Composition of the essential oils of Narcissus tazetta and Narcissus serotinus from Greece


Melliou, E.; Kalpoutzakis, E.; Tsitsa, E.; Magiatis, P.

Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 10(2): 101-103

2007


The essential oils of the flowers of Narcissus tazetta subsp. tazetta and Narcissus serotinus were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Nineteen compounds were identified and the major components were trans-ocimene (61.12%) for Narcissus tazetta and benzyl acetate (19.36%) for Narcissus serotinus.

Jeobp
10
(2)
2007
pp
101
-
103
101
x
Si~
L
ISSN
0972-060X
Composition
of
the
Essential
Oils
of
Narcissus
tazetta
and
Narcissus
serotinus
from
Greece
Eleni
Melliou,
Eleftherios
Kalpoutzakis,
Eugenia
Tsitsa,
Prokopios
Magiatis*
Department
of
Pharmacognosy
and
Natural
Products
Chemistry,
Faculty
of
Pharmacy,
University
ofAthens,
Panepistimiopolis-Zografou,
Athens
15771,
Greece
Received
12
September
2006;
accepted
in
revised
form
19
February
2007
Abstract:
The
essential
oils
of
the
flowers
of
Narcissus
tazetta
subsp.
tazetta
and
Narcissus
serotinus
were
analyzed
by
GC
and
GC/MS.
Nineteen
compounds
were
identified
and
the
major
components
were
trans-ocimene
(61.12%)
for
Narcissus
tazetta
and
benzyl
acetate
(19.36%)
for
Nar-
cissus
serotinus.
Key
Words:
Narcissus
tazetta,
Narcissus
serotinus,
Amaryllidaceae,
flowers,
essential
oil.
Introduction:
Narcissus
tazetta
L.
subsp.
tazetta
and
Narcissus
serotinus
L.,
Amaryllidaceae
are
plants
growing
wild
in
Greece.
Both
are
collected
and
used
as
ornamen-
tal
plants
with
a
very
pleasant
smell.
N.
tazetta
is
also
cultivated
for
the
same
purpose.
Concerning
their
volatile
constituents,
there
is
one
previous
work
on
"absolute"
extract
ofN.
tazetta
from
Italy
analyzed
by
GC
2
and
one
previous
work
on
headspace
volatiles
of
N.
serotinus
from
Spain
analyzed
by
GC-M5
3
.
In
the
present
work
we
report
the
chemical
analysis
of
the
essential
oils
of
N.
tazetta
L.
subsp.
tazetta
and
N.
serotinus
obtained
by
hydrodistillation.
Experimental
Plant
material:
Narcissus
tazetta
subsp.
tazetta
and
Narcissus
serotinus
were
col-
lected
in
central
Crete
(Greece)
near
Zaros
village
(400
m
height)
in
February
2003
and
November
2002
respectively,
at
flowering
stage.
The
plant
material
was
identified
by
Dr.
E.
Kalpoutzakis.
Voucher
specimens
(KL102
and
KLsn
respectively)
are
deposited
in
the
her-
barium
of
the
laboratory
of
Pharmacognosy,
University
of
Athens,
Greece.
Distillation:
Fresh
flowers
(300
g
of
each
plant)
were
subjected
to
hydrodistillation
*Corresponding
Author
(Prokopios
Magiatis)
E-mail:
<magiatis@pharm.uoa.gr
>
Prokopios
Magiatis
et
al.
/
Jeobp
10
(2)
2007
pp
101
-
103
102
for
3
h
using
a
modified
Clevenger-type
apparatus
to
give
both
0.05%
of
essential
oil.
The
distilled
oil
was
collected,
diluted
with
n-pentane,
dried
over
anhydrous
sodium
sulphate
and
stored
at
4°C.
Chemical
analysis:
The
oils
were
first
analyzed
by
GC-FID
carried
out
on
a
Perkin-
Elmer
Clams
500
gas
chromatograph,
fitted
with
a
HP
5MS
30m
x
0.25mm,
0.25
gm
film
thickness
capillary
column.
The
column
temperature
was
programmed
from
60°C
to
280°C
at
a
rate
of
3°C
/min.
The
injector
and
detector
temperatures
were
programmed
at
230°C
and
300°C,
respectively.
Helium
was
used
as
the
carrier
gas
at
a
flow
rate
1
ml/min.
The
GC-MS
analyses
were
carried
out
using
a
Hewlett
Packard
6890-5973
GC-MS
system
operating
on
EI
mode
(equipped
with
a
HP
5MS
30m
x
0.25mm,
0.25
gm
film
thickness
capillary
column).
He
(1
ml/min)
was
used
as
carrier
gas.
The
initial
temperature
of
the
column
was
60°C
and
then
it
was
heated
