Deglaciation of the Westfield and Connecticut Valleys, Massachusetts


Warren, C.R.

U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1980: 64-65

1980


64
GEM
Ulla
-
AL
SI:Jttrk.'Y
itb;z+EAFiril
HOD
and
the
resuitiag
interlobate
area
recreated
gradually
in
a
north.aorthwosttrendog
belt
from
SaAtaariorc
to
Kingston-
The
lobe
of
the
2nutheast
coastal
zone
is
known
as
the
Bustards
Raw-Narragansett
Ray
lobe.
Hex's
•f
outwalh
deposits,
m•saint
segwritt,
and
higirlevol
kamcs
markkg
successivt.
posaticins
of
thi
t
edge
rf
the
lobe
are
a
line
de
asc-northeast
and
are
spaced
to
18-km
tit
ervals
from
B
umards
Ray
northward
to
the
niiddle
of
the
Tvuntan
Basin,
Spacing
of
rettvat,
posit
ions
increases
westward
front
the
interlobete
area
and
indicates
more
rapid
retreat
of
the
western
part
of
tkr:
As
deg&
tion
continued,
ice
in
the
northeastern
Manic
husetas
coastal
area
streanied
vigorously
east
to
aast.soutl
wag
following.*
king
and
rapid
erasion
of
1
ee
that
hunted
against
deep
ma33rte
waters
in
t
1113
Gulf
of
Maine
to
the
east
Because
of
this
rapid
wastage
of
ice,
mume
waters
noodal
the
isastatically
depressed
CURE
aOrth
of
the
Boston
area
0.avion
.
nirite
deltas
with
topset-foraset
contacts
at
elecat3ons
of
16.6
min
I
PSwi-ch,
21-3
m
m
Newburypor
t,
and
31.4
m
at
t
he
New
Hampsloro
State
line
define
the
isaxinnvn
gl
Bei
°math
e
water
plane
in
the
rotthmist
tsasLil
use.
Pas
tgladal
crust
I
rebound
tilted
the
glac
i071181ine
wake
r
p
lase
0.0
3n/Yon
upward
to
the
north
Deeptistian
oil
Ihs
Ccsidedieul
WAIT
Mestsettusetli
F.
I.
1
arsen„
mapping
and
compiling
the
starZi.qal
geology
of
the
Connecticut
Valley
area
of
Massachusetts,
reports
that
dining
degla:lation
in
the
Woodfordon
tuba
ne
of
tl
W
;,,Bron
Ian
Stage
an
ice
lobe
filled
the
vat]
Ley.
The
fotm
of
the
lobe
is
shown
by
a
patheen
ci
strietioas,
defining
a
vector
of
due
west
on
the
swat
side
of
the-
nlley
to
S.
73'E.
nn
the
east
sae_
From
Gteenfiell
to
Loogrisadlw.
Et
north.south
diSance
of
€2
km,
er3atts
of
Triassic
and
Jurassic
EiriEsslac
rocks
haw
been
carried
both
southeast
std
southWinA
onto
the
itightr
crystalline
uplands.
F
rratics
transported
to
the
southeast
cou
Id
have
been
transportad
during
the
main
advance
of
the
ice
sheet,.
wbitli
moved
5,
11'
E_
acroas
the
vallay;
those
trans-
ported
southwest
must
have
been
welled
by
ise
in
the
lobe_
In
addition,
triunes,
!sane
terraces.
kame
deltas,.
and
till
r
Ldg
es
defile
arcuate
ice
margins
that
can
be
ex-
trapolated
utte*S
the
valley.
Pam
its
of
strati
tied
drift
u
RN
north
soith-trerdng
lee
toritact
ind
'Mak
that
tributary
valleys
were
clear
of
ice
wbile
the
main
galley
was
tilled
with
i
ex
Successively
lower
inc.phose-
quanoes
fit
mad
in
the
side
valleys
as
the
lobe
melted
away
torn
the
wall.
