
the
AITs,
including
age,
sex,
civil
sta-
tus,
educational
attainment,
AI
training,
nature
of
job
assignment,
receipt
of
service
fees,
other
sources
of
income,
nature
of
income
sources,
number
of
years
as
AIT,
average
number
of
AI
per
year,
number
of
AI
trainings
attended,
level
of
training
attended,
place
of
training,
and
last
AI
training
attended.
The
second
part
included
the
practices
employed.
AI
success
rates
(calf
drop
and
the
number
of
animals
provided
with
AI
services)
were
determined
based
on
the
available
records
at
the
PCC
in
Visayas
State
University
(VSU),
Baybay
City,
Leyte.
A
total
of
20,455
records
were
screened:
2011
(2993),
2012
(4120),
2013
(4857),
2014
(4645),
and
2015
(3840).
Data
processing
and
statistical
analysis
Data
gathered
from
the
questionnaires
and
AI
records
were
manually
tabulated
and
encoded
in
Microsoft
Excel
Office
using
appropriate
variable
coding.
Encoded
data
were
then
imported
into
statis-
tical
software
for
analysis.
Descriptive
statistics
was
employed.
Significant
differences
between
technician
profile
factors
and
AI
success
rates
were
analyzed
using
one-way
ANOVA
and
independent
t-tests.
Results
and
Discussion
AIT
profile
Information
on
profile
revealed
that
most
AITs
were
from
Northern
Leyte
(42%),
male
(92%),
31-40
years
old
(36%),
and
married
(78%)
(Table-1).
These
findings
were
similar
to
the
study
of
Russi
et
al.
[10]
where
most
AITs
were
also
college
gradu-
ates
(58%).
Singh
and
Nanda
[11]
showed
that
higher
success
rates
were
found
in
professional
degree
holders
than
diploma
holders.
30
technicians
were
working
under
local
government
units
(LGUs).
The
majority
of
the
technicians
did
not
receive
fees
for
the
AI
services
rendered
since
they
had
other
sources
of
income.
The
initiative
of
PCC
in
2006
to
train
farmers
to
work
as
village-based
AITs
was
evident
with
38%
of
the
technicians
being
land
farmers
also.
These
tech-
nician
farmers
did
not
receive
fees
for
their
services
as
they
were
closely
associated
with
their
community,
implying
that
interpersonal
relationships
were
more
important
than
receiving
remuneration.
The
majority
of
technicians
had
1-5
years
of
continuous
AI
practice,
with
an
average
number
of
51-100
inseminations
per
year.
Several
studies
have
shown
that
experienced
technicians
can
have
higher
success
rates
than
new
technicians
[12].
Most
tech-
nicians
had
attended
only
one
basic
training
seminar,
conducted
more
than
3
years
ago.
Akhtar
et
al.
[13]
and
Boettcher
and
Perera
[14]
showed
that
higher
success
rates
were
associated
with
technicians
who
attended
refresher
courses.
Majority
attended
their
training
at
PCC
in
VSU,
probably
because
this
is
the
training
center
closest
to
Leyte,
Samar,
and
Biliran.
On
the
other
hand,
the
number
of
AI
technicians
after
10
years
of
AI
practice
declined.
This
may
be
due
in
part
of
the
reassignments
in
the
LGU,
retirement
or
shift
of
career
path.
AI
practices
All
AITs
checked
heat
before
performing
AI.
Heat
was
confirmed
mostly
(92%)
through
the
appearance
of
clear
mucus
discharges.
The
majority
(90%)
of
the
AITs
checked
the
time
of
heat
before
insemination.
Time
of
response
of
70%
of
AITs
was
within
12
h
after
they
are
informed
of
the
status
of
the
animal.
Most
(84%)
AITs
used
a
thermometer
to
check
the
thawing
temperature
of
semen.
All
the
AITs
checked
thawing
time.
However,
only
22%
used
a
watch
to
do
this
and
76%
used
manual/mental
counting.
