Cost-benefit aspects of coastal vegetation establishment in Tampa Bay, Florida


Hoffman, WE.; Rodgers, J.A.; Jr.

Environmental Conservation 81: 39-43

1981


SI
27
.
50C
132
-
25
Skm
C
DA-
D
Tampa
Bay
Study
A
reas
Cost—Benefit
Aspects
of
Coastal
Vegetation
Establishment
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida
by
WILLIAM
E.
HOFFMAN,
M.A.(South
Florida)
Vegetation
Principal
Investigator,
Tampa
Marine
Institute,
1310
Shoreline
Drive,
Tampa,
Florida
33605,
USA,
JAMES
A.
RODGERS,
Jr,
M.A.(L.S.U.),
Ph.D.(South
Florida)
National
Audubon
Society
1020
82nd
St
South,
Tampa,
Florida
33619,
USA.
INTRODUCTION
As
Man
encroaches
upon
coastal
areas,
he
all-too-wide-
ly
initiates
dredge
and
fill
operations.
The
dredging
and
especially
filling
processes
are
apt
to
be
so
detrimental,
particularly
to
the
delicate
estuarine
ecosystems,
that
we
feel
strongly
that
something
positive
needs
to
be
done
to
mitigate
the
damage
already
incurred.
Such
positive
and
productive
action
has
been
taken
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida,
by
the
planting
of
Smooth
Cordgrass
(Spartina
alterni-
flora)
and
Black
and
White
Mangroves
(respectively
Avi-
cennia
germinans
and
Laguncularia
racemosa).
The
importance
of
estuarine
vegetation
(especially
salt-marsh
grasses
and
mangroves)
as
a
surface
and
sub-
strate
stabilizer,
wildlife
habitat,
and
major
contributor
to
estuarine
primary
and
other
organic
production,
has
been
well
established
(see,
for
example,
the
review
of
Woodhouse
et
al.,
1974).
Also
important
is
a
cost-effec-
tive
and
environmentally
productive
means
of
stabilizing
dredge
material,
preferably
using
such
estuarine
vegeta-
tion.
This
is
especially
true
in
a
port
area
of
active
eco-
nomic
growth
such
as
Tampa
Bay,
where
dredging
and
deposition
of
the
dredged
material
is
a
continuing
pro-
cess.
Tampa
Bay
also
offers
an
unusually
favourable
loca-
tion
for
remedial
planting
in
that
both
Smooth
Cordgrass
marshes
and
mangrove
swamps
are
sufficiently
abundant
to
allow
their
use
as
source-areas
for
such
plantings.
An
analysis
of
large-scale
labour-intensive
planting
techniques
was
facilitated
when
the
Young
Adult
Con-
servation
Corps
(YACC)
awarded
a
contract
to
provide
labour
for
work
on
coastal
vegetation.
The
first
large
site
chosen
was
the
dredge-material
extension
of
Sunken
Is-
land
(SI
on
Fig.
1),
which
is
leased
and
managed
as
a
bird
sanctuary
by
the
National
Audubon
Society.
Smooth
Cordgrass
was
chosen
for
this
site
because
of
three
im-
portant
characteristics:
(1)
it
is
an
excellent
substrate-
stabilizer
in
areas
of
low
wave-energy,
(2)
it
would
in-
crease
the
foraging
area
for
local
colonial
waterbirds,
and
(3)
Clapper
Rails
(Rallus
longirostris)
and
Willets
(Catop-
trophorus
semipalmatus)
use
areas
of
Smooth
Cordgrass
Fig.
1.
Sketch-map
of
study
areas
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida.
as
their
preferred
habitat
for
nesting.
These
two
species
of
birds
have
been
adversely
affected
quite
severely
by
the
loss
of
areas
of
Smooth
Cordgrass
marsh
in
Tampa
Bay.
The
second
site
chosen
was
the
near-by
island
of
dredge-material
(CDA-D
on
Fig.
1),
owned
by
the
Tampa
Port
Authority.
Mangroves
were
transplanted
on
CDA-D
as
partial
fulfillment
of
mitigation
requirements
in
connection
with
the
Port
of
Tampa's
22nd
Street
shrimp
docking-facility.
Construction
of
the
facility
re-
quires
destruction
of
2.0
ha
of
mangroves,
but,
as
miti-
gation,
the
Port
Authority
must
replant
a
similar
area
39
Environmental
Conservation,
Vol.