At
Ch
toilet,
the
icenwrgi
n
aseilate.i,
producing
at
lead
two
readvanee
tills
Evidence
for
the
4
Cift•Pee
readvance
is
found
at
nine
localities
within
an
armi,
of
approxirdately
91km
Read-
taste
localities
also
are
found
in
the
viritin.
•f
Eas
tlranipton
and
Northampron,
The
activity
of
ice
during
deglaciat3on
in
the
Connect.
icut
Valleys
in
marked
contrast
to
the
glac:
ial
histor
v
of
the
nearby
Swift
River-Qtabbin
Reaersoir
valley,
the
oct
majr
r
southirtvidir
g
%alley
east
of
the
Cc.muitkut
There,
mappecl
striations
lie
in
the
sector
S.18'
E.
to
S.
W.
where
n•
eideit2e
of
readvance
iss
yet
been
frond.
woos
im
arthe
weslliei
and
Connecticth
%W
en.
Ilediacteartb
At
one
time
dining
the
Last
deg
lac
ration
of
Massachusetts,
tongues
of
glacier
ice
occupied
the
Westfield
sad
Colnivitk.ut
Valleys
C.
R.
Wat
Teri
reports
evidence
at
four
places
that
records
the
relitire
levels
of
the
ice
in
these
tongues
.
The
Ste
thtttims,
teXtVel,
:Lud
field
relations
of
a
deposit
about
I
km
south
of
the
sire
of
the
Koight.ille
flood-control
darn
on
the
Westfield
River
show
that
it
is
a
Lame
delta.
deposited
at
the
front
of
ice
that
stood
against
a
lake,
Tim
lake
wAs
dammed
by
ice
at
the
site
of
Woton
rico,
some
13
km
to
the
south;
the
W
or
moo°
ice
must
have
stood
at
about
the
same
level
as
the
ice
atthe
KDightville
de
lta_The
ice
at
Wcronoco
was
the
terminus
of.'
sulAubethat
came
up
the
Weglickl
Valley,
eopirig
nurtlwest
frccn
the
main
ice
tongue
in
the
Connecticut
Valle.,
and
the
ice
in
the
Conne2ticut
Valley
East
of
Weronoco
must
have
at•ad
canxiderably
higher
than
the
termini
at
Worosaxo
and
Knghtvil
le.
At
tho
latitude
of
Knghtville,
farther
north,
the
Connectimt
Valley
ice
miEst
have
heen
higher
still.
Parther
up
the
Westfield
Valley,
however,
the
ice
of
the
Westfield ice
tongue
stood
higher
than
the
obi
the
Connecticut
Vales'
east
of
it.
ApproxiEnatclY
g
km
UP
the
la
liey
from
the
Knightvilla
delta
and
alrout
248
m
above
it,
a
gravel
31dge
jeads
east
to
a
saddle
m
theridge
that
finals
the
divide
between
the
Westfield
aed
Com
nectieut
Riveri,
The
gravel
ari
ietn.lianud
deposit,
la
ic4
dour
i
by
a
stew
rri
tt
at
may
have
been
in
a
cevasse
that
was
open
to
the
sky
but
Imre
probably
was
t
lowing
in
a
tunnel
under
the
ice.
The
7osition
of
this
gravel
ridge,
badngeast
tit
the
saAidlo,
stows
that
the
melt-
water
sit
cam
that
deposited
it
was
flawing
east
across
the
divide.
The
ice
east
of
the
divide
must
'vivo
been
lower
thm
that
on
Ore
west
tip
void,
ar,
outfall
fix
the
suel
inth
m
e
Gothen
qua
draftee
at
two
locations
farther
north
eskers
lead
up
So
!addles
in
the
divide
between
the
Werctleli
and
Connecticut
Rivers,
At
both
daces.
the
Ivo
of
tbe
Westfield
Valley
ice
tongue
must
have
stood
higher
than
that
in
the
Conne:ticuc
Valley
to
the
east
Thus,
at
Points
6km
and
more
no3th
of
the
latitude
of
Et1-1;
IVVAL
cleolikne
INVktIrltIATD
got
65
the
ithightville
home
delta
terminus,
the
Westfield
Valley
is
e
stood
higher
then
that
in
the
Conne:ticut
Valley
to
the
east.