A
thawing
time
of
1-10
s
was
practiced
by
56%
of
the
AITs.
Either
cutter
(54%)
or
scissors
(58%)
was
used
to
cut
the
straw,
with
about
76%
of
the
AITs
cutting
the
straws
straight.
Almost
all
(98%)
used
gloves
and
52%
did
not
reuse
them.
The
majority
(66%)
used
soap
as
a
lubricant,
but
there
were
still
16%
that
did
not
use
any.
AITs
depos-
ited
the
semen
in
the
body
of
the
uterus
(86%)
and
the
mid-cervix
if
the
standard
time
of
AI
has
lapsed
Veterinary
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Available
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Table-1:
Profile
of
AITs
in
Eastern
Visayas
(n=50).
Parameter
n
(%)
Location
Leyte
21
(42.0)
Southern
Leyte
15
(30.0)
Biliran
2
(4.0)
Western
Samar
6
(12.0)
Northern
Samar
6
(12.0)
Sex
Male
46
(92.0)
Female
4
(8.0)
Age
18-30
7
(14.0)
31-40
18
(36.0)
41-50
16
(32.0)
Above
50
9
(18.0)
Range:
23-62,
Mean:
40.8,
SD:
8.7
Civil
status
Single
7
(14.0)
Married
39
(78.0)
Widowed
1
(2.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
3
(6.0)
Highest
educational
attainment
Elementary
graduate
1
(2.0)
High
school
level
6
(12.0)
High
school
graduate
6
(12.0)
College
level
7
(14.0)
College
graduate
29
(58.0)
Post-graduate
1
(2.0)
Nature
of
job
assignment
LGU
30
(60.0)
Community/village
based
15
(30.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
5
(10.0)
Receipt
of
service
fees
Not
at
all
26
(52.0)
Always
9
(18.0)
Sometimes
12
(24.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
3
(6.0)
Others
source
of
income
No
10
(20.0)
Yes
34
(68.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
6
(12.0)
Nature
of
other
income
sources
Land
farming
19
(38.0)
Fishing
3
(6.0)
Animal
raising
16
(32.0)
Others
3
(6.0)
Number
of
years
as
AIT
<1
3
(6.0)
1-5
26
(52.0)
6-10
10
(20.0)
Above
10
8
(16.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
3
(6.0)
Range:
1
month-18
years,
Mean:
5.8,
SD:
4.6
Type
of
AI
practice
Continuous
43
(86.0)
Discontinuous
5
(10.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
2
(4.0)
Average
AI
per
year
10-50
18
(36.0)
51-100
20
(40.0)
Above
100
5
(10.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
3
(6.0)
Range:
10-250,
Mean:
70.4,
SD:
47.9
Number
of
AI
trainings
attended
1
30
(60.0)
2
12
(24.0)
More
than
2
6
(12.0)
(Contd...)
Veterinary
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Table-1:
(Continued)
Parameter
n
(%)
Prefer
not
to
say
1
(2.0)
Level
of
training
attended
Basic
42
(84.0)
Advanced
3
(6.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
5
(10.0)
Place
of
trainings
Ubay,
Bohol
24
(48.0)
VSU
31
(62.0)
University
of
the
Philippines/Central
Luzon
2
(4.0)
State
University
Others
4
(8.0)
Last
AI
training
attended
Within
1
year
9
(18.0)
2
years
ago
6
(12.0)
3
years
ago
or
more
32
(64.0)
Prefer
not
to
say
3
(6.0)
AIT=Artificial
insemination
technician,
LGU=Local
government
units,
VSU=Visayas
State
University
(44%).
The
preferred
time
of
insemination
was
morn-
ing
(44%).
Insemination
was
done
3
times
by
74%
of
AITs.
Almost
all
(96%)
AITs
confirmed
pregnancy
at
3
months
after AI
(64%).
Estrus
synchronization
was
also
done
by
most
AITs
(86%).
All
of
them
educate
the
farmers
on
these
different
profiles
(Table-2).
