Leisure-time activities of middle-aged adults in rural areas


Rose, E.; Arrington, J.A.

Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station (AAES) Reports Bulletin 380

1968


This study was made of the leisure-time activities of 210 selected rural households living in six widely separated Alabama counties. Husbands in each family were between 45-64 years of age and the couple had been married for at least one year prior to the time of the survey. The study population consisted of 150 rural farm and 60 rural nonfarm families. Approximately 75 per cent of the sample was white and 25 per cent Negro. The average household consisted of three to four members with a mean cash income of $3,541 and an average per capita income of $1,168. Only a slight difference in the mean education of husbands and wives was noted. Twenty-six respondents reported having had college training, all of whom were rural farm residents. It was found that rural Alabama families had few leisure-time activities in which they participated. The range and types of activities reported by the respondents were extremely limited. The results showed that younger men and older women were the ones reporting the most activities. No difference was found in the number of leisure-time activities in which husbands and wives participated. Results revealed that participation in all such activities increased with rises in level of educational attainment and family income. On the basis of residence, it was found that a somewhat larger percentage of rural farm families participated in leisure-time pursuits than did the rural nonfarm. According to these data, few of the middle-aged rural couples studied had made plans for the use of their leisure hours after retirement. The majority of families with present leisure-time activities reported their intentions to continuing participation in current pastimes and organizations after age 65. However the largest proportion of the sample families had made practically no economic provisions to insure future participation. Travel was included in future plans by a sizeable percentage of the respondents but only a fraction of them had made any financial provisions for it. This study indicated that there was a definite lack of creative leisure-time activities among the 210 Alabama families studied. This deficiency appeared to be related to education and income with age and residence having a lesser effect. Income appeared to be the most important factor in determining leisure-time activities.

Leisure-Time
Activities
of
Middle-Aged
Adults
in
Rural
Areas'
EITHEL
ROSE
2
and
JOY
A.
ARRINGTON'
L
EISURE
Time
of
adults
in
the
United
States
has
increased
measurably
during
the
last
100
years.
In
the
past
men
and
women
from
young
adulthood
into
old
age
have
been
involved
in
work-related
activities
that
have
made
fairly
inflexible
de-
mands
on
their
time.
Then
about
the
beginning
of
the
20th
Cen-
tury,
changes
occurred
that
provided
a
tremendous
increase
in
time
for
leisure.
Automation
and
increased
productivity,
shorter
work
weeks,
higher
incomes,
and
earlier
retirement,
as
well
as
medical
advances
that
increased
life
expectancy,
have
produced
considerably
more
leisure
time
for
most
adult
Americans.
The
combination
of
longer
life
and
early
retirement
has
re-
sulted
in
thousands
of
people
finding
themselves
with
leisure
time
while
still
leading
an
active
life.
These
periods
present
many
problems
and
challenges
for
the
middle
aged
worker
and
early
retiree
in
our
society.
INCREASING
NUMBER
OF
OLDER
PEOPLE
Population
projections
made
by
the
United
States
Department
of
Health,
Education,
and
Welfare
indicate
the
aged
population
alone
will
exceed
30
million
by
the
close
of
this
century.
Older
people
accounted
for
4
per
cent
of
the
population
in
1900;
8.1
The
study
is
a
contributing
project
to
Southern
Regional
Project
S-56,
"Eco-
nomic
Provisions
for
Old
Age
Made
by
Rural
Families."
2
Professor
of
Home
Management
and
Family
Economics,
Agricultural
Experi-
ment
Station,
Auburn
University,
Auburn,
Alabama.
Graduate
student,
Auburn
University,
presently
Extension
Home
Management
specialist;
Texas
A
and
M
University,
College
Station,
Texas.
The
time
in
which
an
individual
engages
in
voluntary
free
time
pursuits.
4
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
per
cent
in
1950;
and
were
estimated
at
over
9
per
cent
in
1965.
5
In
1965
the
number
of
Americans
over
65
years
of
age
was
esti-
mated
to
be
18
million.
Furthermore,
it
has
been
predicted
that
this
number
will
increase
to
20
million
by
1970
and
over
32
mil-
lion
by
the
year
2000.
6
The
20th
Century
has
seen
the
number
of
middle
aged
people,
45
to
64
years
of
age,
increase
in
proportion
to
the
total
popula-
tion
of
the
United
States.
Middle
aged
people
accounted
for
14
per
cent
of
the
total
population
in
1900
and
over
20
per
cent
by
1965.
7
Alabama
had
approximately
250,000
persons
aged
65
and
over
in
1960.
This
number
has
been
increasing
by
about
5,000
each
year
since
then
and
is
expected
to
be
near
300,000
by
1970.
Be-
cause
of
the
nature
of
Alabama's
residential
pattern,
more
of
these
older
people
live
on
farms
and
in
villages
than
in
cities.'
A
spe-
cial
problem
in
Alabama
centers
around
meeting
the
leisure
time
needs
of
the
widely
scattered
aged
in
rural
areas.
The
challenge
to
the
aged
and
to
the
State
is
how
this
new
leisure
can
be
used
constructively
and
creatively
to
achieve
a
fuller
life
for
the
older
rural
resident.