Yet
the
Connecticut
Valley
ice
at
that
tine
mast
have
extended
ten
of
Illomeiers
farther
south,
well
below
the
latitude
of
Woronsco_
Thus,
the
surface
clone
of
the
Westfield
Valley
ice
tongue
was
mach
steeper
that
that
d
the
Connecticut
This
slee0dr
dape
6
tro
t
e
txPtCtixl
Meaux
kl
Westfield
Vale
is
nassower
than
the
Cennocticut
Valley
(6
/on
wide,
instead
of
mom
than
30
km)
sod
bemuse
the
ice
in
it
was
thinner
(the
fluor
of
Volts
t
field
Valley
stands
100
-200
en
hg
her
than
that
of
the
Connec
ticut
Valley).
The
regional
relation
indicate
thsr
the
ice
of
the
Westfield
Valley
be
tongue
came
from
the
Champlain-
Hudson
lowland
to
the
west.
This
evidence,
theref
3re
provid
esa
valuable
c
(melee
inn
betw
een
the&
eadiAtion
chronology
in
the
Hodson
Vt'Aley
and
that
in
the
Con
,
Loc
tku
t
Valley
,
nit
bare
wend
in
gleam
Malearraneeb
At
one
time
dosing
the
last
&glaciation
of
w+
torn
Mestachusett-%
near
the
end
of
t!x‘
Weoilfordiao
Sutetage
ef
the
iittieconsinan
Stage,
melt
%Ater
poured
d
own
Sandy
Brook
from
ice
that
covered
the
site
of
South
Sand
ideld
.
The
ice
at
South
Sandisfield
carne
from
the
northwest
from
the
Champ:ain-Hudson
low-
land,
and
the
direction
of
movement
of
the
ice
shows
that
it
must
have
covered
a.I
of
Mssaachusetin
west°
South
Sznde
field
at
the
Uirne.
The
stream
in
Sandy
Break
carried
debris
sauthe
astioto
a
lake
at
North
Cols
-
break,
Conn.,
that
ens
slammed
by
i
.e
that
came
south.
toeuthwest
Ism
Elie
Gennetticat
Vagcy,
Ti
Ise
able
to
ma
I L
the
d
site
C•m
cdieut
Val
ky
ice
must
lava.
o•
Bed
the
arca
of
Massachuictts
tag
of
Now
Inst00.
''hr
two
ice
sheeta
must
have
met
at
or
near
New
BosSion,
and
the
cooly
ice-free
gm
of
Massachusetts
at
thatt
im
e
w
as
southwest
of
New
Beaten,
in
the
lawn
of
Sandis5
eld
'sear
the
Connecticut
birder.
These
rela-
tions,
noted
by
C.
R.
Warren
n
mapping
the
surf
-
Lei&
I
gedogy
of
western
MmarhusetlE,
estabbh
a
date
garleiatiOn
between
the
degaciation
chronel
ogles
of
the
iCe
*Won
In
the
Connecticut
and
Hudson
Valleys.
No
teniParall'ie
comlatIon
between
the
two
clronologia
has
berm
known
prey',
urriy.
Strafgagity
a
MI
Matt/margin
Sanaa
Meadainav
Nara
ticket
belays!
H.
N.
Olciale
reports
tbat
tie
Sankaty
Head
CE:ffs
along
the
aculhe
ail
to
rn
shore
al
Nantucket
Island,.
Mass.
=hair'
an
expend
section
of
pre-5_angamonian
drift,
marine
beds
of
S
aggamolian
Age
and,
possibly,
of
early
Voi
scansion
Age,
drift
of
passible
early
Wisron-
sinanAge,
and
driftof
late
Wisconsinan
A*.
Thankless
Milt
is
eeniP•Cri
d
ef
basal
till,
ft•wtilt,
and
glatioftuvid
and
glauolacaostesno
depolils.
