Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men


Ouerghi, N.; Fradj, M.Kacem.Ben.; Bezrati, I.; Khammassi, M.; Feki, M.; Kaabachi, N.; Bouassida, A.

Biology of Sport 34(4): 385-392

2018


To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO<sub>2max</sub>)] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11) and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23) in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82), VO<sub>2max</sub> (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41), FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52), SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70) and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64) significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16). Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96), LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77) and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08) significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normal-weight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

Original
Paper
DOI:
10.5114/biolsport.2017.69827
Biol.
Sport
2017;34:385-392
Effects
of
high-intensity
interval
training
on
body
composition,
aerobic
and
anaerobic
performance
and
plasma
lipids
in
overweight/obese
and
normal-weight
young
men
AUTHORS:
Nejmeddine
Ouerghi
l
'
2
'
3
,
Mohamed
Kacem
Ben
Fradj
2
,
Ikram
Bezrati
2
,
Marwa
Khammassi
2
,
Moncef
Feki
2
,
Naziha
Kaabachi
2
,
Anissa
Bouassida'
1
Universite
de
Jendouba,
Institut
Superieur
du
Sport
et
de
('Education
Physique
du
Kef
UR131501,
7100
Kef,
Tunisia
2
Universite
de
Tunis
El
Manar,
Faculte
de
Medecine
de
Tunis,
Hopital
La
Rabta,
LR99ES11,
1007
Tunis,
Tunisia
3
Universite
de
Carthage,
Faculte
des
Sciences
de
Bizerte,
7021
Zarzouna,
Bizerte,
Tunisia
ABSTRACT:
To
examine
the
effects
of
short
high-intensity
interval
training
(HIIT)
on
body
composition,
physical
performance
and
plasma
lipids
in
overweight/obese
compared
to
normal-weight
young
men.
Nine
overweight/
obese
and
nine
normal-weight
men
(control
group)
aged
17
to
20
years
underwent
a
HIIT
programme
three
times
per
week
for
eight
weeks.
Body
composition,
indices
of
aerobic
[maximal
aerobic
velocity
(MAV)
and
maximal
oxygen
uptake
(VO2max)]
and
anaerobic
[squat
jump
(Si),
counter-movement
jump
(CMJ),
five-jump
test
(FJT),
10-m
and
30-m
sprint]
performances,
as
well
as
fasting
plasma
lipids,
were
assessed
in
the
two
groups
at
PRE
and
POST
HIIT.
The
HIIT
programme
resulted
in
significant
reductions
in
body
mass
(-1.62%,
P=0.016,
ES=0.11)
and
fat
mass
(-1.59%,
P=0.021,
ES=0.23)
in
obese,
but
not
in
normal-weight
subjects.
MAV
(+5.55%,
P=0.005,
ES=0.60
and
+2.96%,
P=0.009,
E5=0.82),
VO2max
(+5.27%,
P=0.006,
ES=0.63
and
+2.88%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.41),
FJT
(+3.63%,
P=0.005,
ES=0.28
and
+2.94%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.52),
SJ
(+4.92%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.25
and
+6.94%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.70)
and
CMJ
(+6.84%,
P=0.014,
ES=0.30
and
+6.69%,
P=0.002,
ES=
0.64)
significantly
increased
in
overweight/obese
and
normal-weight
groups,
respectively.
30-m
sprint
time
significantly
decreased
in
both
groups
(-1.77%,
P=0.038,
ES=0.12
and
-0.72%,
P=0.030,
ES=0.16).
Plasma
total
cholesterol
(-11.8%,
P=0.026,
ES=0.96),
LDL
cholesterol
(-11.9%,
P=0.050,
ES=0.77)
and
triglycerides
(-21.3%,
P=0.023,
ES=1.08)
significantly
decreased
in
the
obese
group,
but
not
in
the
normal-
weight
group.
The
eight-week
HIIT
programme
resulted
in
a
slight
improvement
in
physical
fitness
and
a
significant
decrease
in
plasma
lipids
in
the
obese.
Short
duration
HIIT
may
contribute
to
an
improved
cardiometabolic
profile
in
the
obese.
CITATION:
Ouerghi
N,
Ben
Fradj
MK,
Bezrati
I
et
al.
Effects
of
high-intensity
interval
training
on
body
composition,
aerobic
and
anaerobic
performance
and
plasma
lipids
in
overweight/obese
and
normal-weight
young
men.