AI
success
rates
The
operation
year
2011
had
the
highest
recorded
success
rate
(Table-3).
High
number
of
trainings
were
reportedly
conducted
during
this
year
(personal
com-
munication),
which
might
have
an
influence
on
the
performance.
The
lowest
observed
success
rate
was
in
2015,
which
may
be
due
to
lack
of
an
updated
reported
data
on
calf
drops.
A
high
success
rate
(64.4%)
was
observed
in
Biliran
in
2012
but
may
be
misleading
due
to
the
low
number
of
recorded
AIs
performed
(45
inseminations
only)
during
the
year.
A
decrease
in
the
success
rates
after
2011
was
observed,
for
most
locations
in
2013.
The
decrease
in
success
rates
may
have
been
caused
by
Super
Typhoon
Haiyan,
which
caused
major
damage
to
Eastern
Visayas.
A
slight
increase
in
success
rates
can
be
observed
in
the
year
2014,
indicating
recovery
from
the
aftermath
of
the
typhoon.
However,
the
computed
success
rates
were
found
lower
than
the
national
performance
(40%)
[15].
Statistical
analyses
A
significant
difference
was
found
between
AI
success
and
civil
status
of
AITs
for
most
years
except
2012
(Table-4).
This
study
showed
that
mar-
ried
technicians
had
higher
success
rates
than
single
or
widowed
AITs.
While
further
study
may
be
needed
to
clarify
the
role
of
civil
status
in
AI
performance,
married
technicians
may
be
more
patient
and
with
bet-
ter
interpersonal
skills,
which
were
found
associated
with
good
inseminators
[10].
A
significant
correlation
was
also
found
between
the
average
number
of
AI
per
year
and
AI
success.
Technicians
having
an
average
of
more
than
100
AIs
had
higher
success
rates
than
183
Available
at
www.veterinaryworld.org/Vol.10/February-2017/8.pdf
Table-2:
AI
practices
employed
by
technicians
in
Eastern
Visayas
(n=50).
Parameter
n(%)
Checking
of
heat
prior
to
AI
Yes
50
(100)
No
0
(0)
Method
of
checking
heat
Vulva!
swelling
30
(60)
Soft
cervix
9
(18)
Rectal
palpation
32
(64)
Reddish
coloring
of
vagina
32
(64)
Clear
mucus
discharge
46
(92)
Others
2
(4)
Pre-AI
information
gathered
Time
of
discharge
23
(46)
Time
of
heat
45
(90)
Amount
of
discharge
12
(24)
Species
of
water
buffalo
8
(16)
Time
(hours)
of
response
after
gathering
information
1-12
35
(70)
13-24
2
(4)
Above
24
3
(6)
Method
of
checking
thawing
temperature
Not
at
all
2
(4)
Thermometer
42
(84)
Hand
9
(18)
Checking
of
thawing
time
No
0
(0)
Yes
50
(100)
Method
of
checking
thawing
time
Watch
11
(22)
Manual/mental
counting
38
(76)
Others
1
(2)
Thawing
time
practiced
(seconds)
1-10
28
(56)
11-20
14
(28)
21
and
above
30
4
(8)
Instrument
used
to
cut
straw
Cutter
27
(54)
Scissors
29
(58)
AI
straw
orientation
during
cutting
Angled
12
(24)
Straight
38
(76)
Use
of
plastic
gloves
during
rectal
palpation
No
1
(2)
Yes
49
(98)
Reusing
of
gloves
No
26
(52)
Yes
24
(48)
Use
of
lubricant
No
8
(16)
Yes
41
(82)
Lubricant
used
Soap
33
(66)
Manure
25
(50)
KY
Jelly
1
(2)
Others
1
(2)
Site
of
usual
semen
deposition
Mid-cervix
9
(18)
Entrance
4
(8)
Body
of
uterus
43
(86)
Deposition
after
ideal
time
elapsed
Mid-cervix
22
(44)
Entrance
17
(34)
Body
of
uterus
12
(24)
Vaginal
canal
0
(0)
Usual
time
of
insemination
Morning
22
(44)
(Contd...)
