Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle tissues of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus


Yeşilbudak, B.; Erdem, C.

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 92(5): 546-550

2014


Accumulation of cadmium in gill, liver, muscle and kidney tissues of Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus were investigated in fish exposed to 0.5 ppm cadmium over 1, 15 and 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. Tissue accumulation of the metal was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric techniques. Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle, tissues of C. carpio and O. niloticus exposed to metal for 1, 15 and 30 days increased significantly compared with the control group (p < 0.05), except muscle tissue of O. niloticus. A general increase was observed in Cd accumulation with increasing exposure periods. Highest metal accumulation was observed in kidney followed by liver, gill and muscle tissues in both species. Liver accumulation of Cd was higher in C. carpio than O. niloticus, whereas kidney accumulation of the metal was higher in O. niloticus than C. carpio.

Bull
Environ
Contain
Toxicol
DOI
10.1007/s00128-014-1228-3
Cadmium
Accumulation
in
Gill,
Liver,
Kidney
and
Muscle
Tissues
of
Common
Carp,
Cyprinus
carpio,
and
Nile
Tilapia,
Oreochromis
niloticus
Burcu
Yeqilbudak
Cahit
Erdem
Received:
12
November
2013/Accepted:
4
February
2014
©
Springer
Science+Business
Media
New
York
2014
Abstract
Accumulation
of
cadmium
in
gill,
liver,
muscle
and
kidney
tissues
of
Cyprinus
carpio
and
Oreochromis
niloticus
were
investigated
in
fish
exposed
to
0.5
ppm
cadmium
over
1,
15
and
30
days
under
controlled
labora-
tory
conditions.
Tissue
accumulation
of
the
metal
was
measured
using
Atomic
Absorption
Spectrophotometric
techniques.
Cadmium
accumulation
in
gill,
liver,
kidney
and
muscle,
tissues
of
C.
carpio
and
0.
niloticus
exposed
to
metal
for
1,
15
and
30
days
increased
significantly
com-
pared
with
the
control
group
(p
<
0.05),
except
muscle
tissue
of
0.
niloticus.
A
general
increase
was
observed
in
Cd
accumulation
with
increasing
exposure
periods.
Highest
metal
accumulation
was
observed
in
kidney
followed
by
liver,
gill
and
muscle
tissues
in
both
species.
Liver
accu-
mulation
of
Cd
was
higher
in
C.
carpio
than
0.
niloticus,
whereas
kidney
accumulation
of
the
metal
was
higher
in
0.
niloticus
than
C.
carpio.
Keywords
Accumulation
Cadmium
Cyprinus
carpio
Oreochromis
niloticus
Aquatic
environments
act
as
reservoirs
for
various
land
based
and
atmospheric
pollutants
and
the
organisms
living
in
these
waters
are
in
direct
contact
with
these
pollutants.
Determining
the
levels
of
pollutants
especially
in
pollution
indicator
organisms
and
economically
important
species
is
vital
with
regards
to
ecological
balance
and
human
health.
Toxicity
of
heavy
metals
to
aquatic
organisms
depends
upon
the
physical
and
chemical
characteristics
of
water
such
as
dissolved
oxygen,
temperature,
salinity
and
the
B.
Yesilbudak
(El)
C.
Erdem
Department
of
Biology,
Faculty
of
Science
and
Letters,
cukurova
University,
Adana
01330,
Turkey
e-mail:
yesilbudak@gmail.com
presence
of
other
metals
in
water.
Metal
toxicity
is
known
to
increase
under hypoxic
conditions
and
increasing
tem-
peratures
whereas
it
decreases
with
increasing
salinity
and
water
hardness
(Witeska
and
Jezierska
2003).
Some
heavy
metals,
such
as
copper
and
zinc,
are
nec-
essary
in
trace
amounts
for
the
continuation
of
structural
and
metabolic
functions,
however,
when
their
levels
exceed
certain
levels
they
accumulate
mainly
in
metabol-
ically
active
organs
and
become
toxic
(Galvez
et
al.
1998).
Cadmium,
which
is
known
to
have
no
biological
function,
is
related
closely
to
Zn
and
is
mined
as
a
second
product
during
mining
activities
(May
et
al.
2001).
Its
presence
even
in
low
concentrations
causes
tissue
and
vertebral
deformations,
respiration
abnormalities
and
death
in
fish
(De
Smet
and
Blust
2001).