8,
No.
1,
Spring
1981—©1981
The
Foundation
for
Environmental
Conservation—Printed
in
Switzerland.
40
Environmental
Conservation
elsewhere
in
the
Bay.
Therefore,
mangroves
were
avail-
able
from
the
site
of
construction.
There
were
three
major
goals
to
the
study
described
in
this
paper:
(1)
to
develop
successful
large-scale
and
labour-intensive
Smooth
Cordgrass
and
mangrove
trans-
planting
techniques,
(2)
to
analyze
the
cost-effectiveness
of
these
techniques,
and
(3)
to
analyze
the
benefits
to
Man
and
the
environment
of
these
plantings
and
also
of
the
methods
involved.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
Site
Descriptions
Sunken
Island
(SI
on
Fig.
1,
situated
at
27
°
51'N
and
82
°
25'W)
is
located
at
the
mouth
of
the
Alafia
River
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida.
The
dredge-material
extension
on
which
we
worked
was
created
in
November
1977.
The
south
littoral
zone
was
chosen
for
planting
owing
to
the
low
wave-energy,
favourable
elevation,
and
particular
in-
undation
schedule.
The
substrate
is
composed
primarily
of
sand
and
silt.
Dredge-material
island
CDA-D
(Fig.
1,
situated
at
27
°
53'N
and
82
°
25'W)
is
located
a
few
kilometres
to
the
south
of
Pendola
Point
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida.
CDA-D
was
created
with
dredge-material
in
the
spring
and
sum-
mer
of
1978.
The
western
littoral
zone
was
chosen
for
planting,
as
it
is
an
open
area
of
low
wave-energy
and
proper
elevation.
The
substrate
is
primarily
sand
and
crushed
shell.
Planting
Methods
Sunken
Island
was
planted
with
12-cm-plugs
of
Smooth
Cordgrass
(Spartina
alterniflora),
a
'plug'
being
a
cylindrical
core
consisting
of
the
plant's
rhizome
with
aerial
portions
and
substrate
kept
so
far
as
possible
in-
tact.
The
plugs
were
removed
via
post-hole
digger
from
existing
marshes
along
the
southern
bank
of
the
Mafia
River
and
on
Whiskey
Stump
Key,
at
approximately
1
plug/m
2
,
the
intact
plugs
being
transported
by
boat
to
Sunken
Island.
Plugs
were
planted
on
1
m
centres
with
rows
2
m
apart
(Fig.
2)
after
clipping
the
smooth
cord-
grass
blades
to
approximately
10
cm.
Clipping
of
foliage
was
done
to
reduce
the
plants'
water
demand
and
there-
fore
possible
shock
(as
root
damage
limits
water-absorp-
tion
capabilities).
The
Smooth
Cordgrass
was
planted
between
0.23
m
and
0.88
m
above
mean
low
water
(mlw),
on
Sunken
Island
from
16
October
1978
to
13
March
1979,
a
total
of
7,261
plugs
being
placed
in
an
area
of
1.64
ha.
CDA-D
was
planted
with
0.3-1.9
m-high
transplants
of
Black
Mangrove
(Avicennia
germinans)
and
White
Mangrove
(Laguncularia
racemosa).
The
mangroves
were
removed
by
shovel
and
the
root-ball
(root
and
substrate
complex)
was
wrapped
in
burlap.
Transplants
were
taken
at
random
from
the
source-area
and
transported
via
boat
to
CDA-D.
Planting
was
done
on
2-m
centres.
Terminal
branches
(ca
6
cm)
were
clipped
from
30%
of
the plants,
chosen
at
random.
The
planting
on
CDA-D
ranged
from
0.58
m
to
0.88
m
mlw
and
was
done
from
16
January
AY
Si
,
*
1016
0
'
it
1
lb
,
•.r
.
,
•••
Fig.
2.
Planting
of
Spartina
alterniflora
'plugs'
on
Sunken
Island,
showing
1-m
centres
with
rows
2
m
apart.
Hoffman
&
Rodgers:
Cost—
Benefit
Aspects
of
Coastal
Vegetation
Establishment
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida
41
1979
to
29
June
1979.
A
total
of
1,513
mangroves
(63%
Black
Mangrove
and
37%
White
Mangrove)
were
placed
in
an
area
of
0.52
ha.