OBJECTIVES
This
study
was
a
part
of
the
Regional
Project
S-56
entitled,
"Economic
Provisions
for
Old
Age
Made
by
Rural
Families."
9
The
objectives
of
this
aspect
of
the
study
were:
(1)
to
determine
the
informal
hobbies
and
pastimes
followed
by
middle-aged
rural
adults
prior
to
retirement,
(2)
to
determine
the
formal
participa-
tion
in
clubs
and
organizations
of
middle-aged
rural
adults
prior
to
retirement,
and
(3)
to
determine
the
plans
of
rural
adults
for
the
use
of
leisure
time
after
retirement.
'Anonymous.
1965.
Administration
on
Aging,
U.S.
Dept.
of
Health,
Education,
and
Welfare,
Pub.
250,
p.
1.
Anonymous.
Seniors
in
Society,
Recreation,
LIV,
p.
230,
May
1961.
Perry,
E.,
Hall,
C.,
and
Ballard,
J.,
Aging
in
Alabama.
Governor's
Advisory
Com.
on
Aging,
p.
17,
1960.
8
President's
Council
on
Aging,
The
Older
American
(
Washington:
U.S.
Gov-
ernment
Printing
Office,
1963,
p.
6.).
Rural
families
including
both
farm
and
nonfarm
residents
as
defined
by
the
1960
U.S.
Census
of
Population,
living
in
open
country
or
unincorporated
towns
and
villages
of
less
than
2,500
population.
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
5
LIMESTONE
WRENCE
UD
CISVALE
MADISON
COLBERT
DEKALB
MORGAN
FRANKL
IN
MARSHALL.
CHEROKEE
ON
WINSTON
AI
MAR
BLOUNT
LIL.L.MAN
JEFFERSON
ETOWAH
SAINT
CLAIR
WALKER
TUSCALOOSA
CALHOUN
FAYETTE
CLEBURNE
TALLADEGA
PICKENs
CLAY
R
NDOL.PH
SHELBY
BIBB
COOSA
TALLAPOOSA
CHAMBERS
GREENE
CHILTON
SUMTER
PERRY
ELMORE
MACON
MARENG
CHOCTAW
CL
AR
WASHINGTON
MOBILE
UTAUGA
LOWNDES
mONROE
LSCAMB‘A
CONECUH
BUTLER
GTON
MONTGOMERY
CRENSHAW
Litz
iCOFFEE
I
E
BULLOCK
DALE
HOUSTON
RUSSELL
BARB
GENEVA
DALLAS
,aLcox
Counties.
Surveyed
FIGURE
1.
Location
of
Alabama
counties
selected
for
inclusion
in
the
sampling
design
of
the
Southern
Regional
Project,
5-56.
6
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
PROCEDURES
The
study
population
was
defined
as
all
rural
families
residing
in
counties
which,
according
to
the
U.S.
Census
of
Population,
1960,
were
more
than
half
(50%)
rural
and
not
part
of
any
Stand-
ard
Metropolitan
Area.
All
eligible
counties
in
Alabama
were
classified
according
to
geographical
and/or
topological
area.
The
six
counties
of
Autauga,
Baldwin,
DeKalb,
Hale,
Jackson,
and
Pike
were
randomly
selected
for
inclusion
in
the
study,
Figure
1.
State
highway
maps
were
used
to
estimate
the
number
of
oc-
cupied
rural
houses
in
the
counties
selected.
Clusters
of
20
dwellings
were
formed
and
numbered
consecutively
in
each
county.
A
random
sample
of
clusters
was
drawn
in
all
six
coun-
ties
to
determine
the
location
of
the
families
to
be
interviewed.
The
number
of
families
actually
selected
was
specified
by
the
sample
design
and
was
proportional
to
the
size
of
the
regional
population.
A
total
sample
of
210
families
was
required
in
Ala-
bama.
The
families
included
in
the
study
met
the
following
criteria:
(1)
consisted
of
both
a
husband
and
a
wife,
(2)
married
before
January
1,
1963,
and
(3)
had
a
husband
45-64
years
of
age.
Only
households
that
met
these
criteria
within
the
selected
clusters
were
interviewed.
Whenever
possible
both
husband
and
wife
were
interviewed,
but
when
the
husband
was
not
available,
the
wife
supplied
the
information
for
both
persons.
The
number,
location,
and
residence
of
the
families
sampled
are
shown
in
Ta-
ble
1.
TABLE
1.
NUMBER,
LOCATION,
AND
RESIDENCE
OF
A
SAMPLE
OF
210
RURAL
FAMILIES
IN
SIX
RURAL
ALABAMA
COUNTIES,
1964
County
Families
interviewed
Total
Rural
farm
Rural
nonfarm
Number
Per
cent
Per
cent
Autauga
43
67
33
Baldwin
25
60
40
DeKalb
37
95
5
Hale
43
60
40
Jackson
37
70
30
Pike
25
76
24
DESCRIPTION
OF
SAMPLE
FAMILIES
In
order
to
better
understand
the
general
characteristics
of
the
210
sample
families,
the
following
description
is
presented.
The
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
7
characteristics
selected
for
discussion
represent
those
believed
important
in
interpreting
the
leisure-time
activities
of
rural
Ala-
bamians,
Table
2.