Gill,
liver
and
kidney
are
metabolically
active
and
readily
available
organs
which
are
analyzed
for
bio-moni-
toring
(Ewers
and
Schlipkoter
1991),
whereas
muscle
is
an
important
protein
source
for
human
consumption
(Marco-
vecchio
et
al.
1991).
It
was
reported
that
Oreochromis
niloticus
and
Cyprinus
carpio
are
important
freshwater
fish
which
are
resistant
to
highly
polluted
habitats
and
are
used
as
bio-indicator
spe-
cies
in
understanding
environmental
pollution
(Abedi
et
al.
2012;
Firat
and
Kargm
2010).
Garcia
Santos
et
al.
(2006),
repoted
that
0.
niloticus
and
C.
carpio
contribute
a
lot
in
understanding
toxic
mechanism
of
cadmium
exposure
in
aquatic
organisms.
The
two
economically
important
trop-
ical
fish
C.
carpio
and
0.
niloticus
are
selected
as
study
animals
since
they
are
known
to
have
wide
resistance
to
metal
poisoning
and
are
widely
cultured
in
cukurova
region
as
a
protein
source.
The
purposes
of
this
study
were
to
determine
heavy
metal
levels
in
these
fish
organs
such
as
gill,
liver,
kidney
and
muscle
and
to
compare
accumulated
levels
in
tissues
of
these
two
species
under
the
same
Published
online:
14
February
2014
4Springer
Bull
Environ
Contam
Toxicol
ambient
conditions.
Hence
the
present
study
was
designed
to
examine
the
accumulation
of
cadmium
in
four
tissues
of
C.
carpio
and
0.
niloticus
after
exposing
0.5
ppm
Cd
over
30
days.
This
concentration
is
well
below
the
96
h
LC
50
values
of
both
species
(Garcia
Santos
et
al.
2006;
Abedi
et
al.
2012).
Materials
and
Methods
Study
materials,
0.
niloticus
and
C.
carpio
were
obtained
from
the
culture
pools
of
the
6th
Regional
Directorate
of
State
Water
Works,
Adana.
Experiments
were
carried
out
in
the
Basic
Sciences
research
laboratories
of
Mersin
Univer-
sity,
Faculty
of
Aquaculture
under
controlled
conditions.
Fish
were
acclimatized
to
laboratory
conditions
for
1
month
in
glass
aquaria,
40
x
120
x
40
cm
in
height.
Mean
weight
and
total
length
of
0.
niloticus
and
C.
carpio
were
21.49
±
0.98
g,
16.40
±
1.02
cm
and
18.72
±
0.73
g,
15.66
±
1.24
cm
respectively
at
the
end
of
this
period.
Two
series
of
experiments
were
carried
out
taking
the
two
species
studied
into
account.
Two
glass
aquaria,
of
the
same
size
were
used
in
each
series.
120
L
of
0.5
ppm
Cd
solution
was
added
in
the
first
two
aquaria
of
each
series
and
the
same
amount
of
Cd
free
tap
water
was
added
in
the
second
and
used
as
controls.
Cadmium
chloride
(CdC1
2
_
H
2
O)
salt
of
the
metal
was
used
in
preparing
the
experi-
mental
solutions.
Tri-sodium
citrate
(C
6
H
5
Na
3
0
7
.5H
2
0)
was
added
to
the
stock
solutions
to
prevent
precipitation.
Experiments
were
run
in
triplicate,
two
fish
were
used
in
each
replicate,
and
18
fish
were
placed
in
each
aquarium
taking
the
1,
15
and
30
days
of
exposure
periods
into
account.
Aquaria
were
aerated
by
a
central
aeration
system
and
fish
were
fed
at
2
%
of
the
total
biomass
with
com-
mercial
fish
feed
(camli
Feed
hid.
Trade
Co.
Ltd.,
Izmir,
TURKEY,
Pinar:
Palette
No:
2).
Experimental
solutions
were
replaced
once
every
2
days
from
freshly
prepared
stock
solutions
using
dechlorinated
water
to
prevent
chan-
ges
in
concentration
due
to
adsorption
and
evaporation.
Metal
levels
in
the
tap
water
were
below
the
detection
limits
of
Cd
(0.001
mg/L).
Mean
Cd
level
experimental
water
at
different
durations
were
determined
as
0.42
±
0.08
mg/L.
Some
physical
and
chemical
parameters
of
the
experimental
aquaria
are
given
in
Table
1.