Biol
Sport.
2017;34(4):385-392.
Received:
2016-05-26;
Reviewed:
2017-05-05;
Accepted:
2017-05-05;
Published:
2017-09-20.
Corresponding
author:
Nejmeddine
Ouerghi
High
Institute
of
Sports
and
Physical
Education
of
Kef
7100
Le
Kef,
Tunisia
e-mail:
najm_ouerghi@hotmail.
com
Key
words:
Body
composition
Interval
training
Physical
performance
Obesity
Lipids
INTRODUCTION
Obesity
has
been
identified
as
a
major
health
problem
worldwide,
especially
in
youth
[11.
It
is
associated
with
increased
risk
of
cardio-
vascular
diseases,
type
2
diabetes
mellitus,
osteoarthritis,
respira-
tory
problems
and
cancer
[21
as
well
as
reduced
life
expectancy
[31.
Physical
activity
is
an
efficient
method
for
the
prevention
and
treat-
ment
of
obesity.
It
promotes
physical
and
mental
health,
thereby
improving
the
quality
of
life
[4,
51.
Continuous
training
is
considered
beneficial
for
maintaining
cardiovascular
fitness
[6-81.
Endurance
exercise
training
demonstrated
significant
improvement
in
lipid
pro-
file
in
normal-weight
active
and
sedentary
and
in
obese
individu-
als
[3,
7,
91.
High-intensity
interval
training
(HIIT)
is
a
mode
of
exercise
training
that
consist
of
30
s
all-out
sprints
separated
by
recovery
intervals
[101.
A
body
of
evidence
has
demonstrated
com-
parable
or
superior
improvements
in
cardiometabolic
fitness
using
H
IIT
in
comparison
to
moderate
endurance
training
[10-191.
Accord-
ingly,
it
was
suggested
that
HIIT
provides
a
useful
alternative
to
traditional
endurance-based
exercise
recommendations
for
health
promotion.
The
use
of
HIIT
interventions
is
often
perceived
as
un-
practical
and
intolerable
by
middle-aged
and
aged
individuals.
How-
ever,
youth
and
especially
those
with
weight
excess
have
difficulty,
and
perhaps
little
interest,
in
practising
long
duration
endurance-
based
activities.
They
more
easily
adhere
to
low-volume
and
more
time-efficient
high-intensity
intermittent
training.
So,
further
studies
are
needed
to
support
the
role
of
alternative
evidence-based
exercise
recommendations.
The
purpose
of
this
study
was
to
examine
the
effects
of
a
HIIT
programme
on
body
composition,
physical
perfor-
BIOLOGY
OF
SPORT,
VoL.
34
No4,
2017
385
Nejmeddine
Ouerghi
et
al.
mance
and
plasma
lipids
in
obese
youth.
The
working
hypothesis
of
the
present
study
was
that
HIIT
intervention
is
effective
in
improving
body
composition
and
lipid
profile
in
the
obese.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
Study
subjects
Twenty
young
males
aged
17
to
20
years
gave
their
written
consent
to
participate
in
the
study.
The
study
was
approved
by
the
Scien-
tific
and
Ethics
Committee
of
High
Institute
of
Sports
and
Physical
Education
of
Kef
and
the
protocol
was
conducted
according
to
the
Declaration
of
Helsinki.
Participants
were
students
attending
two
secondary
schools
in
the
city
of
Dahmani
(Kef,
Tunisia).
They
were
randomly
selected
and
divided
according
to
body
mass
index
(BMI)
into
an
overweight/obese
group
(OG;
BMI
>25
kg/m
2
,
n=10)
and
a
normal-weight
group
(NWG,
BMI<25
kg/m
2
,
n=10).
All
partici-
pants
provided
selected
information
on
life
style
factors
and
medical
history.
None
of
the
participants
was
a
former
or
current
smoker
or
was
using
medication
and
none
had
a
history
of
disease
or
injury
that
would
prevent
physical
activity.
A
medical
examination
was
applied
to
each
participant
prior
to
inclusion,
revealing
no
contrain-
dication
to
physical
exercise.
Participants
in
both
groups
were
un-
dergoing
two
to
three
hours
of
physical
education
lessons.
During
the
study,
a
participant
had
difficulty
adapting
to
intense
exercise
and
decided
to
stop
participating
in
the
programme.