Veterinary
World,
EISSN:
2231-0916
Table-2:
(Continued)
Parameter
n(%)
Afternoon
9
(18)
Both
times
19
(38)
Frequency
of
insemination
Once
1
(2)
Twice
8
(16)
Thrice
37
(74)
Confirmation
of
pregnancy
No
2
(4)
Yes
48
(96)
Performance
of
pregnancy
diagnosis
post-AI
(months)
1
2
3
4
5
or
more
Estrus
synchronization
2
4
32
6
2
(4)
(8)
(64)
(12)
(4)
No
0
(0)
Sometimes
43
(86)
Always
4
(8)
Education
of
farmers
No
0
(0)
Yes
50
(100)
AI=Artificial
insemination
Table-3:
AI
success
rates
(%)
of
selected
areas
in
Eastern
Visayas,
Philippines
(2011-15).
Location
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Leyte
11.4
8.8
8.1
9.9
3.0
Southern
Leyte
17.4
4.7
8.9
9.7
0.9
Biliran
13.5
64.4
7.1
1.1
Western
Samar
10.8
10.9
10.3
1.8
Northern
Samar
6.2
6.3
1.7
1.0
AI=Artificial
insemination
those
who
had
below
100
inseminations
per
year.
This
is
contrary
to
the
findings
of
Cembrowics
[16]
where
the
number
of
inseminations
did
not
affect
the
success
of
AI.
However,
a
high
number
of
inseminations
can
be
associated
with
better
familiarity
of
the
reproduc-
tive
system
[11]
and
higher
confidence
of
the
techni-
cian
[17]
leading
to
higher
success
rates.
The
study
also
found
a
significant
association
between
the
number
of
trainings
attended
and
AI
suc-
cess
rate.
However,
this
could
be
considered
a
con-
founder
because
all
AITs
were
required
to
attend
at
least
one
training
before
practicing
AI.
Studies
have
shown
that
participation
in
refresher
courses
can
lead
to
higher
AI
success
rates
[13,14,17,18].
Moreover,
statistical
significance
was
found
between
training
in
PCC
Ubay
and
AI
success
rate.
Results
showed
that
AITs
who
attended
training
in
PCC
Ubay
have
lower
success
rates
than
those
who
attended
training
in
VSU
or
in
Luzon.
Since
training
of
AITs
has
been
shown
to
be
very
vital
in
maintaining
a
satisfactory
breeding
efficiency
[17],
further
studies
are
needed
to
evaluate
this
observation
because
training
in
PCC
Ubay
is
lon-
ger
in
duration
than
those
conducted
in
PCC
at
VSU.
For
the
AI
practices
employed,
the
analysis
revealed
that
checking
of
heat
through
evaluation
of
184
Available
at
www.veterinaryworld.org/Vol.10/February-2017/8.pdf
Table-4:
Results
of
statistical
analyses
with
significant
results
(p
value).
Parameter
Year
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Profile
Civil
status
0.050*
0.922
0.047*
0.034*
0.039*
Average
AI
per
year
0.085
0.217
0.766 0.858
0.008**
Number
of
trainings
attended
0.025*
0.389
0.047*
0.072
0.161
Training
at
PCC
Ubay
0.007**
0.783
0.000** 0.010**
0.000**
Practice/practice
Checking
heat
by
soft
cervix
0.056
0.399
0.208
0.009**
0.253
Checking
heat
by
rectal
palpation
0.613
0.41
0.008** 0.004**
0.504
Checking
heat
by
reddish
coloring
of
vagina
0.014*
0.492
0.752
0.767
0.292
Checking
heat
by
the
amount
of
vaginal
discharge
0.046*
0.353
0.115
0.012*
0.713
Checking
of
thawing
time
using
watch
0.174
0.234 0.517
0.483
0.018*
Cutting
AI
straw
using
cutter
0.017*
0.258
0.15
0.107
0.013*
Cutting
AI
straw
with
an
angled
orientation
0.377
0.48
0.225
0.009**
0.283
Semen
deposition
at
the
entrance
of
the
cervix
0.154
0.81
0.247
0.462
0.000***
Semen
deposition
at
the
uterine
body
0.019*
0.73
0.63
0.265
0.523
Deposition
at
mid-cervix
after
standard
time
elapsed
0.399
0.145
0.035*
0.059
0.884
Deposition
at
entrance
after
standard
time
elapsed
0.033*
0.243
0.286
0.614
0.013*
Deposition
at
uterine
body
after
standard
time
elapsed
0.222
0.726
0.26
0.004**
0.005**
*Significant,
**/***Highly
significant.