Six
fish
were
removed
from
each
aquarium
at
the
end
of
the
experimental
periods
for
metal
analysis.
Gill,
liver,
kidney
and
muscle
tissues
of
the
two
fish
in
each
replicate
were
dissected
and
their
tissues
were
combined.
The
tissues
were
then
brought
to
a
stable
dry
weight
in
a
drying
oven
set
at
150°C
for
48
h.
Tissues
were
transferred
into
experimental
tubes
after
measuring
their
dry
weight
(Sar-
torius
CP-224S)
and
nitric
acid
(Merck,
65
%,
S.W.:
1.40)
and
per
chloric
acid
(Merck,
60
%,
S.W.:
1.53)
mixture
Table
1
Some
physical
and
chemical
parameters
of
the
experimental
water
Illumination
12
h
with
fluorescent
lamps
(daylight
65/80
W)
Temperature
21.2
±
1°C
(YSI
550A
temperature
meter)
Total
hardness
268.7
±
4.8
mg
CaCO
3
/L
(EDTA
titration
method)
Total
alkalinity
319
±
0.5
mg
CaCO
3
/L
(acidimetry
method)
Dissolved
6.46
±
0.6
mg/L
(YSI
550A
oxygen
meter)
oxygen
pH
6.91
±
1
(WTW
pH
330i
meter)
(2:1
v:v)
was
added.
Tissues
were
then
wet
burned
on
a
hotplate
set
at
105°C
until
a
clear
solution
was
obtained
(Muramoto
1983).
Tissues
homogenates
were
then
trans-
ferred
into
polyethylene
tubes
and
their
volumes
were
made
up
to
5
mL
with
distilled
water.
Tissue
Cd
levels
were
measured
using
Atomic
Absorption
Techniques
(GBC
999).
Statistical analysis
of
data
was
carried
out
using
Analysis
of
Variance
and
Student
Newman
Keul's
Procedure
(SNK)
(Sokal
and
Rohlf
1995)
on
a
SPSS
15.0
software
(IBM
Corp.,
Armonk,
NY,
USA).
Results
No
mortality
was
observed
in
either
C.
carpio
or
0.
niloticus
exposed
to
0.5
ppm
Cd
during
the
30
days
of
the
experi-
mental
period.
Some behavioral
abnormalities
were
observed
such
as
rejecting
food,
moving
towards
the
surface,
increase
in
operculum
movement
and
coordination
distur-
bance
in
swimming
activities
at
the
beginning
of
metal
exposure
which
turned
to
normal
at
prolonged
contact
with
the
metal.
Gill,
liver,
kidney
and
muscle
levels
of
C.
carpio
and
0.
niloticus
exposed
to
0.5
ppm
Cd
over
1,
15
and
30
days
are
given
in
Tables
2
and
3
respectively.
Cadmium
levels
in
gill,
liver,
kidney
and
muscle
tissues
of
C.
carpio
exposed
to
0.5
ppm
Cd
increased
significantly
at
all
exposure
periods
tested
compared
with
the
control
fish
(p
<
0.05)
(Table
2).
Cadmium
accumulation
increased
with
increasing
exposure
periods
at
all
tissues
except
the
muscle
tissue.
This
increase
in
gill,
kidney
and
liver
tissues
on
day
30
was
about
2,
3
and
6
times
com-
pared
with
the
first
day
respectively.
Cadmium
accumula-
tion
was
highest
in
kidney
tissue
of
C.
carpio
followed
by
the
liver,
gill
and
muscle
tissues
at
all
exposure
periods.
Significant
increase
in
Cd
accumulation
in
the
tissues
of
0.
niloticus
was
also
observed
with
prolonged
exposure
periods
(p
<
0.05)
except
the
muscle
tissue
(Table
3).
Gill
cadmium
levels
showed
a
ninefold
increase
on
day
30
compared
with
day
1.
Highest
accumulation
of
Cd
was
also
in
kidney
tissue
followed
by
liver,
gill
and
muscle
tissues
1Springer
Bull
Environ
Contain
Toxicol
Table
2
Gill,
liver,
kidney
and
muscle
accumulation
of
C.
carpio
exposed
to
0.5
ppm
Cd
over
1,
15
and
30
days
(.tg
Cd/g
D.W.)
