A new species of Tulipa (Liliaceae) from Western Iran


Ghahreman, A.; Attar, F.; Ghahremaninejad, F.

Novon 17(4): 437-439

2007


A new species, Tulipa faribae Ghahreman, Attar & Ghahremani-Nejad (Liliaceae), endemic to the Zagros Mountains of Kermanshah province, Iran, is described and illustrated. It is placed in the subgenus Leiostemones Boissier due to its lack of trichomes on the filaments and on the base of the tepals, and it appears to be most closely related to T. schrenkii Regel, due to its large bulb size, a papery tunic lined inside with some silky appressed hairs, and tepals usually scarlet with a black blotch margined with yellow. The new species differs in having flatter leaf margins, a more robust stem (to 8 mm in diameter), and larger perianth parts (tepals to 100 mm long).

A
New
Species
of
Tulipa
(Liliaceae)
from
Western
Iran
Ahmad
Ghahreman
and
Farideh
Attar
Central
Herbarium,
Department
of
Biology,
Faculty
of
Science,
Tehran
University,
Enghelab
Avenue,
Tehran,
Iran
Farrokh
Ghahremaninejad
Department
of
Biology,
Faculty
of
Science,
Tarbiat
Moallem
University,
49
Dr.
Mofatteh
Avenue,
15614
Tehran,
Iran
ABSTRACT.
A
new
species,
Tulipa
faribae
Ghahre-
man,
Attar
&
Ghahremani-Nejad
(Liliaceae),
endemic
to
the
Zagros
Mountains
of
Kermanshah
province,
Iran,
is
described
and
illustrated.
It
is
placed
in
the
subgenus
Leiostemones
Boissier
due
to
its
lack
of
trichomes
on
the
filaments
and
on
the
base
of
the
tepals,
and
it
appears
to
be
most
closely
related
to
T.
schrenkii
Regel,
due
to
its
large
bulb
size,
a
papery
tunic
lined
inside
with
some
silky
appressed
hairs,
and
tepals
usually
scarlet
with
a
black
blotch
margined
with
yellow.
The
new
species
differs
in
having
flatter
leaf
margins,
a
more
robust
stem
(to
8
mm
in
diameter),
and
larger
perianth
parts
(tepals
to
100
mm
long).
Key
words:
Iran,
Liliaceae,
Tulipa,
Zagros
Moun-
tains.
The
genus
Tulipa
L.
is
a
member
of
the
Liliaceae
family
and
is
traditionally
classified
in
the
subfamily
Lilioideae.
This
genus,
with
nearly
100
species,
is
distributed
from
Asia
to
North
Africa
(Mabberley,
1997)
and
contains
35
species
in
the
Iranian
Plateau
(Iran,
Afghanistan,
western
Pakistan,
eastern
Iraq,
southern
Azerbaijan,
and
southern
Turkmenistan),
22
of
which
are
found
in
Iran,
including
the
new
species
(Rechinger
et
al.,
1990).
Here
we
describe
a
new
species
in
Tulipa
from
the
Zagros
Mountains
in
the
Kermanshah
province
of
Iran.
It
belongs
to
Tulipa
subg.
Leiostemones
Boissier,
which
is
characterized
by
a
lack
of
hairs
on
all
of
the
anther
filaments
and
at
the
base
of
the
tepals.
The
subgenus
otherwise
contains
27
species
in
five
sections
in
the
Iranian
Plateau
(Rechinger
et
al.,
1990).
Tulipa
faribae
Ghahreman,
Attar
&
Ghahremani-
Nejad,
sp.
nov.
TYPE:
Iran.
Kermanshah:
betw.
Paveh
&
Javanrud
(Zagros
Mtns.),
1600
m,
15
May
1980,
A.
Ghahreman
29931
(holotype,
TUH;
isotypes,
FAR,
MO,
TUH).
Figure
1.
Planta
44-45
cm
sits.
Bulbus
ovoideus,
6.5
cm
longus,
2-
4
cm
crassus.
Folia
3
ad
6,
lanceolata,
glabra.
Flos
unicus,
magnus;
tepala
rubra,
glabra,
macula
basali
nigra.
Filaments
ni
g
ra,
7-8
mm,
glabra;
antherae
16-20
mm;
ovarium
30
mm
lon
g