Another
par-
ticipant
was
absent
several
times
and
was
subsequently
excluded
from
the
study.
The
remaining
participants,
nine
in
each
group,
at-
tended
all
sessions
of
the
training
programme
and
no
one
was
injured.
Study
protocol
The
protocol
was
conducted
from
February
to
April
2014.
The
tem-
perature
varied
between
17°C
and
23°C
and
the
humidity
ranged
from
70%
to
75%.
Participants
were
familiarized
with
different
ex-
ercises
and
tests
during
the
week
preceding
training
programme
onset.
They
had
indices
of
body
composition
and
biochemical
pa-
rameters
recorded
as
well
as
selected
physical
performance
measures
at
baseline
(pre)
and
post-intervention.
Training
programme
The
training
programme
was
carried
out
for
eight
consecutive
weeks
with
three
sessions
per
week
according
to
Buchan
et
al.
[10,
12,
131.
HIIT
sessions
were
performed
in
Dahmani
stadium
in
the
afternoon
on
days
without
physical
education
classes.
The
HIIT
protocol
con-
sisted
of
two
series
of
30-second
runs
at
100-110%
of
the
maximal
aerobic
velocity
(MAV)
interspersed
with
30
seconds
of
active
recov-
ery.
Training
progression
was
implemented
by
increasing
the
number
of
repetitions
from
the
3
rd
week,
and
increasing
the
intensity
of
the
work
from
the
5
th
week
(5%
increase
of
the
MAV
every
two
weeks)
(Table
1).
During
the
programme,
participants
were
requested
to
maintain
their
normal
eating
habits.
Participants
were
dividd
into
four
working
subgroups
according
to
the
MAV
obtained
through
the
Vameval
(MAV,
10
to
12
km/h
and
12
to
14
km/h
for
OG;
and
14
to
15
km/h
and
15
to
16
km/h
for
NWG).
All
sessions
included
three
different
periods;
the
sessions
started
with
a
standardized
warm-up,
which
consisted
of
10
min
of
continuous
jogging
at
moderate
intensity
(50%
of
MAV),
followed
by
5
min
of
dynamic
stretching
exercises
and
5
short
bursts
of
20-m
accelerations
on
the
track.
Then,
the
subjects
performed
their
training
programme.
They
had
to
run
for
30
seconds
a
given
distance
marked
by
two
cones
(cones
1
and
2).
An
acoustic
signal
was
given
at
the
start
(cone
1)
and
at
the
end
of
the
sprint
(cone
2).
The
30-second
active
recovery
was
also
controlled.
From
the
arrival
cone
(cone
2),
the
subject
had
to
run
at
50%
of
MAV
in
the
opposite
direc-
tion
for
15
seconds
and
then
return
to
the
arrival
cone
(cone
2).
In
order
to
help
the
participant
to
manage
the
recovery
period,
a
signal
Table
1.
Eight
weeks
of
high-intensity
interval
training
(HIIT)
programme.
Week
of
training
1-2
3-4
5-6
7-8
Number
of
series
2 2 2 2
Number
of
races
per
series
8
10
10
10
Run/active
recuperation
time,
second
30/30 30/30
30/30
30/30
Percent
of
MAV
(run/active
recuperation)
(100/50)
(100/50)
(105/50)
(110/50)
Passive
recovery
time,
min
5
5
5
5
Training
load,
ATU
600
750
775
800
MAV,
maximal
aerobic
velocity;
ATU,
arbitrary
training
units
Example:
[2
x
(8
x
30s/30s);
100%/50%
MAV;
passive
recovery
time
=
5
mint.
It
means
that
the
subject
had
to
run
2
series
of
8
times
30
s:
composed
of
30
s
running
at
100%
of
MAV
and
30
s
active
recovery
at
50%
of
MAV.
The
subject
recovers
passively
for
5
min
between
each
two
series.
Each
session
is
repeated
3
times
a
week.
Example
of
training
load
calculation
for
training
sessions
during
the
first
week:
[(100
+
50)/21
x
4
x
2
=
600
ATU.
Effects
of
interval
training
in
obese
young
men
was
given
at
half
recovery
(after
15
seconds).
For
the
following
sprint,
the
subject
had
to
run
in
the
opposite
direction
starting
from
the
arrival
cone,
and
so
on.
At
the
end
of
the
session,
the
subject
cooled
down
for
about
10
min
by
running
at
low
intensity
and
performing
static
stretching.
