Establishment and Dispersal of the Eurasian Collared-Dove in Florida (Establecimiento y Colonizacin de la Trtola Euroasitica (Streptopelia decaocto) en la Florida)


Romagosa, C.M.; Labisky, R.F.

Journal of Field Ornithology 71(1): 159-166

2000


J.
Field
Ornithol.,
71(1)
:159-166
ESTABLISHMENT
AND
DISPERSAL
OF
THE
EURASIAN
COLLARED-DOVE
IN
FLORIDA
CHRISTINA
M.
ROMAGOSA
AND
RONALD
F.
LABISKY
Department
of
Wildlife
Ecology
and
Conservation
University
of
Florida
Gainesville,
Florida
32611-0430
USA
Abstract.—The
nonindigenous
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
(Streptopelia
decaocto)
most
likely
in-
vaded
southeastern
Florida
from
the
Bahamas
in
the
early
1980s
and
had
established
a
breed-
ing
population
in
Dade
County
by
1982.
In
the
decade
after
its
arrival
in
Florida,
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
dispersed
northward,
initially
along
the
Atlantic
and
Gulf
coasts,
and
estab-
lished
local
populations
throughout
the
state.
By
1996,
the
species
was
recorded
at
46
(82%)
of
56
localities
surveyed
on
the
Christmas
Bird
Count
in
Florida.
The
strong
dispersal
ca-
pability
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove,
which
was
documented
during
its
colonization
of
Europe
in
the
mid-1900s,
suggests
that
rapid
colonization
of
North
America
by
the
species
is
highly
probable.
Populations
established
in
Texas
and
North
Carolina
during
the
early
1990s
may
be
products
of
dispersal
of
doves
from
Florida.
The
species
presents
two
potential
biological
threats
to
native
avifauna:
competition
for
resources
and
transmission
of
diseases.
ESTABLECIMIENTO
Y
COLONIZACION
DE
LA
TORTOLA
EUROASIATICA
(STREPTOPELIA
DECAOCTO)
EN
LA
FLORIDA
Sinopsis.—La
tortola
euroasiatica
(Streptopelia
decaocto),
foranea
a
la
Florida,
probablemente
invadio
el
sureste
del
estado
a
traves
de
las
Bahamas
a
principios
de
la
decada
de
1980,
estableciendo
una
colonia
reproductiva
en
el
Condado
de
Dade
hacia
el
alio
1982.
Durante
la
decada
posterior,
la
tortola
euroasiatica
se
propago
hacia
el
norte
del
estado,
primero
por
las
costas
del
Atlantico
y
del
Golfo
de
Mexico,
dispersandose
mas
tarde
por
el
resto
de
la
Florida.
Para
el
alio
1996,
la
especie
ya
habia
colonizado
46
(82%)
de
las
56
localidades
reportadas
en
los
Conteos
Navideflos
de
Pajaros
en
la
Florida.
Las
poblaciones
establecidas
en
Texas
y
Carolina
del
Norte
a
principios
de
la
decada
de
1990
posiblemente
tuvieron
su
origen
en
la
Florida.
La
gran
capacidad
de
difusion
de
esta
paloma,
documentada
durante
su
propagacion
en
Europa
a
mediados
del
siglo
XX,
sugiere
que
puede
difundirse
rapida-
mente
por
toda
la
America
del
Norte.
La
tortola
euroasiatica
representa
dos
amenazas
bio-
logicas
potenciales
a
la
avifauna
nativa:
la
competencia
por
los
recursos
y
la
transmision
de
enfermedades
avicolas.
The
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
(Streptopelia
decaocto)
recently
has
invaded
the
New
World,
as
was
predicted
by
Hudson
(1972).
The
North
American
invasion
most
likely
originated
from
a
stock
of
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
that
escaped
from
captivity
in
the
Bahamas
in
1974
and
subsequently
established
a
wild
population
(Smith
1987).
The
species
probably
arrived
in
Florida
in
the
early
1980s
(Smith
1987).
The
precise
date
of
its
arrival
is
uncertain
due
to
the
confusion
in
identity
between
the
Eurasian
Col-
lared-Dove
and
the
similar
Ringed
Turtle-Dove
(S.
risoria),
which
is
a
domesticated
variety
of
the
African
Collared-Dove
(S.
roseogrisea).
Until
the
Florida
population
of
collared-doves
was
confirmed
as
S.
decaocto
de-
caocto
by
Smith
and
Kale
(1986),
all
populations
were
believed
to
be
S.
risoria.
Thus,
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
may
have
reached
Florida
as
early
as
the
late
1970s.
159
160]
C.
M.
Romagosa
and
R.
F.
Labisky
J.
Field
Ornithol.
Winter
2000
The
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
is
one
of
the
most
successful
biological
invaders
among
terrestrial
vertebrates
(Fisher
1953,
Gorski
1993).