In
gontral.
the
grata
dip
gen
t4
southward
.
This
drift
is
u
iconfoi
mabky
ove
da
n
ly
a
continuous
sequence
of
mac
ine
deposits
that
i
n-
eludes
a
basal
con
bmerai
e,
cement
bedded
seed,
a
bioturbated
silty
said
thet
is
represented
by
a
red
clay
facies
and
a
de
Its
send
faces
to
the
north,
a
bed
com•
posed
meat&
of
worm
tubes,
and
the
"lower
Sankaty
beds,'
composed
meetly
of
dam
and
oyster
shells
in
plane-
The
estracede
assemblage
of
the
lower
Sankaty
heels"
indicates
a
climate
as
warm
as
Or
warmer
than
thitof
todaY
arida
makable
Sangamoniau
Age
M.
Cronin.
wlitALTI
.01113c11,111.,
19791
The
"lower
Sankaif
'cuisine
soquen
co
appears
tro
iodicatv
a
progreasivo
sub
mergence
of
the
Continental
Shelf.
The
''lower
Sank*
beds"
are
tconfoimably
oa.erlain
by
the
"upper
Sankaty
beds,"
a
she
maiine
geavel_
The
'tapper
Sankaty"
ostracede
assemblage
suggests
acl
Mate
significantly
colder
than
that
of
today
and
a
late
Sangamon
ion
or
middle
W
&con
-
sinan
Age
CZ
M.
Cronin,
written
Commun
1070).
Con-
volution
of
the
Nis
pper
Sankaty
beds"
and
the
upper
part
of
the
lift?
SookatY"
sequenee
indicates
very
told
subsea'
.
eond
lions
ar
d
erne)
gem
ef
the
shelf.
A
sin
tif'd
l
iu
icon
cape
tloo
'upper
Sankaty
beds."
rht'
Wincrusinaat
&action
amooftramabky
°works;
the
4
uppe
r
Sa
;duty
beds'
and
is
dominated
by
a
thick
us
it
(12-1S
m)
composed
mostly
of
current-bedded
medium
a
fine
sand
.
The
ag
e
of
this
unit
i9
not
Lamm
and
may
be
early
or
la
teWiSCOR3
9uan
.The
med
',mita
fine
sand
e
unconformably
overlain
by
flueially
bedded
mediurnto
very
armee
Rand
and
gravel
thought
to
be
of
late
Wisonnsinen
Ago-
These
glaciefhnia)
deposits
are
ove-lalo
by
a
dlecontinuoss
tin
Weir.
Thu
sand,
grant
1.
4Irld
QIPPing
till
make
up
au
sufficial
drill
on
Nan-
Woke..
The
dctree
of
tecsion
and
veathe
ing
o
f
these
olives
it
s
iss
ila!
to
thet
of
the
upper
Milsconsinan
dein
en
!tfarthat
Vineyard
and
Cape
Cod
and
suggests
a
sMi
lar
age_
(dada
I
sbaliatapre
al
Cie
CM
'Untwist
.
and
Martha's
Ling/Kt
Massmisumetts.
Studiet
by
k..
N.
Olciale
along
the
eastern
share
if
Nantucket
show
that
glacial
drift
of
pre-Wisconsinan
Age
mops
out
at
the
base
of
the
Sankaty
Head
Cliffs.
It
':curs
below
shell
beds
of
Santconotrion
Age
and.
possibly,
of
early
Wisoonsinan
Age,
On
Mae
tha's
Vineyard,
a
number
of
g
!mkt!
am]
interglacial
depoaial
of
possible
pre-Wisconsmari
Age
}.ave
been
identified,
but
0sis
scratigruphy
remains
to
Le
proved.
A
till
d
efornItil
within
tie.
western
Martha's
Vineyard
moiaine
and
laivalogicarkv
similar
to
the
Monk
Till
Member
of
the
Manhasset
Fmmatio
n
of
Bleck
Islankl,
&Lend'
ongIsland.
N.Y.Assbeenocanidered
to