TABLE
2.
SELECTED
CHARACTERISTICS
OF
210
FAMILIES
WITH
A
MIDDLE
AGED
HUSBAND
IN
RURAL
ALABAMA,
1964
Item
Families
Number
Per
cent
Families
surveyed
210
100
Residence
Rural
farm
150
71
Rural
nonfarm
60
29
Race
White
158
75
Negro
52
25
Size
of
families
(members)
2
'
73
35
3
&
4
137
65
(Mean)
(3.7)
Age
of
husbands
45-54
121
58
55-64
89
42
(Mean)
(53.7)
Age
of
wives
Under
49
113
54
50-66
97
46
(Mean)
(49.4)
*Education
of
husbands
(highest
grade
completed)
0-6
53
28
7-9
47
25
10-12
75
40
13-16
14
7
(Mean)
(8.9)
°Education
of
wives
(highest
grade
completed)
0-6
56
29
7-9
46
23
10-12
82
42
13-16.
12
6
(Mean
2
)
(9.0)
"Family
cash
income
1964
$0-999
18
13
$1,000-2,999
51
36
$3,000-4,999
29
21
$5,000
and
over
43
30
(Mean
3
)
($3,541)
Per
capita
cash
income,
1964
$0-999
69
49
$1,000-2,999
63
45
$3,000-4,999
8
6
$5,000
and
over
1
0
(Mean
3
)
($1,168)
Mean
based
on
189
husbands
responding
Mean
2
based
on
196
wives
responding
Mean
3
based
on
141
families
responding
"
21
husbands
and
14
wives
did
not
respond.
Percentage
based
on
those
re-
sponding.
**
69
households
did
not
report
income.
Percentage
based
on
those
reporting.
8
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
Slightly
less
than
three-fourths
of
the
families
(71%)
lived
on
farms.
The
average
farm
consisted
of
119
acres
with
the
size
ranging
from
1
to
1,300
acres.
Race
was
not
used
as
a
factor
in
selecting
the
sample
nor
in
the
analysis
of
the
data,
but
one-fourth
of
the
families
were
Negro.
Family
size
was
relatively
small
compared
to
rural
families
generally,
because
of
the
requirement
that
the
husband
be
mid-
dled
aged.
The
most
common
size
was
3
or
4
family
members.
More
than
half
(54%)
of
the
families
consisted
of
2
or
3
members.
However,
some
families
were
large
as
shown
by
the
fact
.that
113
families
had
a
total
of
300
dependent
children
ranging
from
2
months
through
18
years
of
age.
Another
12
per
cent
of
the
fam-
ilies
included
adult
relatives.
The
average
age
of
husbands
and
wives
in
these
families
was
54
and
49
years,
respectively.
Ages
of
the
wives
ranged
from
20
through
66
years
with
46
per
cent
being
less
than
49
years
old.
Consistent
with
a
normal
age
distribution
more
husbands
were
in
the
45
through
54
age
category
than
were
in
the
older
category.
Education,
as
indicated
by
the
number
of
years
or
grades
com-
pleted,
showed
that
slightly
more
than
half
the
husbands
and
wives
had
failed
to
complete
more
than
9
years
of
schooling.
Only
7
per
cent
of
the
husbands
and
6
per
cent
of
the
wives
had
any
education
beyond
high
school.
Most
of
the
husbands
(92%)
and
30
per
cent
of
the
wives
had
been
employed
in
some
occupation
at
some
time
during
1964,
Table
3.
Husbands
reported
working
an
average
of
66
hours
per
week
for
50
weeks.
Twenty-one
husbands
also
reported
hav-
ing
two
or
more
jobs
during
the
year.
The
work
week
for
these
husbands
ranged
from
65
to
88
hours.
On
the
other
hand,
the
em-
ployed
wives
reported
working
an
average
of
35
hours
for
44
weeks.
None
of
the
working
wives
reported
having
two
different
jobs.
The
primary
occupation
for
67
per
cent
of
the
rural
farm
hus-
bands
was
in
agriculture,
while
10
per
cent
did
unskilled
labor.
Forty-three
per
cent
of
the
rural
farm
husbands
gave
semiskilled
labor
as
their
secondary
occupations.
Over
one-third
(37%)
of
the
rural
nonfarm
husbands
gave
their
primary
occupation
as
unskilled
labor;
15
per
cent,
semiskilled,
and
12
per
cent,
skilled.
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
9
TABLE
3.
NUMBER
OF
HOURS
AND
WEEKS
WORKED
IN
PRIMARY
JOBS
BY
RURAL
ALABAMA
FARM
AND
NONFARM
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES,
1964
Primary
job
Hours
worked
per
week
Husbands
Wives
Rural
Rural
Rural
Rural
Total
Total
farm
nonfarm
farm
nonfarm
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Less
than
39
8
23
12
38
22
32
40-59
40
56
45
62
78
68
60-79
35
13
29
0
0
0
80
or
more
17
8
14
0
0
0
Total
number
responding_
141
52
193
40
23
63
Weeks
worked
per
year
Less
than
39
3
15
6
30
17
25
40-49
15
23
18
45
22
37
50-52
82
62
76
25
61
38
Total
number
responding_
141
52
193
40
23
63
Note:
No
employment
in
1964
was
reported
by
17
husbands
who
were
dis-
abled
or
retired.