-um,
flavum,
oblongum,
glabrum;
stylus
brevissimus;
capsula
ignota.
Perennial
plant,
ca.
44-45
cm
high,
glabrous,
robust,
with
stem
3-7(-8)
mm
diam.
at
lower
portion;
bulb
6.5
cm
tall
X
2-4
cm
diam.;
tunic
papery,
lined
inside
with
some
silky
appressed
hairs,
pale
brown,
tomentose
in
upper
portion
internally.
Leaves
3
to
6,
lanceolate,
glaucous,
glabrous,
smooth,
erect,
flat
at
the
margin,
attenuate
toward
apex,
not
exceeding
the
flowers;
lower
leaves
up
to
20
X
4.5
cm;
upper
leaves
smaller,
up
to
16
X
1.5-2.5
cm.
Flowers
solitary,
large;
perianth
segments
red,
glabrous
and
black-maculate
in
the
lower
third,
margined
with
yellow;
outer
tepals
5.5-10
X
2-3
cm,
broadly
elliptic,
attenuate
toward
base
in
claw,
acuminate
at
the
apex;
inner
tepals
shorter,
5.5-7
X
1.5-2
cm,
acute
or
rarely
obtuse
adaxially,
attenuate
toward
the
base
in
narrow
claw;
anther
filaments
black,
7-8
mm,
glabrous;
anthers
olivaceous,
16-20
mm;
ovary
ca.
30
mm,
yellow,
oblong,
glabrous;
style
very
short
(ca.
1
mm
long).
Fruit
not
seen.
Phenology.
Flowering
in
May;
fruiting
most
likely
June
to
July.
Etymology.
The
specific
epithet
is
in
honor
of
the
Iranian
botanist,
Fariba
Ghahreman.
Distribution.
Tulipa
faribae
is
endemic
to
western
Iran
and
known
only
from
the
type
locality,
with
a
population
of
20
to
25
plants.
It
is
an
Irano-Turanian
species and
grows
in
a
Quercus
L.
forest
dominated
by
Q.
brantii
Lindley.
Relationships.
The
larger
flowers
of
Tulipa
faribae
easily
distinguish
it
from
the
other
Tulipa
species
distributed
in
Iran.
Morphologically,
the
closest
relative
of
this
species
is
T.
schrenkii
Regel,
which
is
distributed
in
western
Azerbaijan
and
Kurdestan
provinces,
Iran.
These
two
species
do
not
overlap
NOVON
17:
437-439.
PUBLISHED
ON
3
DECEMBER
2007.
438
Novon
3
cm
3
cm
4.5
cm
A
Figure
1.
Tulipa
faribae
Ghahreman,
Attar
&
Ghahremani-Nejad.
—A.
Habit.
—B.
Flower.
—C.
Inner
tepal.
—D.
Outer
tepal.
—E.
Stamen.
—F.
Gynoecium.
Drawn
from
the
holotype,
A.
Ghahreman
29931.
geographically,
with
7'.
faribae
located
at
ca.
34°50",
while
7'.
schrenkii
is
only
found
as
far
south
as
ca.
36°40"
(Rechinger
et
al.,
1990).
The
new
species
(seven
specimens
were
examined)
differs
from
7'.
schrenkii
in
the
following:
leaves
3
to
6
(vs.
3
to
4),
flat
at
margin
(vs.
undulate),
erect
(vs.
recurved);
stem
robust
(3-7(-8)
mm
wide
when
dry
vs.
3.5-4.5
mm);
perianth
55-100
X
20-30
mm
(vs.
23-58
X
Volume
17,
Number
4
Ghahreman
et
al.
439
2007
Tulipa
faribae
from
Iran
9-27
mm);
and
anther
length
16-20
(vs.
4-13)
mm
(Fig.
1).
The
other
Iranian
species
of
Tulipa
are
distrib-
uted
between
45
m
(Gonbad-e-Kavus,
Mazandaran
province)
and
3600
m
(Shirkuh,
Yazd
province)
above
sea
level,
based
on
information
from
257
Tulipa
specimens
from
FAR,
FUMH,
and
TUH
herbaria.
Four
of
the
22
species
of
Tulipa
in
Iran
are
endemic.
Acknowledgments.
We
thank
M.
Iranshahr
for
editing
the
Latin
description.
Literature
Cited
Mabberley,
D.
J.
1997.
The
Plant-Book.
Cambridge
Univ.
Press,
Cambridge.
Rechinger,
K.
H.,
K.
Bmwicz,
K.
Persson
&
P.
Wendelbo.
1990.
Liliaceae
II.
In
K.
H.
Rechinger
(editor),
Flora
Iranica,
Vol.
165.
Akademische
Dmk
and
Verlagsanstalt,
Graz.