Training
session
data,
mainly
timing
of
the
sprint
and
the
recovery
period,
were
recorded
by
the
same
investigator
(NO).
Anthropometric
measurements
Anthropometric
measurements
were
performed
with
the
subjects
bare-footed
and
lightly
clothed.
The
height
(m)
was
measured
with
a
standing
stadiometer
and
recorded
with
a
precision
of
0.1
cm.
Subject
body
mass
(kg)
was
measured
with
a
TPRO
3100
elec-
tronic
balance
(Terra'lion).
Body
mass
index
(BMI)
was
calculated:
BMI
(kg/m
2
)=body
mass/height
2
.
Skinfold
thickness
was
determined
in
triplicate
at
four
sites
(biceps,
triceps,
subscapular
and
suprailiac),
using
a
calibrated
Harpenden
caliper
(Holtain
Instruments,
Pem-
brokeshire,
UK).
The
mean
of
the
three
values
was
recorded
for
each
site.
Body
density
(D)
was
calculated
according
to
the
equations
of
Durnin
and
Wormersley
[201
for
men
aged
17-19
years
as
D=1.162
[0.063
(log
E)1
and
for
men
aged
20-29
years
as
D=1.163110.0632
(log
E)1,
where
E
is
the
sum
of
the
four
skinfolds
(in
mm).
Percentage
body
fat
(BF)
was
calculated
from
D
using
Siri's
equation
[211
as
follows:
BF=(4.95/D
4.50)
x
100.
Physical
testing
All
the
subjects
were
subjected
to
different
field
and
laboratory
tests,
during
which
they
were
strongly
encouraged
to
attain
their
maximum
performance.
All
the
tests
were
carried
out
between
3
and
5
PM.
Incremental
running
test:
The
Vameval
test
[221
was
performed
on
a
400-m
outdoor
running
track.
The
participants
were
asked
not
to
perform
any
physical
effort
during
the
48
hours
prior
to
the
test.
Twenty
cones
were
placed
on
the
track
every
20
m
as
a
reference.
The
test
starts
at
a
running
speed
of
8
km/h
and
increases
by
0.5
km/h
every
minute
until
exhaustion.
Participants
adjusted
their
run-
ning
speed
to
the
cones
placed
at
20-m
intervals.
They
were
encour-
aged
throughout
the
test.
The
test
ended
when
the
subject
could
no
longer
maintain
the
required
running
speed
dictated
by
the
audio
beep
for
2
consecutive
occasions.
Heart
rate
was
recorded
during
the
test,
using
a
Polar
heart
rate
monitor
(Polar
S810,
Kempele,
Finland),
and
heart
rate
maximum
(HRmax)
was
recorded
at
the
end
of
the
final
level
reached.
Vertical
jump
measures:
Squat
jump
(SJ)
and
counter
movement
jump
(CMJ)
were
carried
out
as
described
by
Bosco
et
al.
[231,
using
an
Optojump
system
(Globus;
Microgate
Ltd.,
Italy).
The
two
tests
differ
in
the
starting
position,
which
is
a
standing
position
for
CMJ
and
90°
of
flexion
of
the
knee
joints
for
SJ.
Participants
are
instructed
to
jump
as
high
as
possible
while
keeping
their
hands
on
their
hips.
Performance
in
SJ
and
CMJ
was
expressed
in
flight
height
(cm).
For
each
test,
participants
performed
three
trials
with
one
min
of
recovery
in
between.
The
best
performance
was
retained.
Horizontal
jump
measures:
The
five-jump
test
(FJT)
was
carried
out
as
described
by
Chamari
et
al.
[241.
It
consists
of
five
successive
horizontal
jumps.
The
subject
begins
with
feet
together
and
ends
in
the
same
position.
Starting
at
the
right
station,
the
subject
performs
five
strides.
He
jumps
on
one
leg
(right
or
left),
raising
the
knee
and
the
arms
in
front.
During
the
fifth
stride
the
subject
brings
back
both
legs
together
to
return
to
the
starting
position.
Performance
was
expressed
as
total
distance
(m).
10
m
and
30
m
sprints:
The
performance
was
evaluated
at
10
m
and
30
m,
during
a
30-m
run,
after
a
warm-up
for
10
minutes
comprising
runs
of
low
intensity,
followed
by
three
accelerations
and
muscle
stretching
of
the
lower
limbs
[251.