Exposure
period
(days)
Tissue
Gill
Liver
Kidney
Muscle
77
±
SX
*
77
±
SX
*
77
±
SX
77
±
SX
*
Control
0.01
±
0
as
0.02
±
0.01
as
0.07
±
0.02
at
0.003
±
0
as
1
0.05
±
0.01
bs
0.08
±
0.01
bt
0.31
±
0.04
bx
0.04
±
0.01
bs
15
0.21
±
0.03
ct
0.23
±
0.06
ct
0.45
±
0.05
cx
0.03
±
0.01
bs
30
0.09
±
0.01
dt
0.51
±
0.04
dx
1.08
±
0.09
dy
0.03
±
0.01
bs
*
=
SNK;
letters
a,
b,
c,
d
and
s,
t,
x,
y
show
differences
among
exposure
periods
and
among
tissues
respectively.
Data
shown
with
different
letters
are
significant
at
the
p
<
0.05
level
X
±
sx
=
Mean
±
SE
Exposure
period
(days)
Table
3
Gill,
liver,
kidney
and
muscle
accumulation
of
0.
niloticus
exposed
to
0.5
ppm
Cd
over
1,
15
and
30
days
(.tg
Cd/g
D.W.)
Abbreviations
were
used
as
in
Table
2
Tissue
Gill
Liver
Kidney
Muscle
X
±
SX
*
X
±
a
*
X
±
a
*
X
±
a
*
0.01
±
0.01
as
0.03
±
0.01
at
0.30
±
0.14
ax
0.01
±
0.001
as
0.02
±
0.001
as
0.11
±
0.08
bt
0.41
±
0.16
bx
0.02
±
0.004
bs
0.07
±
0.02
bt
0.16
±
0.021
cx
0.98
±
0.19
cy
0.01
±
0.001
as
0.18
±
0.02
ct
0.41
±
0.15
dx
2.79
±
0.26
dy
0.02
±
0.004
bs
Control
1
15
30
as
in
C.
carpio
at
the
exposure
periods
tested.
Cadmium
levels
in
gill
and
liver
tissues
of
both
species
increased
with
exposure
periods
reaching
to
its
maximum
level
on
day
15
in
C.
carpio
and
on
day
30
in
0.
niloticus.
Liver
and
kidney
accumulation
also
was
time
dependent
in
both
species,
C.
carpio
accumulating
higher
levels
of
Cd
in
its
liver
and
0.
niloticus
in
its
kidney
tissues
at
prolonged
exposures.
Accumulation
of
Cd
in
muscle
tissue
of
C.
carpio
was
higher
than
that
of
0.
niloticus
at
the
exposure
periods
tested.
There
were
a
9,
26.5,
15.42,
10
and
18,
13.66,
9.3,
twofold
increase
in
metal
accumulation
in
gill,
liver,
kid-
ney,
and
muscle
tissues
of
C.
carpio
and
0.
niloticus,
respectively,
compared
to
control
on
day
30
(p
<
0.05).
Discussion
Effects
of
heavy
metals
on
mortality
in
aquatic
organisms
depend
not
only
on
biological
characteristics
of
the
species
in
question,
but
also
on
physical
and
chemical
character-
istics
of
the
water.
Mortality
rate
increases
rapidly
over
a
certain
concentration
and
exposure
periods.
Ten
percent
mortality
was
observed
in
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
juveniles
exposed
to
3.0
ppm
Cd
for
30
days
(Hollis
et
al.
2001),
whereas
no
mortality
was
observed
in
0.
niloticus
juveniles
exposed
to
0.35,
0.75,
1.5,
and
3.0
ppm
of
Cd
in
water
for
60
days (Almeida
et
al.
2002).
This
was
also
true
for
C.
carpio
and
0.
niloticus
exposed
to
0.5
ppm
Cd
for
30
days
in
the
present
study.
The
reason
for
the
survival
of
fish
under
the
effect
of
a
toxicant
might
be
due
to
tolerance
of
the
species
for
a
particular
toxicant
at
the
concentrations
and
exposure
periods
tested.
Formation
of
metal
esters
by
metal
binding
proteins
such
as
glutathione
and
metallo-
thionein
synthesized
from
detoxification
centers,
namely
liver
and
kidney,
might
play
a
role
in
preventing
transport
of
toxicants
to
other
tissues.
The
immediate
reaction
of
fish
to
environmental
dis-
turbances
is
to
change
their
behavior.
Food
rejection,
moving
toward
the
surface
of
water,
low
swimming
per-
formance,
increase
in
operculum
movements
and
mucus
secretion
and
erection
of
fin
rays
were
observed
in
C.
carpio
and
Poecelia
reticulata
under
the
effect
of
copper
(Khunyakari
et
al.