Thirty-seven
per
cent
of
the
wives
had
skilled
occupations
and
were
working
in
factories.
Seven
per
cent
were
in
managerial,
professional
or
semi-professional
work
and
seventy
per
cent
of
all
wives
were
homemakers
and
did
not
work
away
from
home.
Only
about
two-thirds
of
the
families
reported
their
family
cash
income
for
1964.
Among
those
families
that
did,
the
family
incomes
ranged
from
$600
to
$10,050
with
an
annual
per
capita
income
ranging
from
$6
to
$5,025.
Thirteen
per
cent
of
the
fam-
ilies
reported
a
cash
income
of
less
than
$1,000.
The
average
cash
income
was
$3,541
and the
average
per
capita
cash
income
was
$1,168.
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
Hobbies
and
pastimes
were
divided
into
four
categories
repre-
senting
different
interests
and
skills:
(1)
crafts
and
creative
arts—
electronics,
dancing,
painting,
crocheting,
knitting,
quilting,
and
sewing,
(2)
sports
and
entertainment—camping,
fishing,
hunting,
ball
games,
boating,
surfing,
bowling,
golfing,
skeet
shooting,
card
playing,
and
crossword
puzzles,
(3)
occupational—care
of
ani-
mals,
canning,
and
gardening,
and
(4)
intellectual—reading
and
collecting
coins
or
stamps.
Types
of
hobbies
and
pastimes
Rural Rural
farm
nonfarm
Rural
Rural
Total
farm
nonfarm
Husbands
Wives
Total
10
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
TABLE
4.
TYPES
OF
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
PARTICIPATED
IN
BY
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Residence
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Sports
and
entertainment_
81
58
74
9
23
13
Occupational
2
7
5
41
38
40
Crafts
and
creative
arts
2
29
10
24
Intellectual.
1
2
1
6
2
5
None
33
33
33
29
42
33
Total
number
responding_
150
60
210
150
60
210
'
Percentages
total
more
than
100
because
of
multiple
responses.
2
Less
than
1
per
cent.
Over
half
of
the
husbands
interviewed
reported
pastimes
of
the
sports
and
entertainment
type,
Table
4.
Less
than
7
per
cent
of
all
husbands
participated
in
any
other
types
of
activities.
Hunt-
ing
and
fishing
proved
to
be
the
favorite
activities
of
both
farm
and
nonfarm
males
in
rural
areas,
Figures
2:
and
3.
The
greatest
proportion
of
wives
(40%)
preferred
hobbies
of
the
occupational
type
while
only
a
few
chose
intellectual
hobbies.
Gardening
and
sewing
ranked
first
in
interest
among
farm
wives
but
only
gardening
ranked
high
among
nonfarm
wives.
Rural
farm
women
were
more
active
in
pastimes
than
were
nonfarm
women
in
all
areas
except
sports.
The
rural
farm
wives
had
almost
three
times
as
many
creative
and
intellectual
hobbies
and
overall
reported
more
activities
than
did
the
rural
nonfarm
wives.
The
proportion
of
wives
in
the
higher
income
families
who
par-
ticipated
in
multiple
activities
was
larger
than
the
proportion
of
husbands.
Occupational
committments
on
time
among
the
hus-
bands
and
adequate
income
to
finance
activities
for
wives
appear
to
explain
this
difference.
By
comparing
the
cash
expenditures
on
leisure-time
activities
for
families
with
varying
incomes,
it
was
clearly
shown
that
cost
is
a
definite
factor,
Table
5.
A
comparison
of
mean
expenditures
indicated
that
families
with
incomes
of
less
than
$3,000
spent
$11
or
less
annually
while
families
with
incomes
over
$5,000
spent
an
average
of
$53
on
leisure-time
activities.
Joint
pastimes
involving
both
the
husband
and
wife
centered
around
travel
among
both
rural
farm
and
nonfarm
residents.
37
it
35
18
\
26
41
M
4
2
.
.
.
32
3
5
1
1
25
ACTIVITY
Flowers
and
Gardening
Fishing
Handwork,
Sewing
Hunting
Misc.
Sports
and
Games
Organizations
and
Clubs
Travel
0
10
20
30
40
p&h.
o'•:•:•;•;•;si
Husbands
Wives
Joint
interest
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
11
FIGURE
2.
Selected
individual
and
joint
leisure-time
activities
participated
in
most
frequently
by
150
farm
husbands
and
wives
in
rural
Alabama,
1964.
8
37
32
1
2
15
I0
27
32
2
20
A
30
ACTIVITY
Flowers
and
Gardening
Fishing
Handwork,
Sewing
Hunting
Misc.
Sports
and
Games
Organizations
and
Clubs
Travel
10
20
30
40
Husbands
Wives
oint
interest
12
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
FIGURE
3.
Selected
individual
and
joint
leisure-time
activities
participated
in
most
frequently
by
60
nonfarm
husbands
and
wives
in
rural
Alabama,
1964.
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
13
TABLE
5.