The
European
range
of
the
species
was
restricted
to
Turkey
and
the
Balkans
in
the
early
1930s
(Hudson
1965).
Over
the
next
30
years,
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
expanded
its
range
to
encompass
most
of
Europe.
Notably,
the
species
colonized
most
of
the
land
mass
of
the
British
Isles,
and
had
surpassed
the
native
Turtledove
(Streptopelia
turtur)
in
abundance
in
many
areas
of
England,
Scotland,
and
Ireland
within
the
10-yr
period,
1955-1964
(Hudson
1965).
In
some
areas
of
the
British
Isles,
breeding
densities
reached
about
20
pairs
per
km
2
(Hudson
1972).
Invasions
of
Iceland,
Portugal,
and
Egypt
had
occurred
by
1971, 1974,
and
1979,
re-
spectively
(Cramp
1985).
This
phenomenal
range
expansion
was
facilitat-
ed
by
the
ability
of
individual
birds
to
disperse
hundreds
of
kilometers
in
a
single
movement
despite
formidable
geographic
barriers
such
as
moun-
tain
ranges
and
expanses
of
water
(Fisher
1953,
Kasparek
1996),
and
by
the
ability
of
dispersing
birds
to
become
viable
breeders
within
2
yr
(Fish-
er
1953).
Although
the
biological
basis
underlying
the
range
expansion
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
in
Europe
is
not
well
understood,
possible
factors
include
mutation
of
a
favorable
gene,
successful
adaptation
to
human-
dominated
habitats,
and
a
high
reproductive
potential
(Mayr
1963,
Gib-
bons
et
al.
1993).
With
no
obvious
constraints
on
dispersal,
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
has
the
potential
to
spread
across
North
America
as
it
did
Europe.
This
paper
documents
the
dispersal
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-
Dove
in
Florida
from
the
mid-1980s
to
1990s,
compares
the
patterns
of
invasion
of
the
species
in
Europe
and
Florida,
and
speculates
as
to
its
potential
spread
in
North
America.
METHODS
Data
on
the
status
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
in
Florida
were
de-
rived
principally
from
the
Christmas
Bird
Count
(CBC),
which
is
orga-
nized
and
published
annually
by
the
National
Audubon
Society.
A
bias
may
have
existed
in
the
CBC
in
the
early
1980s
due
to
the
possible
mis-
identification
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
as
the
Ringed
Turtle-Dove,
both
of
which
are
found
in
Florida.
The
relative
abundance
of
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
recorded
at
all
the
localities
for
each
year
was
measured
as
the
number
of
individuals
counted
divided
by
the
total
party
hours.
The
information
was
used
to
compile
the
chronology
and
rate
of
colo-
nization,
from
the
time
of
the
first
record
in
1986
through
1996.
RESULTS
The
chronology
of
the
invasion
of
Florida
by
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
is
documented
by
2-year
intervals
for
the
period
1986-1996.
The
numbers
of
CBC
localities
where
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
was
recorded
in
Flor-
ida
increased
from
2
in
1986
to
46
in
1996
(Fig.
1).
Concurrently,
the
relative
abundance
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove,
as
measured
by
the
0
o
0
0 0
00
0
00
0
.
0
0
0
NOT
PRESENT
PRESENT
0 0
00
0
0
.
Vol.
71,
No.
1
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
Invades
Florida
[161
1986
1988
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
o
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1990
0
1992
0
0
0
00
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
00
0
0
0
0
0
o
0
1994
1996
.
FIGURE
1.
Geographic
distribution
of
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
in
Florida
derived
from
the
Christmas
Bird
Count
(CBC)
by
2-year
intervals,
1986-1996.
Solid
squares
denote
CBC
sites
where
the
species
was
observed;
open
circles
denote
CBC
sites
where
the
species
was
not
observed.
162]
C.
M.
Romagosa
and
R.
F.
Labisky
I
Field
Ornithol.
Winter
2000
1.4
5
2
1.2
>,
ca
0.
4
3
1
-
0.
-
0
a)
,
D
0.8
-
in
o
u)
2
0.6
Is
O
_
0
6
0.4
-
E
=
c
2
0.2
-
0
2
0
1.322
0.865
0.356
0.114
0.025
0.017
lit
1986
(2)
1988
(7)
1990
(16)
1992
(30)
1994
(41)
1996
(46)
Year
FIGURE
2.
Relative
abundance
of
Eurasian-Collared
Doves
in
Florida
depicted
by
the
mean
number
of
birds
per
party
hour;
the
number
within
parentheses
indicates
the
number
of
CBC
localities
where
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
were
sighted.
total
number
of
birds
recorded
per
CBC
party-hour
at
localities
where
the
species
was
sighted,
increased
from
0.025
in
1986
to
1.322
in
1996
(Fig.