The
subjects
started
from
a
standing
position
and
the
sprint
time
was
registered
with
photo-
electric
cells
(Microgate
SARL,
Italy)
positioned
at
the
start
line
and
at
10
m
and
30
m.
The
photoelectric
cells
were
placed
at
shoulder
height.
Each
subject
performed
two
tests;
the
best
time
was
chosen.
Blood
sampling
and
methods
of
analysis
Fasting
blood
was
obtained
from
the
antecubital
vein
in
heparin
ized
tubes
in
pre-
and
post-intervention.
Blood
samples
were
centrifuged
at
2000
x
g
for
25
min
and
plasma
was
frozen
at
-40°C
until
anal-
ysis
(within
3
months).
Total
cholesterol
(TC)
and
HDL
cholesterol
(HDL-C)
and
triglyceride
(TG)
were
assessed
by
the
enzymatic
meth-
od
on
an
Architect
C8000
auto
analyzer
(Abbott
Laboratories,
Abbott
Park,
IL)
using
respective
reagent
kits.
LDL
cholesterol
(LDL-C)
was
calculated
using
the
Friedewald
formula
[261.
Statistical
analysis
Statistical
analysis
was
performed
using
the
SPSS
version
16.0
soft-
ware
package
(SPSS
Inc.,
Chicago,
IL).
The
assumption
of
normal-
ity
of
the
data
was
confirmed
using
the
Kolmogorov-Smirnov
test
and
homogeneity
of
variance
was
verified
using
Levene's
test.
The
inde-
pendent-samples
t-test
was
used
to
compare
basal
variables
between
groups
(OG
vs.
NWG).
The
paired-samples
t-test
was
used
to
com-
pare
pre-training
and
post-training
variables
in
each
group
(OG
or
NWG).
Changes
in
dependent
variables
resulting
from
the
training
programme
were
assessed
by
two-way
(time*group)
repeated
mea-
sures
analysis
of
variance.
The
effect
size
(ES)
was
calculated
using
Cohen's
d;
these
calculations
were
based
on
Cohen's
classification
of
a
small
(0.2
<
ES
<0.5),
moderate
(0.5
<
ES
<0.8)
and
large
(ES
0.8)
effect
size
[271.
A
p-value
<0.05
based
on
two-sided
calculation
was
considered
significant.
RESULTS
At
inclusion,
age
and
height
were
similar
for
both
two
groups,
but
body
mass,
BMI
and
BF
were
significantly
higher
(P<0.001)
in
OG.
The
eight-week
HIIT
programme
resulted
in
a
significant
decrease
in
body
mass
(P=0.016;
ES=0.11),
BMI
(P=0.015;
ES=0.12)
and
BF
(P=0.021;
ES=0.23)
in
OG,
but
not
in
NWG
(Table
2).
PRE
training
MAV
and
VO2max
were
significantly
lower
(P<0.001)
in
OG
BIOLOGY
OF
SPORT,
VoL.
34
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2017
387
Nejmeddine
Ouerghi
et
al.
than
NWG.
After
completing
the
training
programme,
the
MAV
and
VO2
max
significantly
increased
in
both
groups
(OG
and
NWG)
[MAV
(+5.55%,
P=0.005,
ES=0.60
and
+2.96%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.82),
VO2m
a
x
(+5.27%,
P=0.006,
ES=0.63
and
+2.88%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.41),
respectively].
The
FJT,
SJ
and
CMJ
significantly
increased
in
OG
and
NWG
(FJT,
+3.63%,
P=0.005,
ES=0.28
and
+2.94%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.52;
SJ,
+4.92%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.25
and
+6.94%,
P=0.009,
ES=0.70;
CMJ,
+6.84%,
ES=0.014,
ES=0.30
and
+6.69%,
P=0.002,
ES=0.64,
respectively).
Com-
pared
to
PRE
training
values,
10-m
sprint
and
30-m
sprint
times
significantly
improved
in
OG
[-1.14%,
P=0.032,
ES=0.20
and
-0.77%,
P=0.038,
ES=0.12,
respectively].
In
NWG,
only
the
30-m
sprint
time
significantly
improved
(-0.72%,
P=0.030,
ES=0.16)
(Table
3).
TABLE
2.
Anthropometric
characteristics
at
baseline
(PRE
training)
and
following
high-intensity
interval
training
programme
(POST
training)
in
overweight/obese
and
normal-weight
groups.