to
280°C
at
a
rate
of
3°C/min.
GC-MS
analyses
were
also
performed
on
a
Finnigan
GCQ
Plus
ion
trap
mass
spec-
trometer
with
an
external
ion
source
in
both
the
EI
and
chemical
ionization
(CI)
modes
at
a
flow
rate
of
1.0
ml/min,
using
CH
4
as
the
CI
ionization
reagent.
The
identification
of
the
compounds
was
based
on
comparison
of
their
retention
indi-
ces
(RI),
obtained
using
n-alkanes
(C
9
-C
25
),
and
on
comparison
of
their
EI-mass
spectra
with
the
NIST/NBS,
Wiley
library
spectra
and
literature.
Additionally,
the
identity
of
all
compounds
was
performed
by
comparison
of
the
expected
molecular
weights
with
the
re-
sults
obtained
from
the
CI
spectra.
Results
and
Discussion:
The
chemical
analysis
of
the
essential
oils
of
N.
tazetta
and
N.
serotinus
is
presented
in
table
I.
The
present
analysis
of
N
tazetta
essential
oil
showed
important
differences
in
comparison
with
previous
data
2
.
Interestingly,
while
the
major
constituents
of
the
"absolute"
had
been
reported
as
y-terpinene,
methyl
cinnamate
and
benzyl
acetate,
only
the
third
compound
could
be
identified
(6%).
In
our
hands,
the
essential
oil
was
dominated
by
the
presence
of
trans-ocimene
(61.1%),
accompanied
by
1,8-cineol
(5.9%)
and
3-phenylpropyl
acetate
(6.4%),
which
had
not
been
previously
described
as
constituents
of
the
oil.
The
predominance
of
trans-ocimene
is
in
accordance
with
the
obser-
vation
that
this
compound
is
the
major
characteristic
of
the
Tazettae
section'.
Concerning
the
essential
oil
of
N.
serotinus
it
should
be
noted
that
in
contrast
to
previously
reported
data
3
,
benzyl
acetate
(19.36%)
was
identified
as
the
major
constituent.
Interestingly,
trans-ocimene
which
had
been
reported
as
the
major
volatile
constituent
by
headspace
analysis
was
identified
only in
low
quantity
(3.89%)
while
linalool
which
had
been
reported
as
the
second
major
constituent
could
not
be
identified.
In
addition,
the
important
contribution
of
linear
aldehydes
like
nonanal
and
undecanal
(>20%)
had
never
been
re-
ported.
In
accordance
to
previous
data
3
the
presence
of
linalool
oxides
can
be
considered
as
a
characteristic
of
N
serotinus
independently
from
its
geographic
origin.
References
1.
Turland,
N.J.,
Chilton,
L.,
Press,
J.R.
(1995).
Flora
of
the
Cretan
area.
The
Natural
History
Museum
and
HMSO
publications,
London.
Prokopios
Magiatis
et
al.
/
Jeobp
10
(2)
2007
pp
101
-
103 103
2.
Bruno,
S.,
De
Laurentis,
N.,
Amico,
A.
and
Stefanizzi,
L.
(1994).
Chemical
investigation
and
cytologic
localization
of
essential
oils
in
the
flowers
of
Narcissus
tazetta.
Int.
J.
Pharmacog.
32:
357-361.
3.
Dobson,
H.E.M.,
Arroyo,
J.,
Bergstrom,
G
and
Groth,
I.
(1997).
Interspecific
variation
in
floral
fragrances
within
the
genus
Narcissus
(Amarylidaceae).
Biochem.
Syst.
Ecol.
25:
685-706.
4.
Adams,
R.P.
(2001).
Identification
of
Essential
Oil
Components
by
Gas
Chromato-
graphy/Mass
Spectroscopy.
Allured
Publishing
Co.
Carol
Stream,
Illinois.
Table
I.
Percentage
composition
of
Narcissus
tazetta
subsp.
tazetta
and
Narcissus
serotinus
essential
oils.
Compound
KI
N.
serotinus
(%)
N.
tazetta(%)
Heptanal
902
-
1.15
Myrcene
991
-
0.56
1,8-Cineole
1031
-
5.88
trans-Ocimene
1050
3.89
61.12
trans-Linalool
oxide
1073
5.68
-
cis-Linalool
oxide
1087
7.53
-
Linalool
1097
-
0.78
Nonanal
1101
10.15
0.66
Benzyl
acetate
1162
19.36
6.04
a-Terpineol
1189
-
3.37
Decanal
1202
1.23
0.39
2-Phenylethyl
acetate
1258
9.4
1.16
Isopulegyl
acetate
1285
1.62
-
Undecanal
1307
10.74
1.14
3-Phenylpropyl
acetate
1368
-
6.4
y-Dodecalactone
1678
-
1.08
Heneicosane
2100
-
0.97
Tetracosane
2400
5.78
0.66
Pentacosane
2500
5.82
0.45
Total
81.2
91.81