AI=Artificial
insemination
soft
cervix,
reddish
coloring
of
vagina,
amount
of
dis-
charge
and
by
rectal
palpation,
and
checking
of
thaw-
ing
time
using
watch
were
significant.
Checking
and
monitoring
of
heat
and
thawing
time
have
been
shown
to
be
vital
to
the
health
and
breeding
efficiency
of
ani-
mals
[19-21].
On
the
other
hand,
cutting
the
AI
straw
using
a
cutter
with
an
angle
orientation
was
also
found
statistically
significant.
Duponte
[22]
explained
that
cutting
the
straw
straight
across
prevents
back
flush-
ing
of
semen
into
the
insemination
gun.
Moreover,
semen
deposition
at
the
entrance
of
the
cervix,
uterine
body,
and
at
mid-cervix,
and
at
the
entrance
of
cer-
vix
and
uterine
body
after
standard
time
elapsed
were
also
found
significant.
Semen
deposition
site
is
shown
to
influence
calves'
sex
[23],
but
another
study
noted
that
semen
deposition
sites
have
no
effect
and
that
sperm
concentration
appeared
to
be
more
significant
in
the
success
of
conception
[24].
Conclusion
Technician
profile
factors,
including
civil
status,
average
AI
per
year,
the
number
of
trainings
attended,
and
training
may
have
an
influence
on
the
success
of
AI.
For
the
practices,
checking
of
soft
cervix,
rectal
palpation,
reddish
coloring
of
vagina,
amount
of
dis-
charge,
thawing
temperature
check
by
hand,
thawing
time
check
by
watch,
cutting
straw
by
cutter
and
at
an
angle,
semen
deposition
at
entrance,
semen
deposition
at
uterus
body,
and
deposition
at
mid-cervix
may
also
influence
the
success
of
AI.
From
2011
to
2015,
AI
success
rates
in
Leyte,
Samar,
and
Biliran
were
below
the
40%
national
performance.
The
AITs,
farmers,
and
LGU
must
exert
more
effort
to
improving
AI
perfor-
mance.
Although
technician's
profile
and
practices
can
be
critical
to
the
success
of
AI,
other
factors
including
social
and
logistics
may
also
be
significant.
It
is
rec-
ommended
that
AITs
should
attempt
to
perform
more
AIs
per
year.
Moreover,
a
nationwide
study
may
be
conducted
to
assess
and
evaluate
the
profile,
practices,
and
performance
of
AITs
to
improve
national
AI
per-
formance
rate.
Authors'
Contributions
APY
and
RHDY
contributed
equally
to
the
study.
APY
and
RHDY
conceptualized
the
study,
and
analyzed
and
wrote
the
manuscript.
MOC,
LVM,
JVA,
ESN,
ESN,
JTR
and
IFML
contributed
in
the
data
collection
and
giving
valuable
inputs
to
the
man-
uscript.
All
authors
have
read
and
approved
the
final
manuscript.
Acknowledgments
The
authors
would
like
to
thank
the
veterinarians
and
staff
of
the
PCC
at
VSU,
Baybay
City,
and
Leyte
for
their
assistance.
Competing
Interests
The
authors
declare
that
they
have
no
competing
interests.
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