2).
This
documented
spread
of
the
species
is
conservative
because
it
is
based
only
on
sites
where
the
CBC
was
conducted.
In
1986,
the
year
that
the
species
was
first
identified
correctly
as
Strep-
topelia
decaocto,
it
was
recorded
at
2
(4%)
of
48
CBC
sites:
Key
Largo-
Plantation
Key
and
New
Port
Richey.
In
1988,
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
were
recorded
at
7
(14%)
of
50
CBC
sites.
Three
of
the
new
sites
were
located
in
coastal
areas
near
already
established
sites
in
south
Florida.
Two
others
were
located
inland
near
Lake
Placid
and
Corkscrew
Swamp
Sanctuary.
In
1990,
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
was
recorded
at
16
(31%)
of
52
CBC
sites.
The
dove
invaded
peninsular
Florida
as
far
north
as
Cedar
Key
on
the
Gulf
coast
and
Merritt
Island
National
Wildlife
Refuge
on
the
Atlantic
coast.
By
1992,
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
were
observed
at
30
(58%)
of
the
52
CBC
localities,
including
three
new
sites
in
the
Panhandle.
The
western-
most
CBC
reporting
the
species
was
at
Perdido
Bay
on
the
Florida—Ala-
bama
border
and
the
northernmost
near
Jacksonville
on
the
Atlantic
coast.
In
1994,
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
was
present
at
41
(77%)
of
the
53
CBC
localities.
The
two
largest
concentrations,
numbering
750-1000
in-
dividuals,
were
located
at
St.
Petersburg
and
on
Key
Largo—Plantation
Key.
Vol.
71,
No.
1
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
Invades
Florida
[163
In
1996,
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
was
recorded
on
46
(82%)
of
56
CBCs.
Three
of
five
new
localities
were
located
on
river
systems
(Myakka,
Wekiva,
and
Econlockhatchee).
DISCUSSION
The
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
dispersed
northwesterly
throughout
both
peninsular
and
panhandle
Florida
in
little
more
than
a
decade
following
its
arrival
in
the
early
1980s.
In
the
early
1990s,
the
largest
established
breeding
populations
were
located
in
southeastern
Florida
(Kale
et
al.
1992),
where
the
initial
invasion
occurred.
Expansion
initially
was
most
prevalent
along
both
the
Gulf
and
Atlantic
coasts,
followed
by
"backfill-
ing"
of
inland
areas.
This
pattern
of
dispersal,
described
as
"jump"
dis-
persal
and
subsequent
population
coalescence
(Pielou
1979),
was
similar
to
that
observed
for
the
species
during
its
invasion
of
Europe
(Hudson
1972).
Many
of
the
factors
associated
with
the
rapid
range
expansion
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
in
Europe
may
have
contributed
to
the
rapid
dis-
persal
of
the
species
in
Florida:
genetic
alteration,
emigration
unrelated
to
population
density,
high
adaptability
to
human
inhabitation,
broad
diet,
and
high
reproductive
output.
Mayr
(1950)
speculated
that
the
ex-
pansion
in
Europe
was
initiated
by
a
genetic
alteration
of
peripheral
pop-
ulations;
this
same
mutation
also
may
be
present
in
Florida's
source
pop-
ulation.
Dispersal
of
the
species
from
the
Balkans/western
Turkey
(Kas-
parek
1996)
and
from
southern
Florida
occurred
when
population
abun-
dance
was
low,
which
rules
out
density-dependent
dispersal.
Successful
colonization
by
nonindigenous
species
seems
to
be
correlat-
ed
with
the
tolerance
of
human
presence
(Term)le
1992).
In
Europe,
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
are
invariably
associated
with
human
settlements,
both
urban
and
rural,
where
food
is
plentiful
(Coombs
et
al.
1981,
Gorski
1993).
The
species
is
now
substantially
dependent
on
humans
for
food
resources
in
its
native
range
of
India
(Cramp
1985).
The
rapid
expansion
of
the
species
in
Florida
appears
to
have
been
accelerated
by
its
broad
diet
(Goodwin
1970),
especially
when
that
diet
is
augmented
by
food
associated
with
human
habitation
(Stevenson
and
Anderson
1994).
Also,
the
availability
of
ample
food
may
be
the
most
important
factor
affecting
the
timing
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove's
breeding
season
(Robertson
1990).
In
Florida,
mild
climatic
conditions
and
a
year-round
food
supply
in
areas
of
human
habitation
allows
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove,
a
mul-
tiple-brooder
(Robertson
1990),
the
opportunity
to
enhance
annual
pro-
ductivity.
Winter
breeding
of
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
has
been
docu-
mented
in
Florida
(McNair
1997).
If
food
is
abundant,
Eurasian
Collared-
Doves
frequently
will
start
a
new
clutch
while
still
attending
dependent
fledglings,
and
sometimes
while
young
still
are
in
the
nest
(Robertson
1990).