2001)
Similar
behavioral
changes
were
also
observed
in
the
present
study
which
turned
to
normal
at
prolonged
exposures.
Bringing
the
metabolic
activity
to
its
minimum
level
and
using
its
energy
to
adapt
changing
environmental
conditions
rather
than
for
behavior
might
be
the
reason
for
these
behavioral
changes
in
fish
under
the
effect
of
metals.
Tissue
accumulation
and
toxic
effects
of
metals
in
fish
largely
depend
upon
the
physical
and
chemical
characteristics
of
water.
It
was
shown
that
Zn
and
Cd
toxicity
is
affected
by
water
hardness,
temperature,
pH
and
dissolved
oxygen
(Nussey
et
al.
1998).
USEPA
(2002)
has
suggested
the
maximum
tolerable
short-term
and
con-
tinuous
concentrations
of
Cd
at
2
and
0.25
µg/L
in
surface
freshwater
bodies
in
the
United
States.
These
environ-
mental
factors
were
kept
constant
to
minimize
their
effect
on
accumulation
and
toxicity
in
the
present
study.
1
Springer
Bull
Environ
Contain
Toxicol
Studying
heavy
metal
accumulation
helps
not
only
to
determine
structural
and
functional
disorders
in
metal
sensitive
aquatic
organisms
but
also
to
evaluate
the
envi-
ronmental
effects
of
metal
pollution
and
to
understand
their
routes
of
uptake,
biotransformation
and
excretion
(Wickl-
and
et
al.
1988).
Heavy
metals
accumulate
mainly
in
metabolically
active
tissues
such
as
gill,
liver,
kidney
and
spleen
under
the
effect
of
low
concentrations
for
prolonged
periods
(Hogstrand
and
Haux
1990).
The
levels
of
Cd
and
Cu
were
found
to
be
higher
in
liver
followed
by
gill,
and
muscle
tissues
in
0.
niloticus
(cogun
et
al.
2003).
Expo-
sure
to
heavy
metals
increase
mucus
secretion
in
fish
to
prevent
gill
uptake,
hence
high
levels
of
metals
found
in
this
tissue
might
be
due
to
mucus
bonded
metals.
Highest
Cu
accumulation
was
in
liver
and
highest
Cd
accumulation
was
in
kidney
tissue
in
0.
niloticus
exposed
to
Cu,
Cd
and
their
mixture
(Saglamtimur
et
al.
2004).
Liver
accumulation
was
highest
and
muscle
accumulation
was
lowest
in
Scylorhinus
canicula
exposed
to
sublethal
concentrations
of
Zn
(Sanpera
et
al.
1983).
Cadmium
levels
in
Clarias
gariepinus
during
30
days
of
exposure
were
higher
in
kidney
tissue
followed
by
liver,
gill
and
muscle
tissues.
During
the
15,
30
and
45
days
of
depuration
periods,
however,
no
change
was
observed
in
spleen
and
liver
levels,
there
was
a
decrease
in
the
levels
of
metal
in
gill
and
muscle
tissues
and
an
increase
in
kidney
tissue
(Erdem
et
al.
2005).
C.
carpio
exposed
to
low
con-
centrations
of
Cd
accumulated
high
levels
of
this
metal
in
its
gill
tissue
(Karaytug
et
al.
2007),
while
Anguilla
anguilla
exposed
to
Cd
through
its
digestion
track
accu-
mulated
the
metal
in
kidney
tissue
(Haesloop
and
Schrimer
1985).
Kidney
accumulation
of
Cd
was
2
and
100
times
higher
than
liver
and
muscle
accumulation
respectively
in
C.
carpio
exposed
to
metal
over
long
periods
(De
Smet
and
Blust
2001).
Liver,
gill
and
muscle
accumulation
of
Cd
was
higher
compared
with
Zn
in
Tilapia
nilotica
exposed
to
zinc
and
sublethal
concentrations
of
Cd
over
a
long
period
(Kargm
and
cogun
1999).
Salmo
trutta
exposed
to
Cu
and
Cd
accumulated
higher
levels
of
Cu
in
its
liver
and
Cd
in
kidney
tissues
(Olsvik
et
al.
2001).