NUMBER
OF
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
PARTICIPATED
IN
BY
FAMILY
INCOME
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Number
of
hobbies
and
pastimes
Family
cash
income,
1964
$0-
$1000- $3000-
$5000-
Not
999
2999
4999
&
over
reported
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Husbands
None
44
45
17
14
41
1
50
51
52
63
41
2
or
more
6
4
31
23
18
Total
number
responding
18
51
29
43
69
Wives
None
56
41
21
19
35
1
44
48
62
70
46
2
or
more
10
17
11
19
Total
number
responding
18
51
29
43
69
Thirty
per
cent
of
the
rural
nonfarm
families
and
25
per
cent
of
the
rural
farm
families
reported
taking
trips
together.
Rural
non-
farm
families
took
more
trips
during
the
year
than
did
the
rural
farm
families.
Among
the
other
joint
activities
reported,
only
fishing
was
en-
gaged
in
by
any
sizeable
portion
of
these
husbands
and
wives.
The
proportions
of
rural
farm
and
non-farm
families
sharing
this
activity
were
similar.
Extent
of
Participation
Results
of
this
survey
showed
that
the
rate
of
participation
in
informal
activities
often
described
as
hobbies
and
pastimes
were
similar
for
both
sexes,
however
considerable
difference
was
found
in
the
types
of
activities
followed
by
men
and
women.
Two-
thirds
of
the
husbands
and
wives
sampled
engaged
in
at
least
one
leisure-time
activity,
Table
6.
TABLE
6.
NUMBER
OF
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
BY
RESIDENCE
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Residence
Number
of
hobbies
and
pastimes
Husbands
Wives
Rural Rural
Rural
Rural
Total
Total
farm
nonfarm
farm
nonfarm
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
None
33
33
33
29
42
33
1
48
57
50
56
50
54
2
or
more
19
10
17
15
8
13
Total
number
responding_
150
60
210
150
60
210
14
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
Residence.
Farm
wives
were
found
to
participate
in
leisure-
time
activities
more
often
than
rural
nonfarm
wives,
although
the
differences
were
small,
Table
6.
At
the
same
time
wives
were
slightly
more
likely
to
report
some
leisure-time
activity
than
were
their
husbands,
but
the
husbands
showed
a
slightly
greater
tendency
toward
having
more
than
one
such
activity.
The
important
finding,
however,
was
that
one-third
of
all
husbands
and
wives
regardless
of
farm
or
nonfarm
residence
reported
hav-
ing
no
hobbies
or
pastimes.
The
situation
was
particularly
acute
among
non-farm
wives
where
the
proportion
with
no
leisure-time
activities
was
42
per
cent.
Age.
This
study
revealed
that
the
younger
husbands
(age
45
to
54)
had
more
hobbies
and
pastimes
than
did
the
older
husbands
(age
55
to
64),
Table
7.
Husbands
with
two
or
more
hobbies
or
pastimes
were
more
than
twice
as
likely
to
be
in
the
younger
age
category.
Conversely,
no
differences
were
observed
relative
to
age
among
wives
age
50
to
66
and
those
under
49
years
of
age.
These
data
suggest
that
many
of
the
leisure-time
activities
of
men
are
not
consistent
with
the
aging
process
and
gradually
are
given
up
with
advancing
years.
Women's
activities
are
not
as
directly
affected
by
age
as
are
men's
activities.
Education.
It
was
found
that
as
the
educational
level
of
hus-
bands
and
wives
increased
so
did
the
number
of
leisure-time
ac-
tivities,
Table
8.
Little
difference
was
observed
in
the
incidence
of
hobbies
or
pastimes
reported
by
people
whose
education
was
limited
to
the
elementary
and
junior
high
levels.
Among
persons
with
10
to
12
years
of
schooling
80
per
cent
of
the
husbands
and
74
per
cent
of
the
wives
had
one
or
more
hobbies.
Seventy-nine
per
cent
of
the
men
and
92
per
cent
of
the
women
with
1
to
4
years
of
college
reported
one
or
more
hobbies
and
pastimes.
TABLE
7.
NUMBER
OF
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
BY
AGE
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Number
of
hobbies
and
pastimes
Age
Husbands
Wives
45-54
55-64
Under
49
50-66
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
None
30
38
34
32
1
48
53
53
55
2
or
more
22
9
13
13
Total
number
responding
121
89
113
97
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
15
TABLE
8.
NUMBER
OF
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
BY
EDUCATION
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Number
of
hobbies
and
pastimes
Education
(
highest
grade
completed)
0-6
7-9
10-12
13-16
Not
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Husbands
None
45
43
20
21
38
1
51
49
51
50
48
2
or
more
4
8
29
29
14
Total
number
responding
53
47
75
14
21
Wives
None
45
41
26
8
22
1
52
55
55
42
64
2
or
more
3
4
19
50
14
Total
number
responding
56
46
82
12
14
Income.
Cash
income
available
to
the
family
also
was
associ-
ated
with
the
number
of
informal
leisure-time
activities
partici-
pated
in
by
husbands
and
wives
in
rural
families.
In
families
with
cash
earnings
of
less
than
$1,000
in
1964,
husbands
and
wives
were
least
likely
to
report
participating
in
any
pastimes,
Table
9.