Normal-weight
group
(n=9)
PRE
training
POST
training
Overweight/obese
group
(n=9)
PRE
training
POST
training
Interaction
(time
*
group)a
F
P
Age
(years)
18.1±0.93
18.3±1.22
Height
(m)
1.75±0.03
1.74±0.07
Body
mass
(kg)
62.6±4.61
62.5±4.90
93.7±16.9
1
92.0±15.9
*
5.96
0.027
Body
mass
index
(kg/m
2
)
20.5±1.51
20.5±1.67
30.8±4.56
1
30.3±4.25
*
6.24
0.024
Percentage
of
body
fat
12.0±3.28
11.9±3.10
22.5±1.87
1
22.1±1.82*
2.17
0.160
Data
are
expressed
as
mean
±
SD;
1
P<
0.001
(compared
to
pre-training
values
in
normal-weight
group);
*
P<
0.05
(compared
to
Pre
training
values
in
the
same
group).
a
,
comparison
was
performed
using
two-way
repeated
measures
ANOVA.
TABLE
3.
Indices
of
aerobic
and
anaerobic
performance
and
plasma
lipids
at
inclusion
(PRE
training)
and
after
8
weeks
of
a
high-
intensity
interval
training
(POST
training)
programme
in
overweight/obese
and
normal-weight
groups.
Normal-weight
group
(n=9)
PRE
training
POST
training
Overweight/obese
group
(n=9)
PRE
training
POST
training
Interaction
(time
*
group)a
F
P
MAV
(km/h)
14.9±0.53
15.4±0.74
**
11.5+1.15m
12.1±0.96
**
0.64
0.434
VO2m
a
x
(ml/kg/min)
54.1
±
1.84
55.6±2.58
**
42.0±4.03fft
44.2±3.37
**
0.58
0.459
HR
max
(beat/min)
190±
10.01
189±
10.20
193±8.63
192±7.58
0.03
0.859
10-m
sprint
time
(s)
2.01±0.11
2.01±0.14
2.40+0.17fft
2.37±0.15
*
1.13
0.304
30-m
sprint
time
(s)
4.62±0.19
4.59±0.20
*
5.63±0.47fft
5.58±0.43
*
0.30
0.591
Squat
jump
(cm)
28.2±2.77
30.0±2.71
**
19.8+4.18fft
20.8±4.21
**
2.31
0.148
CMJ
(cm)
30.0±3.24
32.0±3.43
**
21.6+4.92fft
23.0±5.11
**
0.74
0.404
Five-jump
test
(m)
11.1±0.53
11.4±0.69
**
8.99+
1.18f
f f
9.30±1.15
**
0.01
0.910
Cholesterol
(mg/dL)
136±20.3
127±20.2
175±36.0ff
150±15.8
*
2.39
0.142
Triglycerides
(mg/dL)
82.5±31.1
68.4±16.5
122±39.0f
90.0±21.2
*
1.25
0.280
LDL
cholesterol
(mg/dL)
85.2±19.2
79.2±15.4
113±30.0f
96.2±13.1
*
1.62
0.221
HDL
cholesterol
(mg/dL)
36.3±6.15
36.4±7.23
37.0±2.12
37.2±3.21
0.09
0.764
Note:
Data
are
expressed
as
mean
±
SD;
MAV,
maximal
aerobic
velocity;
VO2max,
maximal
oxygen
uptake;
HR
max,
maximum
heart
rate;
CMJ,
counter-movement
jump
*,
P
<
0.05;
**,
P
<
0.01
(compared
to
pre-training
values
in
the
same
group);
t,
P<
0.05;
tt,
P
<
0.0
1
;
ttt,
P
<
0.001
(compared
to
pre-training
values
in
normal-weight
group).
a
,
comparison
was
performed
using
two-
way
repeated
measures
ANOVA.
Effects
of
interval
training
in
obese
young
men
30
-
g
20-
10-
o
OG
NWG
T
30
-
,--,
6
20-
S
OG
I
NWG
40
i
1
...,
0
".
'
3
1
-10
-
,-1.o
-
,
4
-30
-
*
a
-30
-
30
-
F....
'.,
20
-
t
om
-'
10
-
0•0
s
7)
1
OG
NWC;
30
-
o
""s.