Highest
Cd
accumula-
tion
was
also
in
kidney
tissues
of
C.
carpio
and
0.
niloticus
exposed
to
0.5
ppm
Cd,
followed
by
liver,
gill
and
muscle
tissues.
Cadmium
is
known
to
have
no
biological
function,
and
it
is
carried
to
kidney
with
water
and
other
metabolic
wastes
for
excretion.
During
this
process
its
reabsorption
and
binding
to
metal
binding
proteins,
such
as
metallo-
thioneins,
can
explain
high
levels
of
cadmium
found
in
kidney
compared
with
other
tissues.
Accumulation
of
cadmium
in
the
whole
body
of
rainbow
trout
(Salmo
gairdneri)
exposed
to
0.1,
1.0,
10
ppm
Cd
over
29
days
increased
to
4.2,
8.7,
and
47.0
ppm
Cd
respec-
tively,
on
(Sorensen
1991).
Some
fish
can
accumulate
cadmium
to
levels
much
higher
than
the
level
in
the
ambient
water
(Sorensen
1991).
Laboratory
studies
showed
that
aqueous
exposure
level
is
important
in
determining
the
level
of
cadmium
accumulated
by
tissues
of
fish.
Exposure
of
C.
carpio
to
0.560
ppm
Cd
[Cd
(NO
3
)
2
]
killed
all
fish
in
8
days
(Iger
et
al.
1994)
whereas
in
our
study
0.5
ppm
of
cadmium
(CdC1
2
•H
2
0)
for
1
month
caused
no
mortality
in
this
spe-
cies.
Spinal
deformities
in
mature
minnows
(Phoxinus
phoxinus)
exposed
to
aqueous
cadmium
as
low
as
7.5
ppb
for
70
days
was
reported
by
Bengston
et
al.
(1975).
Addi-
tionally,
Morgan
and
Kiihn
(1974)
observed
an
increased
opercular
rhythm
of
largemouth
bass
(Micropterus
salmo-
ides)
from
35
oscillations
per
min
to
a
maximum
of
90
oscillations
per
min
after
exposure
to
0.1-1.0
ppm
aqueous
cadmium.
Significant
differences
in
sensitivity
to
cadmium
amongst
fish
species
have
been
reported
by
WHO
(1992).
Therefore,
it
is
important
to
understand
the
effects
of
cad-
mium
in
different
species.
Cadmium
accumulation
differs
from
species
to
species
and
depends
on
exposure
period
(Velma
et
al.
2009).
Liver,
gill,
kidney,
spleen
and
muscle
levels
of
Cu,
Zn,
Cd
and
Pb
levels
were
higher
in
Mullus
barbatus
compared
with
Sparus
aurata
sampled
from
Iskenderun
Bay,
which
might
be
due
to
differences
in
feeding
habits
of
the
two
species
(Kargm
1996).
Accumu-
lation
of
Cd
was
higher
in
kidney
compared
with
the
other
tissues
both
in
0.
niloticus
and
C.
carpio.
It
is
well
known
that
heavy
metals
are
rarely
distributed
uniformly
within
the
tissues
of
fish
and
are
accumulated
by
particular
target
organs.
It
was
supposed
that
a
specific
role
of
metal
metabolism
has
been
developed
for
each
tissue
(Cinier
et
al.
1999).
Liver
and
kidney
appear
to
be
the
most
important
organs
in
cadmium
sequestration
(Allen1995).
hi
conclusion,
the
result
of
the
present
study
showed
that
after
exposure
to
0.5
ppm
Cd
for
30
days,
tissue
concen-
trations
of
the
metal
increased
significantly
in
both
species.
However,
gill
and
kidney
accumulation
was
higher
in
0.
niloticus
whereas
liver
and
muscle
accumulation
was
higher
in
C.
carpio
after
30
days
of
exposure.
This
can
be
explained
by
the
differences
in
osmoregulation
and
detoxification
mechanisms
of
the
two
species
studied.
References
Abedi
Z,
Khalesi
M,
Eskandari
SK,
Rahmani
H
(2012)
Comparison
of
lethal
concentrations
(LC50-96
h)
of
CdC12,
CrC13,
and
Pb
(NO
3
)
2
in
common
carp
(Cyprinus
carpio)
and
Sutchi
Catfish
(Pangasius
hypophthalmus).
Iran
J
.
Toxicol
6(18):672-680
Allen
P
(1995)
Chronic
accumulation
of
cadmium
in
the
edible
tissues
of
Oreochromis
aureus
(Steindachmer):
modification
by
mercury
and
lead.