Similar
high
proportions
(more
than
40%)
of
non-participation
occurred
among
husbands
and
wives
in
households
with
incomes
between
$0
and
$2,999.
Conversely,
over
80
per
cent
of
the
hus-
bands
and
wives
in
households
with
incomes
above
$3,000
re-
ported
leisure-time
activities.
In
the
lowest
income
classes,
one-fourth
the
respondents
re-
ported
no
expenditures
for
hobbies
and
pastimes
during
1964.
All
households
with
incomes
above
$3,000
had
expenditures
for
their
TABLE
9.
NUMBER
OF
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
BY
FAMILY
INCOME
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Number
of
hobbies
and
pastimes
Family
income
$0-
$1000-
$3000-
$5000-
Not
999
2999
4999
and
over
reported
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Husbands
None
44
45
17
14
41
1
50
51
52
63
41
2
or
more
6
4
31
23
18
Total
number
responding
18
51
29
43
69
Wives
None
56
41
21
19
35
1
44
48
62
70
46
2
or
more
10
17
11
19
Total.
number
responding
18
51
29
43
69
16
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
TABLE
10.
COST
OF
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
BY
FAMILY
INCOME
OF
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Expenditures
for
hobbies
and
pastimes
Family
income
$0-
$1000- $3000- $5000-
Not
999
2999
4999
and
over
reported
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
None
17
10
$1-49
39
61
$50
or
more
5
2
No
response
39
27
Total
number
responding
18
51
Mean
expenditures
($6)
($11)
22
83
60
33
17
30
13
10
32
29
43
69
($33)
($53)
($26)
leisure
time
activities
and
31
per
cent
of
those
with
incomes
of
$5,000
and
above
spent
more
than
$50
annually
on
hobbies
and
pastimes.
However,
the
greatest
proportion
of
respondents
spent
from
$1
to
$49
on
family
hobbies
regardless
of
income
level,
Table
10.
Post
Retirement
Activities
Plans
Only
65
per
cent
of
the
rural
farm
husbands
and
73
per
cent
of
their
wives
planned
to
continue
with
their
present
hobbies
and
pastimes
after
the
husbands
retired,
Table
11.
Eight
per
cent
of
both
husbands
and
wives
did
not
intend
to
continue
their
hob-
bies
and
pastimes
while
the
remainder
had
made
no
plans
or
did
not
know.
More
of
the
rural
nonfarm
husbands
and
wives
planned
to
continue
their
hobbies
and
pastimes,
75
and
86
per
cent,
respectively,
than
did
the
rural
farm
families.
CLUBS
AND
ORGANIZATIONS
The
majority
of
memberships
in
formally
organized
groups
reported
by
the
husbands
were
in
lodges
and
fraternal
organiza-
tions.
Farm
husbands
were
somewhat
more
likely
to
belong
to
TABLE
11.
PLANS
FOR
HOBBIES
AND
PASTIMES
AFTER
RETIREMENT
BY
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
WITH
SUCH
ACTIVITIES
IN
210
SELECTED
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Residence
Retirement
plans
Husbands
Wives
Rural
Rural Rural
Rural
Total
Total
farm
nonfarm
farm
nonfarm
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Discontinue
8
Continue
65
Don't
know
27
Total
number
responding.
128
2
6
8
0
6
75
67
73
86
77
23
27
19
14
18
47
175
131
42
173
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
17
TABLE
12.
TYPES
OF
CLUB
AND
ORGANIZATIONAL
PARTICIPATION
BY
RESIDENCE
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Residence
Club
and
organizations
Husbands
Wives
Rural
Rural
Rural
Rural
Total
Total
farm
nonfarm
farm
nonfarm
Per
cent
1
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Agricultural
2
0
1
15
5
9
Civic
5
7
4
5
0 3
Church
groups
2
1
2
19
12
12
Lodges
and
fraternal
35
25
21
14
7
7
Military
organizations
4
1
2
0
0
0
Professional
1
3
1
1
0
1
Recreational
2
1
2
3 0
1
None
65
70
67
61
82
67
Total
number
responding
210
210
1
Percentages
total
more
than
100
because
of
multiple
responses.
such
organizations
than
were
nonfarm
husbands,
Table
12.
Or-
ganizations
listed
most
frequently
by
wives
were
church
groups
(19
and
12%),
lodges
and
fraternal
orders
(14
and
7%),
and
agri-
cultural
groups
(15
and
5%).
In
all
instances
farm
wives
were
more
apt
to
participate
than
were
nonfarm
wives.
Membership
in
7
categories
of
clubs
and
organizations
was
dispersed
more
evenly
for
husbands
than
for
wives.
Extent
of
Membership
Husbands
and
wives
shared
like
interests
in
clubs
and
organiza-
tions,
but
less
than
one-third
of
them
were
members
in
any
or-
ganized
group.
Residence.
Participation
in
clubs
by
rural
farm
was
only
slightly
greater
than
that
by
rural
nonfarm
husbands,
but
rural
farm
wives
were
twice
as
active
in
organizations
as
were
the
rural
nonfarm,
Table
13.
TABLE
13.