Cost
Analysis
Four
aspects
were
defined
for
the
cost
analysis:
1)
Labour
charges
were
calculated
by
multiplying
the
man-hours
on
each
project
by
the
minimum
wage
at
the
time
of
writing
($3.10
per
hour
in
October
1980).
This
was
done
to
ensure
a
constant
basis
for
calculations.
No
cost
for
supervision
was
included.
2)
Boat
cost
was
cal-
culated
on
the
basis
of
a
daily
rental
charge.
This
in-
cluded
fuel
and
maintenance
costs.
The
daily
value
chosen
($50)
was
based
on
current
market
rate
when
the
projects
were
initiated.
3)
Vehicle
costs
included
lease,
gasoline,
and
maintenance
costs
for
transporting
workers
to
the
project
site.
4)
Materials
included
tools
needed
for
the
project
(i.e.
shovels,
post-hole
diggers,
burlap,
and
wood
flats).
RESULTS
Plantings
After
14
months
the
Sunken
Island
Smooth
Cord-
grass
is
exhibiting
93.4%
survival
(Fig.
3).
Losses
appear
to
be
concentrated
at
the
upper
(and,
secondarily,
the
lower)
tidal
extremes
of
the
planting.
The
12-cm
plugs
have
now
spread
almost
sufficiently
to
obscure
the
orig-
inal
rows.
Seed
production
was
observed
during
the
first
fruiting
season
after
the
cordgrass
had
been
planted,
and
seedling
development
is
taking
place.
After
13
months
the
CDA-D
mangroves
show
73.3%
survival
(Fig.
4),
losses
being
mainly
in
the
lower
areas.
No
difference
was
found
between
Black
and
White
Man-
grove
survival,
or
between
clipped
and
unclipped
plants.
In
many
cases,
severe
winter
weather
and
shock
pro-
duced
leaf-drop
in
the
first
year.
However,
most
of
the
mangroves
that
were
so
affected
have
recovered.
A
small
number
of
mangroves
(ca
10)
produced
flowers
and
set
seed
during
the
first
season
after
they
had
been
trans-
planted.
Fig.
4.
Planting
of
mangroves
on
CDA-D
(Avicennia
germinans
and
Laguncularia
racemosa)
after
13
months.
VP"
X
t
ti
Fig.
3.
Planting
of
Spartina
alterniflora
on
Sunken
Island
after
14
months.
42
Environmental
Conservation
TABLE
I.
Four
Major
Cost-items
of
Sunken
Island
and
CDA-D
Plantings.
COST
SUNKEN
ISLAND
CDA-D
Labour
5,059.20
4,017.60
Boat
1,700.00
1,350.00
Vehicle
612.00
489.10
Materials
117.00
79.00
Totals
7,488.20
5,935.70
TABLE
II.
Vegetation
Planting
Cost
Comparison.
COST/HECTARE
TYPE
OF
$
PLANTING
CENTRE
SOURCE
(rn)
2,510
Mangrove
seedling
0.91
Teas
(1977)
12,500
Mangrove
propagule
0.81
Lewis
(1979)
11,459
Mangrove
transplant
2.00
This
paper
4,565
Smooth
Cordgrass
transplant
1.50
This
paper
Cost
Analysis
Table
I
shows
the
four
major
cost-items
and
values
for
SI
and
CDA-D.
Sunken
Island
required
more
labour,
boat
time,
vehicle
time,
and
materials,
than
CDA-D.
However,
on
a
per
plant
basis
the
Smooth
Cordgrass
is
cheaper
to
establish
than
mangroves
(SI
=
$4,565/ha,
$1.03/plug;
CDA-D
=
$11,459/ha,
$3.92/transplant).
Perhaps
a
more
useful
means
of
comparison
is
the
man-
power
expenditure
for
both
sites:
SI
=
995
man-hours/
ha;
CDA-D
=
2,541
man-hours/ha.
Thus,
once
more,
the
Smooth
Cordgrass
is
the
more
suitable
to
establish.
DISCUSSION
The
planting
of
Smooth
Cordgrass
plugs
appears
more
cost-effective
than
mangrove
transplants
both
on
a
unit-
area
and
unit-plant
basis.
Table
II
shows
how
the
find-
ings
of
this
study
compare
with
previous
work,
though
it
must
be
reiterated
that
the
costs
included
in
our
present
study
are
not
complete,
in
that
no
supervision,
adminis-
trative,
follow-up
costs,
or
profits,
are
taken
into
account.