Arch
Environ
Contain
Toxicol
29(1):8-14
Almeida
JA,
Diniz
YS,
Marques
SFG,
nine
LA,
Ribas
BO,
Burneiko
RC,
Novelli
ELB
(2002)
The
use
of
the
oxidative
stress
responses
as
biomarkers
in
Nile
tilapia
(Oreochromis
niloticus)
exposed
to
in
vivo
cadmium
contamination.
Elsevier
Sci
Environ
Int
27:673-679
1Springer
Bull
Environ
Contain
Toxicol
Bengston
BE,
Carlin
CH,
Larsson
A,
Svanberg
0
(1975)
Vertebral
damage
in
minnows,
Phoxinus
phoxinus
L.,
exposed
to
cad-
mium.
Ambio
4:166-168
Cinier
C,
Petit
Ramel
M,
Faure
R,
Garin
D,
Bouvet
Y
(1999)
Kinetics
of
cadmium
accumulation
and
elimination
in
carp
Cyprinus
carpio
tissues.
Comp
Biochem
Physiol
C
122:345-352
cogun
HY,
Ylizereroglu
TA,
Kargm
F
(2003)
Accumulation
of
copper
and
cadmium
in
small
and
large
Nile
tilapia
Oreochromis
niloticus.
Environ
Contain
Toxicol
71:1265-1271
De
Smet
H,
Blust
R
(2001)
Stress
responses
and
changes
in
protein
metabolism
in
carp
Cyprinus
carpio
during
cadmium
exposure.
Environ
Saf
48:255-262
Erdem
C,
Cicik
B,
Karayakar
S,
Karayakar
F,
Karaytug
S
(2005)
Clarias
gariepinus
(Burchell,
1822)'da
kadmiyum'un
solungac,
karaciger,
bobrek,
dalak
ye
kas
dokulanndaki
birikimi
ye
antimi.
SDU
Egirdir
J
.
Fac
Fish
1(2):17-24
Ewers
U,
Schlipkoter
HW
(1991)
Metals
and
their
compounds
in
the
environment.
VCH,
Weinheim,
pp
971-1014
Firat
O,
Kargm
F
(2010)
Biochemical
alterations
induced
by
Zn
and
Cd
individually
or
in
combination
in
the
serum
of
Oreochromis
niloticus.
Fish
Physiol
Biochem
36:647-653
Galvez
F,
Nebb
N,
Hogstrand
C,
Wood
CM
(1998)
Zinc
binding
to
the
gills
of
rainbow
trout:
the
effect
of
long-term
exposure
to
sublethal
zinc.
J
.
Fish
Biol
52:1089-1104
Garcia
Santos
S,
Fontainhas
Fernandes
A,
Wilson
TM
(2006)
Cadmium
tolerance
in
the
Nile
tilapia
(Oreochromis
niloticus)
following
acute
exposure: assessment
of
some
ionoregulatory
parameters.
Environ
Toxicol
21(1):33-46
Haesloop
U,
Schrimer
M
(1985)
Accumulation
of
orally
administered
cadmium
by
the
eel
(Anguilla
anguilla).
Chemosphere
14:1627-1634
Hogstrand
CL,
Haux
C
(1990)
Metallothionein
as
an
indicator
of
heavy
metal
exposure
in
two
subtropical
fish
species.
J
.
Exp
Mar
Biol
Ecol
138:69-84
Hollis
L,
Hogstrand
C,
Wood
CM
(2001)
Tissue-specific
cadmium
accumulation,
metallothionein
induction,
and
tissue
zinc
and
copper
levels
during
chronic
sublethal
cd
exposure
in
juvenile
rainbow
trout.
Arch
Environ
Contam
Toxicol
41:468-474
Iger
Y,
Lock
R,
Meij
JCA,
Wendelaar
Bonga
S
(1994)
Effects
of
water-borne
cadmium
on
the
skin
of
the
common
carp
(Cyprinus
carpio).
Arch
Environ
Contam
Toxicol
26(3):342-350
Karaytug
S,
Erdem
C,
Cicik
B
(2007)
Accumulation
of
cadmium
in
the
gill,
liver
kidney,
spleen
muscle
and
brain
tissues
of
Cyprinus
carpio.
Ekoloji
16(63):16-22
Kargin
F
(1996)
Seasonal
changes
in
levels
of
heavy
metals
in
tissues
of
Mullus
barbatus
and
Sparus
aurata
collected
form
Iskenderun
Gulf
(Turkey).