NUMBER
OF
CLUB
AND
ORGANIZATIONAL
MEMBERSHIPS
BY
RESIDENCE
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Residence
Number
of
Husbands
Wives
memberships
Rural Rural
Rural
Rural
Total
Total
farm
nonfarm
farm
nonfarm
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
None
66
72
68
62
81
68
1
24
26
25
22
15
20
2
or
more
10
2
8
16
4
12
Total
number
responding.
150
60
210
150
60
210
18
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
TABLE
14.
NUMBER
OF
CLUB
AND
ORGANIZATIONAL
MEMBERSHIPS
BY
AGE
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Age
Number
of
memberships
Husbands
Wives
45-54
55-64
Total
Under
49
50-66
Total
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
None
65
72
68
68
67
68
1
28
19
24
20
20
20
2
or
more
7
9
8
12
13
12
Total
number
responding
121
89
100
113
97
100
Age.
Younger
middle-aged
husbands,
45
to
54
years,
showed
more
participation
in
formal
organizations
than
did
older
men,
Table
14.
Among
the
wives,
age
was
not
a
factor
since
their
participation
in
one
or
more
groups
was
almost
the
same.
Education.
Correlation
was
evident
between
length
of
school-
ing
and
number
of
club
memberships
reported,
Table
15.
The
percentages
of
couples
reporting
no
group
association
at
four
educational
levels
were:
elementary,
93
per
cent;
junior
high
school,
76
per
cent;
high
school,
47
per
cent;
and
college,
29
per
cent.
Income.
The
number
of
group
affiliations
held
by
these
cou-
ples
was
affected
directly
by
income.
There
were
no
member-
ships
among
families
with
incomes
of
less
than
$1,000;
but,
with
each
higher
income
level,
participation
increased
until
61
per
cent
of
the
husbands
and
wives
with
more
than
$5,000
income
be-
longed
to
clubs,
Table
16.
TABLE
15.
NUMBER
OF
CLUB
AND
ORGANIZATIONAL
MEMBERSHIPS
BY
EDUCATION
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Number
of
memberships
Education
0-6
7-9
10-12
13-16
Not
reported
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Husbands
None
94
77
47
29
71
1
6
21
40
36
29
2
or
more
0
2
13
35
0
Total
number
responding
53
47
75
14
21
Wives
None
93
76
54
0
72
1
7
22
24
50
21
2
or
more
0
2
22
50
7
Total
number
responding
56
46
82
12
14
Expenditures
for
clubs
and
organizations
Family
income
$0-
$1000-
$3000-
$5000-
Not
999
2999
4999
&
over
reported
Total
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
19
TABLE
16.
NUMBER
OF
CLUB
AND
ORGANIZATIONAL
MEMBERSHIPS
BY
FAMILY
INCOME
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Number
of
memberships
Family
income
$0-
$1000- $3000-
$5000-
Not
999
2999
4999
&
over
reported
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Husbands
None
100
86
38
39
72
1
0
8
55
47
20
2
or
more
0
6
7
14
8
Total
number
responding
18
51
29
43
69
Wives
None
100
78
55
35
76
1
0
20
35
28
16
2
or
more
0
2
10
37
8
Total
number
responding
18
51
29
43
69
Amount
of
income
had
little
effect
on
yearly
expenditures
for
membership
dues
and
fees,
Table
17.
Those
with
incomes
below
$5,000
spent
less
than
$50
on
group
affiliations,
whereas
at
the
level
above
$5,000,
86
per
cent
listed
club
expenditures
under
$50.
The
unreported
income
category
represented
the
largest
proportion
(2(x)
of
families
who
spent
more
than
$50
per
year.
More
than
twice
as
many
families
making
over
$5,000
spent
more
than
$50
for
dues
and
fees
than
did
those
earning
less
than
$5,000.
Regardless
of
income,
the
greatest
proportion
of
families
reported
spending
less
than
$50
for
clubs
and
organizations.
Post
Retirement
Membership
Plans
Plans
for
retirement
years
showed
no
significant
change
in
or-
ganizational
membership,
either
by
joining
additional
groups
or
dropping
present
affiliations.
One-third
of
the
rural
farm
hus-
bands
and
over
one-fourth
of
their
wives
were
going
to
continue
TABLE
17.
COST
OF
CLUB
AND
ORGANIZATIONAL
MEMBERSHIPS
BY
FAMILY
INCOME
OF
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
No.
None
100
0
0
0
0
126
$1-49
0
93
95
86
75
73
$50
or
more
0
7
5
14
25
11
Total
number
responding
25
50
30
44
61
210
Mean
expenditures
none
$12
$21
$33
$37
20
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
TABLE
18.
PLANS
FOR
CONTINUED
MEMBERSHIP
IN
CLUBS
AND
ORGANIZATIONS
AFTER
RETIREMENT
BY
RESIDENCE
OF
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Residence
Clubs
and
organizations
Rural
farm
Rural
nonfarm
Husbands
Wives
Husbands
Wives
Pct.
Pct.
Pct.
Pct.
Pct. Pct.
Pct.
Pct.
cont.
DK
cont.
DK
cont.
DK
cont.