20
-
.....
v.,
10
-
.X
4..,
'"'
<-0
0
OG
_
T
N
\V
G
I
I
-11)
-
..'"1
i-20
-
f=i
-30
-
X
,
..T.:
g
-
1
0
-
.
-20
-
-30
-
:..:
Figure
1.
Variation
(in
percentage)
of
plasma
total
cholesterol,
LDL
and
HDL
cholesterol,
and
triglyceride
after
8
weeks
of
high-
intensity
interval
training
programme
in
overweight/obese
(OG)
and
normal-weight
(NWG)
groups
*,
P<0.05
(significant
difference
PRE/POST
training
in
the
same
group).
Baseline
plasma
TC,
LDL-C
and
TG
concentrations
were
signifi-
cantly
higher
in
OG
compared
to
NWG
(Table
3).
Compared
to
PRE
training
values,
plasma
TC,
TG
and
LDL-C
significantly
decreased
in
OG
(-11.8%,
P=0.026,
ES=0.96
and
-21.3%,
P=0.023,
ES=1.08
and
-11.9%,
P=0.050,
ES=0.77,
respectively)
after
8-week
HIIT.
In
NWG,
the
decrease
was
of
low
magnitude
and
non-significant
(-6.40%,
P=0.062,
ES=0.48
and
-6.56%,
P=0.332,
ES=0.60;
and
-5.40%,
P=0.171,
ES=0.37,
respectively).
HDL-C
concentra-
tions
remained
unchanged
in
both
groups
POST
training
(Figure
1).
Repeated
measures
detected
a
significant
difference
between
OG
and
NWG
for
body
mass
and
BMI,
only
(Table
2).
No
significant
differences
were
detected
for
any
other
variables
(Table
3).
DISCUSSION
The
HIIT
programme
resulted
in
a
slight
body
mass
loss
and
sig-
nificant
improvement
of
lipid
profile
in
OG,
as
well
as
an
improvement
of
indices
of
aerobic
and
anaerobic
performance
in
both
groups.
These
findings
agree
with
previous
HIIT
studies
showing
beneficial
effects
of
intermittent
exercises
on
body
mass
in
overweight
and
obese
subjects
[17,
18,
28,
291.
However,
no
significant
changes
in
body
composition
were
observed
in
overweight/obese
males
fol-
lowing
two
or
four
weeks
of
intermittent
training
[30,
311.
In
active
or
sedentary
normal-weight
young
men,
interval
training
has
contra-
dictory
results,
with
either
improvement
[15,
321
or
no
effect
on
body
composition
[14,
331.
Thus,
the
impact
of
intermittent
training
on
body
composition
may
depend
on
factors
such
as
the
training
duration
and
intensity,
the
method
of
body
composition
measurement
and
dietary
intervention.
Following
HIIT,
indices
of
aerobic
capacity
(MAV
and
VO2m
a
x)
significantly
increased
in
both
overweight/obese
and
normal-
weight
subjects,
which
agrees
with
the
available
litera-
ture
[17,
28,
29,
32,
331.
In
the
same
context,
a
recent
study
of
Sawyer
et
al.
[341
demonstrated
a
positive
effect
of
8-week
HIIT
on
VO2m
a
x
in
obese
adults.
Tjonna
et
al.
[351
concluded
that
interval
training
is
more
effective
than
a
multidisciplinary
approach
(exercise,
diet
and
psychological
advice)
in
improving
VO
2max
in
overweight
and
obese
adolescents.
Additionally,
studies
of
Buchan
et
al.
[10,
121
confirmed
the
impact
of
a
7-week
HIIT
programme
on
aerobic
per-
formance
in
normal
weight
subjects.
It
was
suggested
that
interval
training
allows
one
to
decrease
the
production
of
lactic
acid
and
to
BIOLOGY
OF
SPORT,
VoL.
34
No4,
2017
389
Nejmeddine
Ouerghi
et
al.
improve
the
use
of
phosphocreatine
during
exercise
[361.
Changes
in
aerobic
capacity
indices
might
also
be
related
to
changes
in
body
composition,
especially
in
obese
subjects
[281.
However,
weight
loss
is
not
mandatory
for
exercise-induced
effects
on
improving
aerobic
and
anaerobic
capacity
[371.
Intermittent
training
has
been
proven
to
improve
anaerobic
per-
formance
in
trained
and
active
populations
[11,
381.
However,
stud-
ies
assessing
the
effects
of
HIIT
on
anaerobic
parameters
in
the
obese
are
rare.