The
cost
for
Smooth
Cordgrass
appears
lowest
with
the
exception
of
Teas's
(1977)
estimates.
However,
as
Teas
(1977)
indicates,
his
figures
were
calculated
for
research
and
not
commercial
plantings
(excluding
some
necessary
costs)
and
are
based
on
1977
dollars.
The
man-
hour
requirements
for
SI
Smooth
Cordgrass
(995
man-
hours/ha)
are
similar
to
those
reported
by
Knutson
(1977),
i.e.
1,112
man-hours/ha
for
similar
planting.
Man-
hour
figures
are
probably
more
accurate
when
comparing
methods
then
overall
costs,
as
this
eliminates
such
vari-
ables
as
administrative,
travel,
supervision,
and
material,
costs.
The
man-hour
and
dollar
costs
of
Smooth
Cordgrass
could
be
reduced
further
if
the
'plugs'
were
either
divided
or
made
into
sprigs
for planting.
If
sprigged,
the
cost
of
planting
could
be
reduced
by
at
least
30-60%
(as
a
minimum
of
3
sprigs
are
found
in
each
plug).
The
time-
frame
for
sprigs'
spreading
to
cover
a
newly-planted
area
would
be
approximately
three
years
(Lewis
&
Lewis,
1977),
as
opposed
to
the
1.5
years
found
with
plugs.
A
reduction
in
cost
by
sprigging
(to
$.38—$.67/plug)
places
this
Smooth
Cordgrass
into
the
cost-range
of
commercially-grown
nursery
material.
Such
planting
can
involve
a
cost
to
the
environment
quite
apart
from
the
dollar
value
discussed,
as
removing
plants
from
established
marshes
is
liable
to
be
destructive.
However,
removal
of
the
12-cm
Smooth
Cordgrass
plugs
did
not
prove
harmful
to
the
source
sites,
where
culm
densities
returned
to
their
original
values
(ca
150
culms/
m
2
)
within
1
year.
But
removal
of
mangrove
transplants
had
some
impact,
owing
to
the
size
of
the
root/substrate
complex
that
had
to
be
removed.
There
is
also
the
dis-
advantage
that
mangroves
cannot
spread
and
grow
back
into
disturbed
areas
in
the
manner
of
such
grasses
as
Smooth
Cordgrass.
However,
there
are
times
when
re-
moving
mangroves
is
advantageous,
such
as
the
CDA-D
project
where
transplants
were
utilized
which
would
otherwise
have
been
destroyed.
It
can
also
be
argued
that
selective
removal
of
mangroves
for
planting
from
below
a
dense
canopy
can
have
positive
results
on
the
ecosystem
from
which
they
are
removed
as
well
as,
of
course,
on
the
area
to
which
they
are
transferred.
Both
the
SI
and
CDA-D
plantings
provide
benefits
to
the
immediate
surroundings.
Smooth
Cordgrass
and
mangroves
both
increase
an
area's
primary
and
secondary
productivity.*
It
appears
that
Smooth
Cordgrass
provides
more
primary
production
(up
to
2,000
g
C/m
2
/yr;
Thayer
et
al.,
1978)
than
do
mangroves
(up
to
1,020
g
C/m
2
/yr;
Thayer
et
al.,
1978).
Smooth
Cordgrass
serves
as
a
nest-
ing
habitat
for
Clapper
Rail
and
Willet,
while
mangrove
provide
this
for
Brown
Pelican
(Pelecanus
occidentalis),
White
Ibis
(Eudocimum
allus),
and
other
species
of
colonial
waterbirds
(Schreiber
&
Schreiber,
1978).
The
time-frame
for
newly-planted
Smooth
Cordgrass
to
achieve
this
end
is
shorter
than
that
for
ipangrove
trans-
plants
(ca
1
yr
versus
ca
10-12
yr).
'Thus
the
newly-
planted
marsh
is
already
serving
as
nesting
grounds
for
Clapper
Rail.
Moreover
a
planting
of
Smooth
Cordgrass
can
serve
as
a
source-area
for
additional
planting
within
18
months,
whereas
mangroves
require
a
much
longer
time
to
reach
this
state
(of
the
order
of
years).
The
monetary
benefits
of
estuarine
vegetation
can
only
be
estimated.