DK
Agriculture
11
5
10
10
7
4
12
6
Civic
5
5
1
6
19
4
0
0
Church
9
0
28
14
0
4
24
23
Lodges
&
fraternal_
56
6
22
2
46
12
29
6
Military
organizations
0
1
0
0 0
0
0
0
Professional
1
0
1 1
0
0
0
0
Recreational
2
0
1
4
0
4
0
0
Total
number
responding
88
88
26
17
Note:,
None
of
this
group
stated
that
they
would
discontinue
membership
in
clubs
and
organizations.
memberships
in
clubs
and
organizations,
whereas
17
per
cent
of
the
husbands
and
37
per
cent
of
the
wives
had
not
decided,
Table
18.
Less
than
one-half
of
the
rural
nonfarm
husbands,
and
one-
third
of
their
wives
intended
to
continue
with
their
clubs
and
or-
ganizations.
No
one
stated
that
they
would
definitely
discontinue
their
memberships.
Evidently
not
much
thought
had
been
given
to
continued
membership
in
clubs
and
organizations
at
this
time
by
either
rural
farm
or
nonfarm
families.
POST
RETIREMENT
PLANS
FOR
TRAVEL
Plans
for
post-retirement
travel
were
definite
in
only
17
per
cent
of
the
families
with
an
additional
38
per
cent
undecided.
The
remaining
families
were
not
interested
in
travel
and
pre-
ferred
to
stay
at
home,
Table
19.
TABLE
19.
PLANS
FOR
PARTICIPATION
IN
TRAVEL
AFTER
RETIREMENT
BY
RESIDENCE
OF
HUSBANDS
AND
WIVES
FROM
210
RURAL
ALABAMA
FAMILIES,
1964
Residence
Travel
after
retirement
Rural
Rural
farm
nonfarm
Total
Per
cent
Per
cent
Per
cent
Yes
18
15
17
No
43
50
45
Don't
know
39
35
38
Total
number
responding
150
60
210
LEISURE-TIME
ACTIVITIES
21
Only
3
(1%)
of
the
210
families
were
saving
money
especially
for
retirement
travel,
while
2
others
had
savings
and
investments
that
they
might
use
for
this
purpose.
The
remaining
families,
who
stated
that
they
planned
to
travel
after
age
65,
had
made
no
provisions
for
doing
so.
Fifteen
rural
farm
families
estimated
that
they
would
need
between
$25
and
$500
for
future
travel
with
the
average
being
about
$187
per
family.
Only
five
rural
nonfarm
families
estimated
their
future
needs
for
travel
at
$10
to
$200,
or
an
average
of
$122
per
family.
Other
families
had
made
no
plans
and
did
not
esti-
mate
their
needs.
SUMMARY
AND
CONCLUSIONS
This
study
was
made
of
the
leisure-time
activities
of
210
se-
lected
rural
households
living
in
six
widely
separated
Alabama
counties.
Husbands
in
each
family
were
between
45-64
years
of
age
and
the
couple
had
been
married
for
at
least
one
year
prior
to
the
time
of
the
survey.
The
study
population
consisted
of
150
rural
farm
and
60
rural
nonfarm
families.
Approximately
75
per
cent
of
the
sample
was
white
and
25
per
cent
Negro.
The
aver-
age
household
consisted
of
three
to
four
members
with
a
mean
cash
income
of
$3,541
and
an
average
per
capita
income
of
$1,168.
Only
a
slight
difference
in
the
mean
education
of
hus-
bands
and
wives
was
noted.
Twenty-six
respondents
reported
having
had
college
training,
all
of
whom
were
rural
farm
resi-
dents.
It
was
found
that
rural
Alabama
families
had
few
leisure-time
activities
in
which
they
participated.
The
range
and
types
of
ac-
tivities
reported
by
the
respondents
were
extremely
limited.
The
results
showed
that
younger
men
and
older
women
were
the
ones
reporting
the
most
activities.
No
difference
was
found
in
the
number
of
leisure-time
activities
in
which
husbands
and
wives
participated.
Results
revealed
that
participation
in
all
such
activities
increased
with
rises
in
level
of
educational
attainment
and
family
income.
On
the
basis
of
resi-
dence,
it
was
found
that
a
somewhat
larger
percentage
of
rural
farm
families
participated
in
leisure-time
pursuits
than
did
the
rural
nonfarm.
According
to
these
data,
few
of
the
middle-aged
rural
couples
studied
had
made
plans
for
the
use
of
their
leisure
hours
after
22
ALABAMA
AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION
retirement.
The
majority
of
families
with
present
leisure-time
activities
reported
their
intentions
to
continuing
participation
in
current
pastimes
and
organizations
after
age
65.
However
the
largest
proportion
of
the
sample
families
had
made
practically
no
economic
provisions
to
insure
future
participation.
Travel
was
included
in
future
plans
by
a
sizeable
percentage
of
the
respon-
dents
but
only
a
fraction
of
them
had
made
any
financial
pro-
visions
for
it.
This
study
indicated
that
there
was
a
definite
lack
of
creative
leisure-time
activities
among
the
210
Alabama
families
studied.
This deficiency
appeared
to
be
related
to
education
and
income
with
age
and
residence
having
a
lesser
effect.
Income
appeared
to
be
the
most
important
factor
in
determining
leisure-time
activi-
ties.