Given
its
historic
range
expansion
throughout
Europe
(Fisher
1953,
Hudson
1965)
and
its
rapid
invasion
of
Florida
(Smith
1987,
Hengeveld
1993,
this
study),
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
probably
will
colonize
all
of
164]
C.
M.
Romagosa
and
R.
F.
Labisky
J.
Field
Ornithol.
Winter
2000
North
America
within
the
next
few
decades.
Breeding
populations
already
have
been
reported
in
disjunct
locations
such
as
Texas
(Greg
Lasley,
pers.
comm.),
Montana
(Terry
McEneaney,
pers.
comm.)
and
Illinois
(Bohlen
1998),
although it
is
not
known
whether
these
populations
are
a
product
of
dispersal
from
Florida
or
local
releases.
Once
established
in
the
wild,
nonindigenous
birds
become
part
of
the
local
biotic
community,
and
although
sometimes
benign
in
their
effects
(Roughgarden
1986),
usually
exert
both
economic
and
biological
impacts
(Temple
1992).
Observed
interactions
between
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
and
other
species
in
Florida,
such
as
the
Mourning
Dove
(Zenaida
ma-
croura),
White-Winged
Dove
(Zenaida
asiatica),
Northern
Cardinal
(Car-
dinalis
cardinalis),
and
Painted
Bunting
(Passerine
ciris),
suggest
that
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
is
behaviorally
dominant
(pers.
obs.).
The
Mourn-
ing
Dove,
which
is
an
important
game
species
in
the
United
States
(e.g.,
approximately
2.4
million
hunters
harvested
46
million
doves
annually
during
the
1980s;
Sadler
1993),
may
be
negatively
affected
by
competition
with
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove.
Other
North
American
columbids
that
may
be
affected
are
the
White-Winged
Dove,
Common
Ground
Dove
(Co-
lumbina
passerine)
and
Band-Tailed
Pigeon
(Columba
fasciata).
However,
Moulton
and
Pimm
(1983)
suggested
that
it
is
difficult
to
predict
which
species
might
interact
when
nonindigenous
species
are
introduced.
It
has
been
documented
that
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
has
been
in-
fected
with
Trichomonas
gallinae
in
Europe
(Cornelius
1972)
and
in
Flor-
ida
(M.
Spalding,
unpubl.
data),
which
is
perhaps
the
most
important
disease
agent
with
respect
of
the
health
of
Mourning
Dove
populations
throughout
North
America
(Conti
1993).
The
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
has
been
reported
to
carry
pathogenic
strains
of
T
gallinae
(Cornelius
1972).
The
potential
for
high
densities
of
breeding
Eurasian
Collared-Doves
may
enhance
the
possibility
of
disease
transmission
to
native
columbids.
Fur-
ther
studies
should
be
conducted
to
determine
if
the
Eurasian
Collared-
Dove
will
exacerbate
the
probability
of
disease
epizootics
caused
by
viru-
lent
strains
of
this
protozoan
in
the
indigenous
Mourning
Dove.
In
summary,
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove,
as
reflected
by
the
docu-
mented
invasions
of
Europe
and
Florida,
probably
will
colonize
much
of
North
America
within
the
next
few
decades.
The
species
presents
two
potential
biological
threats:
competition
for
resources
with
native
avifau-
na,
and
transmission
of
diseases.
The
invasion
of
North
America
by
the
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
demands
attention
to
potential
primary,
second-
ary
and
tertiary
impacts
on
native
avifauna.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
P.
William
Smith
provided
information
on
the
early
colonization
of
the
Eurasian
Collared-
Dove
in
Florida.
William
Pranty
and
Brad
Stith
facilitated
access
to
breeding
records
from
the
Florida
Breeding
Bird
Atlas
Project.
C.
R.
Chandler,
T.
Chaves,
R.
T.
Engstrom,
D.
J.
Forrester,
H.
Freifeld,
M.
Ines-Barreto,
A.
W.
Kratter,
A.
Romagosa,
M.
Romagosa,
J.
Sailer,
D.
W.
Steadman,
M.
Tellkamp,
M.
I.
Williams
and
three
anonymous
reviewers
provided
com-
ments
and
revisions
which
improved
the
manuscript.
The
senior
author
was
sponsored,
in
part,
by
a
Ronald
E.
McNair
Post-baccalaureate
Achievement
Award
through
the
University
Vol.
71,
No.
1
Eurasian
Collared-Dove
Invades
Florida
[165
of
Florida
and
a
National
Science
Foundation
Graduate
Research
Fellowship.
This
paper
is
a
contribution
(
Journal
Series
No.
R-06292)
of
the
Florida
Agricultural
Experiment
Station,
Gainesville,
Florida.
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