Our
study
showed
that
an
eight-week
HIIT
programme
is
effective
to
improve
anaerobic
performance
in
both
normal-weight
and
overweight/obese
subjects.
These
findings
agrees
with
the
stud-
ies
of
Buchan
et
al.
[10,
12, 13,
391
that
demonstrated
significant
enhancements
in
anaerobic
markers
(vertical
jump
performance,
10
m
sprint
speed)
and
cardiorespiratory
fitness
after
HI
IT
in
normal-
weight
adolescents.
The
improvement
may
be
related
to
the
increase
of
activities
of
key
enzymes
involved
in
glycogenolysis
and
anaerobic
glycolysis
in
skeletal
muscle
after
interval
training
[401.
The
HIIT
was
more
effective
in
enhancing
anaerobic
indices
in
obese
than
non-obese
subjects.
These
differences
may
be
due
to
changes
in
body
composition
in
the
obese,
as
well
as
psychological
factors.
The
training
programme
may
favour
the
development
of
positive
self-
esteem
and
increase
perceived
physical
value
and
feelings
of
com-
petence
(motivation,
management
of
stress,
confidence,
etc.),
which
would
be
more
evident
in
the
obese
[411.
The
HIIT
programme
resulted
in
a
significant
improvement
in
plasma
lipid
profile
in
sedentary
overweight/obese
subjects,
but
not
in
active
normal-weight
subjects.
While
abundant
data
suggest
a
beneficial effect
of
continuous
training
on
plasma
lipids
in
overweight
and
obese
subjects
[8,91,
data
on
the
effect
of
HIIT
on
lipid profile
in
the
obese
are
sparse
and
inconsistent.
Koubaa
et
al.
[81
observed
an
improvement
in
plasma
lipids
after
12-week
interval
training
in
obese
children.
Also,
Racil
et
al.
[18,
421
observed
an
improvement
in
plasma
lipids,
cardiometabolic
variables,
blood
leptin
concentra-
tion
and
ratings
of
perceived
exertion
after
a
12-week
HIIT
programme
in
obese
adolescent
females.
However,
no
significant
changes
in
blood
lipids
were
observed
in
young
overweight/obese
males
after
either
two-week
[431
or
12-week
HIIT
programmes
[17,
191.
In
normal-weight
subjects,
the
effect
of
training
on
plasma
lipids
is
also
inconsistent.
Some
studies
reported
significant
changes
[14,
441
while
others
showed
no
significant
effect
[16,
321.
The
discrepancies
could
be
related
to
differences
in
subject
characteristics
(ethnicity,
lipid-lowering
drug
use,
smoking,
alcohol
consumption,
diet,
and
previous
physical
activity),
training
intensity
and
duration,
and
the
atmosphere
characteristics
(e.g.
geography,
climate,
and
season).
In
the
present
study,
while
the
variations
of
TC,
TG
and
LDL-C
were
only
significant
in
the
obese,
their
health
benefit
would
be
important
even
in
non-obese
subjects
[32,
451.
The
present
study
has
some
limitations.
The
relatively
small
num-
ber
of
participants
in
each
group
may
have
underpowered
the
study.
Some
external
factors
such
as
dietary
intake
and
energy
expenditure
that
may
have
affected
the
body
composition
and
lipid
profile
were
not
controlled.
Also,
the
study
includes
young
male
subjects,
which
makes
the
findings
unsuitable
for
all
individuals.
Future
investigations
should
focus
on
the
effect
of
HIIT
in
other
categories
of
individuals
with
different
gender,
age
classes
and
phenotypes,
and
provide
a
particular
awareness
of
the
psychological
impact
of
the
training
pro-
gramme
in
the
obese.
CONCLUSIONS
The
eight-week
HIIT
programme
improved
aerobic
and
anaerobic
performances,
body
composition
and
the
plasma
lipid
profile
in
sed-
entary
overweight/obese
young
men.
These
findings
suggest
that
intermittent
training
may
improve
the
cardio-metabolic
profile
in
the
obese.
Further
research
is
needed
to
confirm
this
assumption
and
to
clarify
the
underlying
mechanisms.
Acknowledgments:
The
authors
are
grateful
to
the
participants
for
their
valuable
contribution
to
achieve
the
training
program
and
for
their
kindness
and
courage
Conflict
of
interest:
The
authors
declare
that
they
have
no
conflict
of
interest.
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