Gosselink
et
al.
(1974)
have
calculated
the
value
of
one
hectare
of
mature
Smooth
Cordgrass
marsh
to
be
about
$200,000
($82,000/acre).
While
the
accurate
assessment
of
economic
values
for
marshland
is
difficult,
the
figures
generated
by
these
Authors
indicate
a
highly
beneficial
return
on
even
the
more
expensive
of
marsh
creation
projects
($11,459/ha
for
mangrove
transplantation).
The
ecological
and
economic
benefits
of
estuarine
vegetation
establishment
on
dredge
material
can
thus
far
*A
referee
requests
expansion
of
this,
and
evidence
for
any
im-
provement,
commenting
that
'Cordgrass
production
may
be
[of]
poorer
quality
than
that
of
mangrove.'—Ed.
Hoffman
&
Rodgers:
Cost—Benefit
Aspects
of
Coastal
Vegetation
Establishment
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida
43
outweigh
the
costs.
Bearing
this
in
mind,
vegetation
should
be
established
on
these
sites
whenever
and
wherever
the
means
are
available.
The
methodology
in-
volved
is
not
beyond
the
capabilities
of
untrained
workers
(including
volunteers).
Estuarine
vegetation
establishment
is
a
positive,
productive,
and
cost-effective
means
of
mitigating
damage
caused
by
dredging
and
filling.
SUMMARY
Between
late
1978
and
mid-1979,
two
major
coastal
vegetation
plantings
were
completed
on
dredge
material
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida.
On
the
dredge
material
extension
of
Sunken
Island,
1.64
ha
of
Smooth
Cordgrass
was
planted
via
12-cm
'plugs'
on
1-m
centres,
in
rows
2
m
apart.
After
14
months,
this
planting
is
showing
93.4%
survival.
On
dredge-material
island
CDA-D,
0.52
ha
of
mangroves
(63%
Black
and
37%
White)
was
planted
via
0.3-1.9
m
transplants
on
2-m
centres.
After
13
months,
this
planting
is
showing
73.3%
survival.
The
nature
of
these
two
plantings
permits
a
compari-
son
of
their
cost
and
man-power
requirements.
The
labour
requirements
for
Smooth
Cordgrass
were
995
man-hours/ha
as
opposed
to
2,541
man-hours
for
man-
grove
transplanting.
Smooth
Cordgrass
requires
$4,566/
ha
for
plugs
($1.03/plug)
while
mangrove
transplants
cost
$11,459/ha
($3.92/transplant).
These
costs
are
for
comparison
only,
as
they
entail
primarily
labour
and
neglect
most
of
the
indirect
costs
that
may
be
experi-
enced.
An
analysis
of
benefits
for
both
salt-marsh
and
man-
grove
planting
indicates
that
Smooth
Cordgrass
provides
greater
primary
production
on
a
g
C/m
2
basis
than
man-
groves.
Both
plantings
serve
as
colonial
waterbird
nest-
ing
habitat
and
source-areas
for
further
planting,
but
Cordgrass
does
so
in
a
shorter
time-frame.
When
weigh-
ing
the
positive
and
negative
aspects
of
both,
Spartina
alterniflora
is
preferred
over
mangroves
where
both
are
present.
REFERENCES
GOSSELINK,
J.
G.,
ODUM,
E.
P.
&
POPE,
R.
M.
(1974).
The
Value
of
the
Tidal
Marsh.
Center
for
Wetland
Resources,
Louisiana
State
University,
Baton
Rouge,
Louisiana,
Publ.
LSU-SG-74-03.
[Not
available
for
checking.]
KNUTSON,
P.
L.
(1977).
Planting
guidelines
for
marsh
develop-
ment
and
bank
stabilization.
CETA
77-3,
U.S.
Army,
Coastal
Engineering
Research
Center,
Fort
Belvoir,
Virginia,
[Not
available
for
checking.]
LEWIS,
R.
R.,
III
(1979).
Large
scale
mangrove
restoration
on
St
Croix,
U.S.
Virgin
Islands.
Proceedings,
6th
Annual
Confer-
ence
on
the
Restoration
and
Creation
of
Wetlands,
pp.
231
—42.
LEWIS,
R.
R.,
III
&
LEWIS,
C.
S.
(1977).
Tidal
march
creation
on
dredge
material
in
Tampa
Bay,
Florida.