Water
Air
Soil
Pollut
90:557-562
Kargin
F,
cogun
HY
(1999)
Metal
interactions
during
accumulation
and
elimination
of
zinc
and
cadmium
in
tissues
of
the
freshwater
fish
Tilapia
nilotica.
Bull
Environ
Contam
Toxicol
63:511-519
Khunyakari
RP,
Tare
V,
Sharma
RN
(2001)
Effects
of
some
trace
heavy
metals
on
Poecilia
reticulata
(Peters).
J
.
Environ
Biol
22(2):141-144
Marcovecchio
7E,
Moreno
VJ,
Perez
A
(1991)
Metal
accumulation
in
tissues
of
sharks
from
the
Bahia
Blanca
Estuary,
Argentina.
Mar
Environ
Res
31:263-274
May
TW,
Wiedmeyer
RR,
Larson
S
(2001)
Influence
of
mining-
related
activities
on
concentration
of
metals
in
water
and
sediment
from
streams
of
the
Black
Hills,
South
Dakota.
Arch
Environ
Contam
Toxicol
40:1-9
Morgan
WSG,
Kuhn
PC
(1974)
A
method
to
monitor
the
effect
of
toxicants
upon
breathing
rate
of
largemouth
bass
(Micropterus
salmoides
Lacepede).
Water
Res
8(1):67-77
Muramoto
S
(1983)
Elimination
of
copper
from
Cu-contaminated
fish
by
long-term
exposure
to
EDTA
and
freshwater.
J
.
Environ
Sci
Health
A
18(3):455-461
Nussey
G,
Vanvuren
HU,
Du
Preez
HH
(1998)
Effect
of
copper
on
the
haematology
and
osmoregulation
of
the
mozambique
tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
(Cichlidae).
Comp
Biochem
Physiol
111C(3):369-380
Olsvik
PA,
Gundersen
P,
Andersen
RA,
Zachariassen
KE
(2001)
Metal
accumulation
and
metallotionein
in
brown
trout,
Salmo
trutta,
from
two
Norwegian
Rivers
differently
contaminated
with
Cd,
Cu
and
Zn.
Comp
Biochem
Physiol
128(2):189-201
Saglamtimur
B,
Cicik
B,
Erdem
C
(2004)
Kisa
sureli
baker-kadmiyum
etkile§iminde
tath
su
cipurasi
(Oreochromis
niloticus
L.
1758)'mn
karaciger,
bobrek,
solungac
ye
kas
dokulanndaki
kadmiyum
birikimi.
Ekoloji
14(53):33-38
Sanpera
C,
Vallribera
M,
Crespo
S
(1983)
Zn,
Cu
and
Mn
levels
in
the
liver
dogfish
exposed
to
Zn.
Bull
Environ
Contam
Toxicol
31:415-417
Sokal
RR,
Rohlf
FJ
(1995)
Biometry:
the
principles
and
practice
of
statistics
in
biological
research,
3rd
edn.
WH
Freeman
and
Co,
New
York,
p
887
Sorensen
EM
(1991)
Metal
poisoning
in
fish.
CRC
Press,
Boca
Raton,
Florida,
p
243
USEPA
(2002)
National
recommended
water
quality
criteria.
EPA-
822-R-02-047.
United
States
environmental
protection
agency
(US
EPA).
Washington,
DC,
USA
Velma
V,
Vutukuru
S,
Tchounwou
PB
(2009)
Ecotoxicology
of
hexavalent
chromium
in
freshwater
fish:
a
critical
review.
Rev
Environ
Health
24(2):129-145
WHO
(1992)
Cadmium-environmental
aspects.
Environmental
Health
Criteria
No.
135.
World
Health
Organisation
(WHO),
The
International
Programme
on
Chemical
Safety
(IPCS),
Geneva
Wicklund
A,
Runn
P,
Norgreen
L
(1988)
Cadmium
and
zinc
interaction
in
fish,
effects
of
zinc
on
the
uptake
organ
distribu-
tion
and
elimination
of
Cd
in
the
zebra
fish
Brachdanio
rerio.
Arch
Environ
Contam
Toxicol
17:345-354
Witeska
M,
Jezierska
B
(2003)
The
effects
of
environmental
factors
on
metal
toxicity
to
fish
(review).
Fresenius
Environ
Sci
12(8):824-829
1Springer