Proceedings,
4th
Annual
Conference
on
the
Restoration
of
Coastal
Vegeta-
tion
in
Florida,
pp.
45-67.
SCHREIBER,
R.
W.
&
SCHREIBER,
E.
A.
(1978).
Colonial
bird
use
and
plant
succession
on
dredge
material
islands
in
Florida.
Vol.
I,
Sea
and
Wading
Bird
Colonies.
Vicksburg,
Mississippi,
Environmental
Effects
Laboratory,
U.S.
Army
Engineer
Waterways
Exp.
Sta.,
Contract
Report
D-78-14
[not
avail-
able
for
checking]
.
TEAS,
H.
T.
(1977),
Ecology
and
restoration
of
mangrove
shore-
lines
in
Florida.
Environmental
Conservation,
4(1),
pp.
51-
8,
7
figs.
THAYER,
G.
W.,
STUART,
H.
H.,
KENWORTH,
W.
J.,
USTACH,
J.
F.
&
HALL,
A.
B.
(1978).
Habitat
values
of
salt
marshes,
mangroves,
and
sea
grasses
for
aquatic
organisms.
Pp.
235-
46
in
Wetland
Functions
and
Values:
The
State
of
Our
Un-
derstanding.
[Not
available
for
checking.]
WOODHOUSE,
W.
W.,
Jr,
SENECA,
E.
D.
&
BROOME,
S.
W.
(1974).
Propagation
of
Spartina
alterniflora
for
substrate
stabilization
and
salt-marsh
development.
TM-46,
U.S.
Army
Coastal
Engineering
Research
Center,
Fort
Belvoir,
Virginia
[not
available
for
checking]
.
USSR
to
Continue
Whaling
in
Southern
Ocean
Reports,
published
in
the
Western
press,
to
the
effect
that
the
Soviet
Union
intends
to
stop
whaling,
are
with-
out
foundation,
the
International
Union
for
Conserva-
tion
of
Nature
and
Natural
Resources
and
the
World
Wildlife
Fund
announced
in
Geneva
on
22
January
1981.
After
contacting
a
reliable
spokesman
within
the
Soviet
Union's
Ministry
of
Agriculture,
IUCN
and
WWF
were
informed
that
the
Soviet
Union
will
continue
its
whaling
activities in
the
Southern
Ocean.
The
spokesman
told
IUCN/WWF
that
'The
annual
catch
taken
by
the
Soviet
Union's
whalers
will
stay
strictly
within
the
quotas
de-
cided
by
the
24-nations
International
Whaling
Commis-
sion'
(IWC).
The
confusion
arose
from
a
reported
Tass
statement
that
the
Soviet
Union—which
accounts
for
more
than
one-third
of
the
world's
total
whale-catch—intended
to
stop
all
whaling
this
year
and
refit
three
whaling
fleets
for
treating
fish
and
seafood.
However,
the
Soviet
spokes-
man
in
the
Agriculture
Ministry—which
is
a
member
of
IUCN—was
able
to
confirm
that,
apart
from
taking
a
few
individual
whales
to
meet
the
needs
of
indigenous
communities
in
the
USSR's
Far
North,
all
whaling
will
stop
in
the
Soviet
Union's
far-eastern
waters.
Upon
being
told
this
news,
IUCN's
Director-General
said
'Obviously,
IUCN
and
WWF
are
disappointed
to
dis-
cover
that
the
Soviet
Union
does
not
intend
to
stop
all
whaling,
but
we
welcome
the
announcement
that
they
intend
to
establish
a
series
of
marine
sanctuaries
in
their
far-eastern
waters'.
(WWF
and
IUCN
have
been
urging
a
moratorium
on
all
commercial
whaling
for
the
past
nine
years.)
Most
Soviet
whaling
is
carried
out
in
the
Southern
Ocean
for
Minke
Whales
(Balaenoptera
acutorostrata),
which
were
once
considered
too
small
to
be
profitable.
In
the
1980
season
the
Soviet
Union
took
approximately
4,000
Minkes—about
a
quarter
of
the
total
permitted
whale-catch—with
Japan
taking
a
further
4,000
Minkes.
The
1981-82
IWC
quota
for
all
whale
species
is
13,753,
down
from
15,883
in
1980-81.
IUCN
Avenue
du
Mont-Blanc
1196
Gland
Switzerland.